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TRANSACTIONS    OF   THE    HISTORIC 

SOCIETY    OF    LANCASHIRE 

AND    CHESHIRE 

VOL.    LXXIII. 


i 


TRANSACTIONS 


OF   THE 


HISTORIC  SOCIETY 


OF 


Lancashire  anfc  Cheshire 


FOR    THE    YEAR    1921 

VOLUME    LXXIII 
NEW    SERIES— VOLUME    XXXVII 


LIVERPOOL 

PRINTED   FOR  THE   SOCIETY 
1922 


A tl  .rights  reserved 


CONTENTS  AND  ILLUSTRATIONS 


PAGE 


COUNCIL  AND  OFFICERS  FOR  THE  YEAR  1922  ....  ix. 
OFFICERS  OF  THE  SOCIETY  SINCE  COMMENCEMENT  ....  x. 
LIST  OF  HONORARY  LOCAL  SECRETARIES  xi. 

EDITORIAL  NOTES          xii. 

LIST  OF  MEMBERS         xiii. 

LIST  OF  SOCIETIES  WITH  WHICH  TRANSACTIONS  ARE 

EXCHANGED            xxiii. 

PAPERS    READ. 

EARLY   LIVERPOOL  COACHING.     BY  A.   H.   ARKLE, 

O.B.E.  1 

The  Mail  Coach  :  Changing  Horses  ....  Frontispiece 
Early  Coach  Advertisements  (five)  ....  To  face  8,  9 
Variations  of  the  Coach  Road  into  Birkenhead 

To  face   1 1 
Dale    Street    (North    Side),    showing    a    Fly 

Waggon          To  face    13 

London  Mail  Coach  Advertisement     ....  ,,         16 

"  Golden  Lion  "  Inn,  Dale  Street       ....  ,,         17 

Liverpool  "  Umpire "  Coach     ,,         21 

Tranmere  Ferry  Steamer,  1817         '....  ,,         26 

"  King's  Arms "   Inn,   Water  Street    (Parish 

Offices,  1829)  ....     To  face    27 

THREE  LOCAL  WINDMILLS.     BY  CHARLES  R.  HAND        33 

I.  THE  GALLOWS  MILL  33 

View  of  the  Mill,  looking  West     ....     To  face    33 

II.  TOXTETH  WINDMILL,  HARRINGTON         ....        41 

Harrington  Mill      ....         ....         ....  To  face  41 

Otterspool  Fall       ....                     ....  ,,  41 

III.  THE  KING'S  MILL  AT  WEST  DERBY  ....  42 
View  of  the  Mill    To  face  43 


vi.  Contents  and  Illustrations 


THE    KIRKBY    FONT.     BY    F.    CHARLES    LARKIN, 

F.R.C.S. 

44 

STORY  AND  DESCRIPTION         

44 

View  of  the  Font  

To  face 

44 

THE  ARCADE,  with  Outline  Drawing  .... 

51 

THE  FALL,  with  plate 

To  face 

53 

The  Cherub  and  St.  Michael 

,, 

55 

Outline  drawings  of  the  Figures 

....  56, 

57 

St.  Michael  and  the  Dragon 

To  face 

56 

THE  SEVEN  "  PRIESTS  "          

60 

The  Ancient  Chasuble      

61 

ST.  PETER  AND  HIS  KEY,  with  plate 

To  face 

69 

THE  MITRE         

73 

Drawings  showing  its  Evolution  .... 

75 

THE  STAFF         

79 

Various  forms  of  the  Ray 

85 

The  figures  P.  6  and  5    

To  face 

88 

RELIQUARIES      

90 

The  figures  P.  7  and  6    .... 

To  face 

92 

P.  7 

,, 

93 

ST.  CHAD 

96 

CARVINGS  OF  MEDIAEVAL  MUSICAL  INSTRUMENTS  IN 
MANCHESTER  CATHEDRAL.  BY  THE  REV.  H.  A. 
HUDSON,  M.A.,  F.S.A ....  100 

1.  TABOR  (fig.)  104 

Exeter  Misericord,  showing  Pipe  and 

Tabor  To  face  105 

Worcester  Misericord,  showing  Nakers  and 

Clarion  To  face  105 

2.  RECORDER  (fig.)        106 

Angel  playing  a  Recorder  ....     To  face  107 

3.  BAGPIPE  (Irish)  (fig.)  108 

4.  BAGPIPE  (Scottish)  (fig.)      ....  ....       109 

5.  SHAWM  (fig.)  ....  ....  ....       no 

Double  Recorder.     From  Beverley    To  face  110 
Bagpiper.     From  Beverley          ....         „         110 


Contents  and  Illustrations  vii. 

PAGE 

6.  TRUMPET,  or  CLARION    (fig.)          112 

7.  CLAVICYMBAL  (fig.)    113 

Angel  playing  a  Clavicymbal        ....     To  face  113 

8.  PORTATIVE  ORGAN  (front  and  side  views)         114 

Psaltery,    Portative    Organ    and    Harp. 

From  Beverley   ....         ....         ....     To  face  116 

Positive  Organ.     From  Boston    ....         ,,         116 

9.  HARP    (side  and  front  views)  ....         ....       117 

10.  PSALTERY  (fig.)         118 

Viol.     From  Beverley       To  face  118 

Harp  and  Bagpipe.     From  Manchester 

To  face  118 

11.  DULCIMER  (fig.)  ....       119 

12.  LUTE  (fig.)      ....  ....      121 

13.  FITHELE  (fig.) ....       123 

14.  SYMPHONY  (fig.)        124 

Organistrum.  From  a  sculptured  group 
in  the  Rouen  Museum,  formerly 
belonging  to  the  Cloister  of  St.  Georges 
de  Boscherville  (12th  Century)  ....  124 

LEASOWE  CASTLE  :   ITS  OWNERS  AND  HISTORY.     BY 

E.  CUTHBERT  WOODS,  L.D.S 127 

Leasowe  Tower,   1593  :    as  reconstructed  by 

Mr.  Hopps To  face  127 

Leasowe  in  1800  :    from  a  sketch  by  Lysons 

To  face  132 
The  Star  Chamber  Room  as  it  was  ....         „         138 

Doorway  of  1593  (outline  sketch)      ....         ....       139 

The  Dated  Stone  ....         ....         ....     To  face  139 

Plan  of  Tower,  etc.  ;    first  and  third  floors  ....       142 

APPENDIX  I. — A  List  of  Facetious  Book  Titles 

on  the  Dummy  Bookcase  145 

APPENDIX  II. — The  Oxgangs  in  Wallasey,  1768       146 


viii.  Contents  and  Illustrations 

PAOK 

A  FOURTEENTH  CENTURY  ENGLISH  ALABASTER  OF 
THE  BLESSED  VIRGIN.  BY  PHILIP  NELSON,  M.D., 

F.S.A 149 

The  Statuette     ....  ....     To  face  149 

The  Flawford  Virgin  (Nottingham  Museum) 

To  face  151 

The  Cadillac  Sculpture  ....  „         152 

COMMUNICATIONS. 

THE  CROSSE  FAMILY  OF  WIGAN,  CHORLEY  AND 
LIVERPOOL.  BY  R.  STEWART-BROWN,  M.A., 

F.S.A.,  AND  F.  C.  BEAZLEY,  F.S.A 153 

TOCKHOLES  CHAPEL.    BY  JOHN  LIVESEY    187 

LANCASTER  JOTTINGS.    V. 

THE  NEW  HALL,  LANCASTER,  AND  ITS  OWNERS      189 

BULK  MILL         210 

SOUTHWORTH  OF  HlGHFIELD  212 

VICARS   OF   LANCASTER   DURING   THE   CIVIL 

WAR  TIME 212 

ABSTRACTS  OF  DEEDS  RELATING  TO  THE  SALE  OF 
PEWS  IN  ST.  NICHOLAS'S  CHURCH,  LIVERPOOL. 
BY  HENRY  PEET,  M.A.,  F.S.A.  ....  215 

THE  LOST  MANOR  OF  THIRNBY  IN  LONSDALE.    BY 

W.  H.  CHIPPINDALL  ....  225 

STRAY  NOTES     228 

Harrington  Estate  in  Liverpool. — Slitting 
Mills  at  Birkacre. — Curates  of  Hale 
Chapel,  1560  (?)  to  1633.— Blundell  of 
Little  Crosby. — The  Kirkby  Font. — 
Wigan  Church  c.  1580. — Longworth  of 
Ormskirk. — Rochdale  Glebe. — Dr.  Kuer- 
den. — Hambleton  Chapel. — Philip  Bennet 
of  Cartmel. — Early  Rectors  of  Wood- 
church. — Cheshire  Men  in  the  Expedition 
of  1544. — Sporting  Rights  in  Minshull, 
1583. 

REPORTS  AND  TREASURER'S  ACCOUNT  ....      234 

INDEX  241 


COUNCIL  AND   OFFICERS   FOR  THE  YEAR   1922 


President. 

THE    RIGHT    HON.    THE    EARL    OF    DERBY,    K.G.,    G.C.V.O..    P.C. 

Vice-Presidents. 

JOHN   PAUL   RYLANDS,    F.S.A. 
WM.    FERGUSSON    IRVINE,    M.A.,    F.S.A. 

F.    C.    BEAZLEY,    F.S.A. 

HENRY   PEET,    M.A.,    F.S.A. 

A.    H.    ARKLE,   O.B.E. 

F.    C.    LARKIN,    F.R.C.S. 

R.    STEWART-BROWN,    M.A.,    F.S.A. 

Members  of  Council. 


TO  SERVE  TO  END  OF  1922. 


F.    W.    BAILEY,    D.S.O.,    M.R.C.S., 

L.R.C.P. 

R.  CATON,    M.D.,    F.R.C.P. 
WALTER    PEEL,    C.B.E. 


GEORGE  T.  SHAW. 
FRANCIS  J.  WELD. 
E.  CUTHBERT  WOODS,  L.D.S. 


TO  SERVE  TO  END  OF  1923. 


R.    GLADSTONE,    B.C.L.,    M.A. 
HAROLD    LEE,    J.P. 


J.    A.    TWEMLOW,    B.A. 
W.    FORSHAW    WILSON. 


TO  SERVE  TO  END  OF  1924. 
F.    E.    AUBREY,    L.D.S.  S.    W.    PHIPPS. 


F.    H.    CROSSLEY,    F.S.A. 


E.    H.    RIDEOUT,    B.SC.,    A.I.C. 


Hon.  Treasurer. 

P.  C.  BROWN,  20  PENKETT  ROAD,  WALLASEY,  CHESHIRE. 


Hon.  Librarian. 

R.    T.    BAILEY,    M.B.E.,    M.R.C.S., 
L.R.C.P. 

Hon.  Secretary. 

PHILIP    NELSON,    M.D.,    F.S.A. 

"  BEECHWOOD,"  CALDERSTONES, 

LIVERPOOL. 


Hon.  Assistant  Librarian 

E.    H.    RIDEOUT,    B.SC.,  A.I.C. 

Hon.  Assistant  Secretary. 

JAMES    A.    WAITS. 


F.    E.    AUBREY,    L.D.S. 


Hon.  Editor. 
JOHN    BROWNBILL,    M.A. 

Excursion  Committee. 

F.    W.    BAILEY,    D.S.O.,    M.R.C.S. 
L.R.C.P. 

Photographic  Committee. 


R.    T.    BAILEY,    M.B.E.,    M.R.C.S., 
L.R.C.P. 


JAMES    A.    WAITE. 


Officers  of  the  <3octetp  since  Commencement. 

Presidents. 

1.  Right  Hon.  Francis,  1st  Earl  of  Ellesmere,  Lord-Lieutenant  of  Lancashire  ....  1848 

2.  Right  Hon.  Charles  William,  3rd  Earl  of  Sefton,  Lord-Lieutenant  of  Lancashire  1854 

3.  General  the  Hon.  Sir  Edward  Cust,  K.C.H.,  D.C.L 1855 

4.  Right  Hon.  William  Ewart  Gladstone,  M.P 1863 

5.  Joseph  Mayer,  F.S.A.,  &c.             1866 

6.  Rev.  Canon  Hume,  D.C.L.,  LL.D.,    &c 1868 

7.  The  Very  Rev.  J.  S.  Howson,  D.D.,  Dean  of  Chester           1875 

8.  Thomas  Glazebrook  Rylands,  F.S.A.,  &c.          1879 

9.  Right  Rev.  The  Lord  Bishop  of  Oxford,  F.S.A 1885 

10.  Right  Rev.  The  Lord  Bishop  of  Chester,  D.D.             1889 

11.  Right  Hon.  Arthur,  16th  Earl  of  Derby,  K.G.,  G.C.B.,  Lord-Lieutenant  of 

Lancashire            1903 

12.  RIGHT  Hon.  EDWARD,  17m  EARL  OF  DERBY,  K.  G.,  G.C.V.O.,  C.B 1908 


1848. 
1851. 
1854. 

1855. 
1856. 
1857. 
1864. 
1867. 
1875. 
1876. 
1877. 
1882. 

1884. 

1888- 
1892- 
1898- 
1903. 
1910. 
1914. 


Rev.  A.  Hume 
Rev.  A.  Hume 
Rev.  A.  Hume 

Rev.  A.  Hume 
Rev.  A.  Hume 
Rev.  A.  Hume 


Secretaries. 

LL.D.,  and  H.  C.  Pidgeon. 

LL.D.,  and  Rev.  Thomas  Moore,  M.A. 


LL.D. 

LL.D. 
LL.D. 
LL.D. 


Nicholas  Waterhouse. 

David  Buxton. 

David  Buxton. 

David  Buxton. 

C.  T.  Gatty,  F.S.A. 

C.  T.  Gatty,  F.S.A. 
[  E.  M.  Han'ce,  LL.B.          > 
I  R.  D.  Radcliffe,  M.A. 

R.  D.  Radcliffe,  M.A.,  F.S.A. 

R.  D.  Radcliffe,  M.A.,  F.S.A. 

R.  D.   Radclifie,  M.A.,  F.S.A. 

W.  F.  Irvine,  M.A.,  F.S.A. 

F.  C.  Beazley,  F.S.A. 

PHILIP  NELSON,  M.D.,  F.S.A. 


Assistant  Secretaries. 
Thomas  G.  Wedgwood. 
W.  W.  Rundell. 
J.  H.  Genn. 
J.  H.  Genn. 
Charles  Dyall. 
Arthur  Wakefield. 
Eugenio  Londini. 
Eugenic  Londini. 
T.  N.  Morton. 

T.  N.  Morton. 

T.  N.  Morton. 

T.  N.  Morton,  W.  F.  Irvine. 

W.  F.  Irvine,  Jas.  A.  Waite. 

Jas.  A.  Waite. 

Jas.  A.  Waite. 

JAS.  A.  WAITE. 


Editor. 

1911.     John  Brownbill,  M.A.1 


Treasurers. 


J848.  Thomas  Avison,  F.S.A. 

1860.  William  Burke. 

1867.  John  G.  Jacob. 

1886.  H.  D.  Eshelby,  F.S.A. 


1898. 
1905. 


W.  E.  Gregson. 

F.  C.  Beazley,  F.S.A. 


1911.     S.  W.  Phipps. 
1922.     P.  C.  BROWN. 


Librarian*. 


1848. 
1851. 
1859. 
1867. 
1869. 
1871. 
1875. 
1876. 
1877. 
1880. 
1885. 
1886. 
1889. 
1889. 
1899. 
1911. 
1915. 


Joseph  Mayer,  F.S.A. 
Rev.  Thomas  Moore,  M.A. 
David  Buxton. 
Nicholas  Waterhouse. 
Nicholas  Waterhouse. 
John  R.  Hughes. 
John  R.  Hughes. 
C.  T.  Gatty,  F.S.A. 
E.  M.  Hance,  LL.B. 

(Offices  in  abeyance.) 
W.  Thompson  Watkin. 
W.  Thompson  Watkin. 
George  T.  Shaw. 
George  T.  Shaw. 
George  T.  Shaw. 
George  T.  Shaw. 
R.  T.  BAILEY,  M.B.E.,  M.R.C.S.,  L.R.C.P. 


Curator«. 

Joseph  Mayer,  F.S.A. 
Joseph  Mayer,  F.S.A. 
A.  C.  Gibson,  F.S.A. 
A.  C.  Gibson,  F.S.A. 
H.  Ecroyd  Smith. 
H.  Ecroyd  Smith. 
J.  Harris  Gibson. 
J.  Harris  Gibson. 
J.  Harris  Gibson. 

J.  Harris  Gibson. 
W.  Forshaw  Wilson. 
W.  C.  Ashby  Pritt. 
Charles  Potter. 
W.  F.  Price. 


Assistant  Librarians. 
1911.    JAMES  A.  WAITE.  1922.    E.  H.  RIDEOUT,  B.Sc.,  A.I.C. 


1  Before  this  date  the  Secretary  was  also  Editor. 


of 


DISTRICT.  NAME. 

Burnley  .     W.    FARRER,    D.Litt.,    Whitbarrow    Lodge, 

Grange-over-Sands. 

Leigh        .      .      .      .     W.  D.  PINK,  Public  Library,  Leigh. 

Leyland    ....     The  Rev.  W.  STUART  WHITE,  Healey  Vicarage, 
Rochdale. 

Ormskirk        .      .      .     JAMES  BROMLEY,  J. P.,  The  Homestead,  Lathom. 

Rainford  ....     The  Rev.  Canon  J.  WRIGHT  WILLIAMS,  Farn- 
worth. 

Sefton W.  E.  GREGSON,  43  Moor  Lane,  Great  Crosby. 

S^J'LIl'l  W.  S.  WEEKS,  Westwood,  Clitheroe. 

Pendle  Hill    } 

Wigan Sir  T.   R.    RATCLIFFE-ELLIS,    18   King  Street. 

Wigan. 

Wray,  near  Lancaster    Rev.   C.   L.    REYNOLDS,   M.A.,   Wray  Vicarage, 
Lancaster. 

Darwen   and] 

\     .      .     J.  POM  FRET,  Public  Library,  Darwen. 

Blackburn 


*»*  The  Council  would  be  glad  to  hear  from  Gentlemen,  not 

necessarily  members  of  the  Society,  willing  to  volunteer 

as  Hon.  Local  Secretaries  for  Districts  in  Lancashire 

and  Cheshire  not  already  provided  for. 


EDITORIAL  NOTES. 

THE  authors  of  Papers  are  alone  responsible  for  the  state- 
ments and  opinions  in  their  several  communications. 


In  our  last  volume  Dr.  Nelson  gave  the  blocks  for  the 
illustrations  for  his  paper  ;  in  the  present  volume  he  has 
also  lent  one  of  the  blocks.  Mr.  Hudson  has  supplied  the 
blocks  illustrating  his  essay. 


The  present  volume  has  been  prepared  for  the  press  by 
J.  BROWNBILL,  M.A.,  Honorary  Editor. 


N.B. — It  is  requested  that  notice  be  given  to  the  Secretary  of  any 
errors,  change  of  address,  or  death. 


LIST     OF    MEMBERS 

(Corrected  to  1st  January,  1922) 


The  names  of  Life  Members  are  printed  in  BLACK  TYPE. 


DATE  OF  ELECTION 

1889.  April    4.  Abraham,  Miss  E.  C.     Riverham,  Grassen- 

dale  Park,  Liverpool. 

1908.  Mar.     5.  Accrington  Public  Library,  Accrington. 
1910.  Nov.  10.  Anderton,  Henry  Ince.       Hotel  des  Trois 

Couronnes,  Vevey,  Switzerland. 

1903.  Jan.    15.    Arkle,   A.    H.,  O.B.E.,   Elmhurst,   Oxton, 

Birkenhead,     Vice-President. 
1888.  Mar.   22.  Athenaeum  Library.     Liverpool. 
1899.  Jan.    19.  Atkinson,  W.  J.  A.     Hillside,  Gateacre. 
1907.  Sept.  16.  Aubrey,   F.   E.,  L.D.S.      13   Upper   Duke 

Street,  Liverpool.     Excursion  Committee. 

1890.  Jan.    23.  Ayrton,  William.      10  Dale  Street,  Liver- 

pool. 

1904.  Jan.    14.  Bailey,  F.  W.,  D.S.O.,  M.R.C.S.,  L.R.C.P. 

51  Grove  Street,  Liverpool.     Excursion 

Committee. 
1904.  Jan.    14.  Bailey,  R.  T.,  M.B.E.,  M.R.C.S.,  L.R.C.P. 

51     Grove     Street,     Liverpool.       Hon. 

Librarian. 
1918.  Jan.      1.  Baker,   Harold  R.   P.,  M.R.C.S.,    L.R.C.P. 

77  Accrington  Road,  Blackburn. 
1886.  Nov.  18.  Banner,  Sir  John  S.  Harmood,  M.P.    Aston 

Hall,  Preston  Brook,  Cheshire. 
1912.  Jan.    18.  Barlow,  Miss  A.  L.     70  West  Bank  Road, 

Birkenhead. 

1907.  Feb.    21.  Barrow-in-Furness,  Free  Library  of. 
1912.  Nov.  21.  Barton,  S.  Saxon.     The  Beach,  St.  Michael's 

Hamlet,    Liverpool. 


xiv.  List  of  Members 

DAT*  OF  ELECTION. 

1914.  Jan.  29.  Barton,  S.  Saxon,  Jun.,  O.B.E.  The 
Beach,  Southwood  Road,  St.  Michael's 
Hamlet,  Liverpool. 

1914.  Jan.      1.  Beazley,    Eric   B.     Oak   Dene,    Noctorum, 

Birkenhead. 

1899.  Feb.  16.  Beazley,  Frank  C.,  F.S.A.  46  Grosvenor 
Road,  Claughton,  Birkenhead.  Vice- 
President. 

1921.  Oct.    27.  Bell,  G.  K.     Hillock  Cottage,  Parbold. 

1915.  Jan.    28.  Benas,    Bertram   B.   B.,    B.A.,  LL.B.        5 

Princes  Avenue,  Liverpool. 

1913.  Oct.    30.  Bennett,   J.    H.    E.       Cambrian   Crescent, 

Chester. 

1918.  Oct.  31.  Bickerton,  H.  R.,  M.A.,  M.R.C.S.,  L.R.C.P. 
88  Rodney  Street,  Liverpool. 

1905.  Nov.  2.  Bickerton,  T.  H.,  M.R.C.S.  88  Rodney 
Street,  Liverpool. 

1896.  Jan.  16.  Birkenhead  Free  Public  Library.  Birken- 
head. 

1889.  Oct.    31.  Birmingham  Central  Free  Library.    Ratcliff 

Place,  Birmingham. 

1870.  April    7.  Blackburn  Free  Library.  Blackburn. 
1921.  Nov.  10.  Blundell,    Rev.    Frederick,    O.S.B.,    F.S.A. 

Scot.     St.    Anne's    Priory,    Edge    Hill, 

Liverpool. 

1888.  Mar.   22.  Bodleian  Library.     Oxford. 
1907.  Jan.      5.  Bolton-le-Moors,  Free  Public  Library  of. 

1890.  Nov.     6.  Bootle  Free  Library.     Oriel  Road,  Bootle. 

1888.  Mar.   22.  Boston  Athenaeum.     Boston,  U.S.A.     (C/o 

Messrs.  E.  G.  Allen  &  Son,  Ltd.,  14 
Grape  Street,  Shaftesbury  Avenue, 
London,  W.C.). 

1889.  Jan.    10.  Boston    Public   Library.       Boston,    U.S.A. 

(C/o    B.    Quaritch,    Ltd.,     11     Grafton 
Street,  London,  W.) 
1912.  Dec.    19.  Bradford  Public  Library.     Bradford. 

1891.  Nov.     5.  British    Museum    Library.        (C/o    Messrs. 

Dulau  &  Co.,  34-36  Margaret  Street, 
Cavendish  Square,  London,  W.I.) 

1901.  Nov.  7.  Bromilow,  Henry  John.  Green  Bank, 
Rainhill. 

1914.  Jan.      1.  Brown,     Percy     C.      20     Penkett      Road, 

Wallasey.     Hon.   Treasurer. 

1905.  May  8.  Brownbill,  John,  M.A.  7  Millman  Street, 
London,  W.C.I. 


List  of  Members  xv. 

DATS  or  ELECTION. 

1914.  Oct.   29.    Bunbury,   H.   J.   c/o  Boodles,   St.   James' 

Street,  London,  S.W.I. 

1910.  Feb.  17.  Burnett,  Miss  Eleanor.  Devonshire  House, 
Devonshire  Park,  Birkenhead. 

1909.  Jan.    21.  Burnett,  Miss  M.  Edith.   Devonshire  House, 

Devonshire  Park,  Birkenhead. 

1921.  Jan.    20.  Caldwell,    Francis,    C.B.E.,    M.V.O.     11 
Devonshire  Road,  Princes  Park,  Liver- 
pool. 

1889.  Feb.  21.  Caton,  Richard,  C.B.E.,  M.D.,  LL.D.,  J.P. 
3  Livingston  Drive  South,  Sefton  Park, 
Liverpool. 

1913.  Nov.  13.  Cheers,  Frank  L.  41  Harthill  Avenue, 
Allerton,  Liverpool. 

1879.  Jan.      9.  Chetham's   Library.     Manchester. 

1900.  Mar.   29.  Chorley  Free  Public  Library.     Chorley. 

1910.  Nov.  10.  Clover,  Mrs.  G.  R.       Ramie,  Manor  Hill. 

Birkenhead. 

1905.  April  11.  Congress,  Library  of.     Washington,  U.S.A. 

Per  Edward  G.  Allen  &  Son,  Ltd.,  14 
Grape  Street,  Shaftesbury  Avenue, 
London,  W.C.) 

1902.  Nov.  6.  Coventry,  Harold.  19  Claremont  Road, 
West  Kirby. 

1915.  Feb.   25.  Crossley,    Frederick    H.        19    Shavington 

Avenue,   Hoole,  Chester. 

1921.  Dec.  8.  Crowden,  George  Wm.  3  Menlove  Avenue, 
Mossley  Hill,  Liverpool. 

1906.  Mar.      1.  Danson,  Sir  F.  C.,  F.S.A.   74  Bidston  Road, 

Oxton,    Birkenhead. 

1907.  July   15.  Darwen  Free  Library.     Darwen. 

1895.  Nov.     7.  De  Hoghton,  Sir  James,   Bart.      Hoghton 

Tower,  Preston. 
1921.  Feb.    10.  Dodgson,  F.  P.     The  Kinders,  Arno  Road, 

Oxton,  Birkenhead. 

1918.  Oct.    31.  Duveen,  James  H.    Tyn  Dwfr  Hall,  Llan- 

gollen. 
1920.  Feb.    12.  Ellis,  S.    9  Strand  Street,  Liverpool. 

1901.  Feb.    14.  Ellsworth,  W.  S.    11  Park  Crescent,  South- 

port. 

1910.  Mar.  3.  Elwell,  Rev.  H.  E.,  M.A.  Capenhurst 
Rectory,  Chester. 

1919.  Jan.      1.  Entwistle,    Peter.       The    Public    Museum, 

Liverpool. 


xvi  List  of  Members 

DATE  OF  ELECTION. 

1914.  Oct.  29.  Eschwege,  Maurice.  47  Lime  Street,  Liver- 
pool. 

1920.  Jan.   29.    Ford-Jones,  John,  35  Rocky  Lane,  Liver- 

pool. 

1875.  Jan.  7.  Garnett,  William.  Quernmore  Park,  Lan- 
caster. 

1907.  April  22.  Gladstone,  Henry  Neville.     Burton  Manor, 

Cheshire. 

1902.  Nov.  6.  Gladstone,  Robert,  B.CX.,  M.A.  Woolton 
Vale,  Liverpool. 

1921.  Jan.    20.  Haigh,  Edwin,  C.  C.     San  Roque,  Calder- 

stones,   Liverpool. 

1906.  Feb.  14.  Hall,  Lawrence.  6  Canning  Street,  Liver- 
pool. 

1912.  Jan.  18.  Hand,  Chas.  R.  Ivydene,  Ashfield,  Waver- 
tree,  Liverpool. 

1890.  Nov.     6.  Hannay,  A.  M.     5  India  Buildings,  Water 

Street,  Liverpool. 

1908.  Jan.    13.  Hargreaves,    John.     64    Dacre    Hill,    Rock 

Ferry. 

1912.  Nov.  21.  Harvard  College  Library.     (Per  E.  G.  Allen 

and  Son,  Ltd.,  14  Grape  Street,  Shaftes- 
bury  Avenue,  London,  W.C.) 

1916.  Jan.  27.  Heal,  Albert  H.  Plymyard  Manor,  East- 
ham,  Cheshire. 

1911.  Oct.  25.  Hignett,  Theophilus.  St.  Ives,  Sandfield 
Park,  West  Derby,  Liverpool. 

1910.  Feb.  3.  Hind,  Miss  Alice.  27  Beech  Road,  Birken- 
head. 

1916.  Nov.  9.  Hockley,  Rev.  G.  W.,  M.A.  The  Rectory, 
Hardman  Street,  Liverpool. 

1918.  Jan.    31.  Holt,  Miss  M.     Fern  Hill,  New  Brighton. 

1913.  Oct.    30.  Hughes,  John.     280  Kensington,  Liverpool. 

1919.  Oct.    30.  Humphreys,  Dr.  Richard,  M.B.,  C.M.       1 

Cressington  Park,  Liverpool. 

1891.  Nov.     5.  Ireland,  National  Library  of.     (C/o  Messrs. 

Hodges,  Figgis  &  Co.,  Ltd.,  20  Nassau 
Street,  Dublin). 

1890.  Nov.  6.  Irvine,  Wm.  Fergusson,  M.A.,  F.S.A.  56 
Park  Road  South,  Birkenhead.  V ice- 
President. 

1910.  Nov.  10.  John  Rylands  Library.     Manchester. 

1918.  Feb.  28.  Johnson,  Joseph  B.  Devonshire  House, 
Devonshire  Road,  Princes  Park,  Liver- 
pool. 


List  of  Members  xvii. 

DATE  OP  ELECTION. 

1912.  Dec.      5.  Jones,    W.    Bell.         The    Church    House, 

Hawarden,    Flintshire. 
1897.  Nov.     4.  Lancaster  Free  Public  Library.    Lancaster. 

1901.  Jan.    17.  Larkin,  F.  C.,  F.R.C.S.    18  Rodney  Street, 

Liverpool.    V ice-President. 

1913.  Oct.    30.  Lawson,    P.    H.       6    Shavington    Avenue, 

Chester. 

1911  Jan.  19.  Lee,  Harold,  J.P.  15  North  John  Street, 
Liverpool. 

1889.  Mar.     7.  Leeds  Free  Public  Library.     Leeds. 

1903.  Dec.  17.  Legge,  Charles  J.  3  Grosvenor  Place, 
Claughton,  Birkenhead. 

1916.  Jan.  1.  Leigh-Mallory,  Rev.  Herbert  L.,  M.A.  St. 
John's  Vicarage,  Slatey  Road,  Birken- 
head. 

1911.  Oct.    25.  Leigh  Public  Library.     Leigh,  Lancashire. 

1892.  Feb.   25    Leverhulme,      Right      Honourable      Lord. 

Thornton     Manor,     Thornton     Hough, 
Cheshire. 

1920.  Oct.    28.  Linaker,    R.    Hyde.       Hazelmere,    Weston 

Road,  Runcorn,  Cheshire. 
1904    Jan.    28.  Liverpool  Free  Library.     Liverpool. 

1902.  Jan.    16.  Liverpool  Library  (Lyceum).     Bold  Street, 

Liverpool. 

1893.  Nov.     2.  Livesey,  John.     Barham,  Wray  Park  Road, 

Reigate,  Surrey. 

1921.  Feb.    24.  Livsey,  Arthur  C.,  A.M.I. E.E.     Three  Trees, 

Woodland  Park,  Prestatyn,  Flintshire. 

1919.  Jan.      1.  Logan,    John   R.        81    Hartington    Road, 

Liverpool. 

1911.  Oct.  25.  Lyell,  George  I.  10  Vernon  Street,  Liver- 
pool. 

1914.  Oct.    29.  McCormack,  Chas.  V.,  M.R.C  S.,  L.R.C.P. 

58  Merton  Road,  Bootle. 

1920.  Jan.      1.  Malley,  Christopher.     6  West  Bank  Road, 

Edge  Lane,  Liverpool. 

1888.  Mar.  22.  Manchester  Free  Reference  Library.  Picca- 
dilly, Manchester. 

1888.  Mar.   22.  Manchester  University.     Manchester. 

1916.  Oct.  28.  Marshall  Rev.  W.,  M.A.  Sarnesfield  Court, 
Weobley,  R.S.O.,  Herefordshire. 

1920.  Feb.  26.  Matthews,  Godfrey  W.  23  Holland  Road, 
Wallasey. 

1914.  Jan.  1.  May,  Walter  T.  20  Huskisson  Street. 
Liverpool. 


xviii.  List  of  Members 

DATE  OF  ELECTION. 

1904.  Mar.  25.  Mayer  Free  Library.  Bebington,  nr.  Birken- 
head. 

1890.  Nov.     6.  Meade-King,  Richard  R.     Sandfield  Park, 

West  Derby,  Liverpool. 

1915.  Jan.  28.  Morton,  Mrs.  124  Prenton  Road  West, 
Birkenhead. 

1908.  Dec.  10.  Nelson,  Philip,  M.D.,  F.S.A.,  F.R.A.I. 
Beechwood,  Calderstones,  Liverpool. 
Hon.  Secretary. 

1897.  Mar.  25.  New  York,  Public  Library  of.  New  York, 
U.S.A.  (C/o  B.  F.  Stevens  &  Brown,  4 
Trafalgar  Square,  London,  W.C.) 

1893.  Feb.  9.  Newberry  Library.  Chicago,  U.S.A.  (Per 
B.  F.  Stevens  &  Brown,  4  Trafalgar 
Square,  London,  W  C.) 

1919.  Oct.  30.  Nicholson,  Alex.  C.,  F.G.S.  45  Ferndale 
Road,  Hoylake. 

1921.  Feb.  24.  Norris,  George  R.  5  Livingstone  Drive, 
Liverpool. 

1911.  Feb.  2.  Nottingham  Free  Public  Library.  Notting- 
ham. 

1907.  July   15.  Oldham   Free  Library.     Oldham. 

1907.  Mar.  21.  Owen,  Segar,  F.R.I. B. A.  Kelmscott,  Apple- 
ton,  Cheshire. 

1891.  Dec.    17.  Parker,  Colonel  John  W.  R.,  C.B.,  F.S.A. 

Browsholme  Hall,  Clitheroe. 
1910.  April  21.  Paterson,  David.     Vailima,  Queen's  Drive, 

Mossley  Hill,  Liverpool. 
1913.  Oct.    30.  Peabody  Institute,  The.  Baltimore,  U.S.A. 

(Per   E.    G.    Allen  &  Son,    Ltd.,    12/14 

Grape     Street,      Shaftesbury     Avenue, 

London,  W.C.) 

1916.  Oct.     28.  Peel,  W.    The  Shrublands,  Hoole,  Chester. 
1890.  Nov.      6.  Peet,  Henry,  M.A.,  F.S.A.,  J.P.       Manor 

Cottage,  Cavendish  Road,    Birkenhead. 

V  ice-President. 
1921.  Oct.    27.  Felling,    Douglas    L.        4    Curzon     Road, 

Prenton. 
1894.  Nov.      1.  Phipps,    S.    W.       32    Danehurst     Road, 

Wallasey. 
1919.  Jan.    30.  Pigot,  Rev.  Harry  V.,  M.A.     Grappenhall 

Rectory,  Warrington. 
1921.  Jan.    20.  Priestley,  Frank  C.     Fieldhead,  Prenton. 


List  of  Members 


xix. 


DATE  OF  ELECTION. 

1911.  Jan.    19.  Public  Record  Office,  London.     (Per  H.M. 

Stationery  Office,  Princes  Street,  West- 
minster, London,  S.W.) 
1888.  Feb.     9.  Radcliffe,  Frederick  M.     Queen  Insurance 

Buildings,  Liverpool. 
1891.  Jan.    22.  Ratcliffe-Ellis,   Sir  Thomas   R.      18   King 

Street,  Wigan. 
1914.  Oct.    29.  Reynolds,  Colonel  Sir  J.  P.,  D.S.O.,  J.P., 

D.L.     Dove  Park,  Woolton. 
1921.  Feb.    10.  Rideout,  Eric  H.,  B.Sc.,  A.I.C.     17  Regent 

Road,      Wallasey.  Hon.      Assistant 

Librarian. 
1918.  Feb.    14.  Robertson,  Allan.      43  Exchange  Buildings, 

Liverpool. 

Rochdale  Free  Public  Library.     Rochdale. 
Royden,  E.   B.         Bidston    Court,    Oxton, 

Birkenhead. 
Royds,    Lady.     71    Eaton   Place,    London, 

S.W. 
Rylands,   John   Paul,   F.S.A.      96  Bidston 

Road,    Birkenhead.     V ice-President. 
Rylands,  William  Harry,  F.S.A.   1  Campden 

Hill  Place,  Netting  Hill,  London,  W. 
St.  Helens  Free  Public  Library.     St.  Helens. 
Salford  Royal  Museum  and  Libraries.    Peel 

Park,  Salford. 
1888.  Nov.  15.  Sandeman,  Lieut.-Col.  John  Glas,  M.V.O., 

Sub-Officer  H.M.  Hon.  Corps  of  Gentle- 
men   at    Arms.       Whin-Hurst,    Hayling 

Island,  Havant. 
1888.  Mar.     8.  Shaw,    G.    T.       Liverpool    Free    Library, 

Liverpool. 
1920.  Jan.      1.  Sheppard,    Percy    G.,    L.M.S.,    L.S.A.     59 

Edge  Lane,  Liverpool. 
1897.  Jan.    28.  Southport  (Atkinson)  Free  Public  Library. 

Southport. 
1899.  April  13.  Starkie,    Colonel   Edmund   A.    Le   Gendre. 

Huntroyde,  Burnley. 
1918.  Feb.    14.  Steele,    E.    W.    Topham.       7    Christchurdi 

Road,  Oxton. 

1905.  Feb.    23.  Stewart-Brown,  R.,  M.A.,  F.S.A.    Fairoaks, 

Bromborough,  Cheshire.     V ice-President. 
1911.  Jan.    19.  Stockport  Public  Library.     Stockport. 

1906.  Feb.    15.  Stone,  Park  N.     The  Moorings,  Neston. 


1901. 
1903. 

April  13. 
Dec.  3. 

1917. 

Jan.  25. 

1870. 

Nov.  3. 

1874. 

Dec.  10. 

1888. 

Mar.  22. 

1907. 

July  15. 

xx.  List  of  Members 

DATK  OF  ELECTION. 

1891.  Nov.     5.  Stonyhurst  College,  Rev.  the  Rector  of,  S.J. 

Blackburn. 

1919.  Oct.    30.  Stott,    Dr.   J.    Edwin,    L.R.C.P.,    L.R.C.S. 

201  Edge  Lane,  Liverpool. 

1912.  Feb.   29.  Strype,    Chas.    F.       61    Greenbank    Road, 

Devonshire  Park,  Birkenhead. 

1920.  Oct.    28.  Teare,    W.    Rimmer.       12    Bentley    Road, 

Oxton,  Birkenhead. 

1887.  Feb.    10.  Tempest,  Mrs.  Arthur  Cedl.      Broughton 

Hall,  Skipton-in-Craven. 

1889.  Feb.    21.  Thompson,  Edward  P.     Whitchurch,  Salop. 
1911.  Jan.    19.  Timbrell,  Rev.  W.  F.  J.,  M.A.    Coddington 

Rectory,  Chester. 

1890.  Nov.     6.  Tonge,  William  Asheton.   The  Old  Rectory, 

Warburton,  Cheshire. 

1908.  Aug.  22.  Toronto  Reference  Library,  Toronto, 
Canada.  (C/o  Wm.  Dawson  &  Sons, 
Ltd.,  Cannon  House,  Bream's  Buildings, 
London,  E.C.4.) 

1888.  Feb.    23.  Toulmin  &  Sons,  Ltd.,  George.    Lancashire 

Daily  Post  Office,  Preston. 

1889.  Oct.    31.  Turton,    Fletcher   Thomas.      Hazel   Bank, 

Huyton,  Liverpool. 

1920.  Jan.      1.  Twemlow,  J.  A.,  B.A.     64  Upper  Parliament 

Street,  Liverpool. 

1919.  Jan.  1.  Veitch,  Geo.  S.,  M.A.,  Litt.D.  Pelham 
House,  Sandown  Park,  Wavertree,  Liver- 
pool. 

1903.  Mar.  12.  Victoria  and  Albert  Museum  Library.  South 
Kensington,  London,  S.W.  (Per  Board 
of  Education,  Storekeeper's  Department, 
South  Kensington. 

1894.  Nov.  1.  Waite,  Jas.  A.  6  Fairfield  Street,  Fairfield, 
Liverpool.  Hon.  Assistant  Secretary. 

1913.  Nov.  27.  Wales,  National  Library  of.     Aberystwyth. 
1918.  Jan.      1.  Wallasey      Public      Libraries.      Wallasey, 

Cheshire. 

1894.  April  5.  Warburton,  Rev.  William,  M.A.  The 
Vicarage,  Hoylake,  Cheshire. 

1921.  Oct.    27.  Wardman,  R.     The  Beeches,  Massie  Street, 

Cheadle. 

1892.  Nov.     3.  Warrington  Museum.     Warrington. 

1921.  Mar.    10.  Watson,  A.  E.,  L.D.S.     135  Upper  Parlia- 
ment Street,  Liverpool. 
1897.  Nov.     4.  Wearing,  J.  W.,  M.A.     Parkfield,  Lancaster. 


List  of  Members  xxi. 

DATE  OF  ELECTION. 

1918.  Oct.    31.  Webster,    Rev.    G.    E.,    M.A.      Tredington 

Village,  Tewkesbury. 
1918.  Jan.    31.  Weld,     Francis.      Weld     Road,     Birkdale, 

Southport. 

1888.  Dec.    13.  Weldon,    William    Henry,    C.V.O.,    F.S.A., 

Clarenceux  King  of  Arms.      College  of 
Arms,  London,  E.G. 

1921.  Mar.   24.  White,  Thomas,  Jun.     Junior  Reform  Club, 
Stanley  Street,  Liverpool. 

1889.  Jan.    10.  Wigan  Free  Public  Library.     Wigan. 

1906.  Mar.   31.  Wilkinson,  W.    The  Limes,  Victoria  Park, 

Manchester. 

1907.  Oct.    10.  Williams,  R.  Warner.    Constitutional  Club, 

1  Beresford  Road,  Birkenhead. 
1913.  Oct.    30.  Williams,   Wm.   H.      41   Laburnum  Road, 

Fairfield,  Liverpool. 
1885.  Nov.  26.  Wilson,    W.    Forshaw.     50    Cable    Road, 

Hoylake. 
1915.  Jan.      1.  Winstanley,  Herbert.   Easby,  Mersey  Road, 

Aigburth,  Liverpool. 

1913.  Oct.    30.  Wisconsin       State       Historical       Society. 

Madison,  Wisconsin,  U.S.A.     (Per  G.  H. 

Stechert  &    Co.,    2    Star    Yard,    Carey 

Street,  Chancery  Lane,  London,  W.C.) 
1905.  Mar.     9.  Withers,   R.   E.   M.      13  Haymans  Green, 

West  Derby,  Liverpool. 
1904.  Jan.    28.  Wolstenholme,   Chas.   M.      71    Park  Road 

South,  Birkenhead. 
1891.  Nov.  19.  Woodhouse,  Miss  E.  D.       Burghill  Court, 

Hereford. 
1909.  Feb.    12.  Woods,   E.   C.,   L.D.S.    (Eng.).     76  Mount 

Pleasant,   Liverpool. 
1920.  jan.    29.  Woods,   E.   C.,   Mrs.     76  Mount   Pleasant, 

Liverpool. 

HONORARY  MEMBERS. 

1914.  Mar.   26.  Boyd-Dawkins,    W.,    M.A.,   D.Sc.,    F.R.S., 

F.G.S.,  F.S.A.     Fallowfield  House,  Fal- 

lowfield,  Manchester. 
Carlyon-Britton,    P.    W.    P.,    J.P.,    D.L., 

F.S.A.,    P.B.N.S.     43    Bedford    Square, 

London,  W.C. 
Evans,  Sir  Arthur,   M.A.,  D.Litt.,  F.R.S., 

P.S.A.,  Youlbury,  Berkshire. 


xxii.  List  of  Members 

DATE  OF  ELECTION. 

1914.  Mar.  26.  Green,  Everard,  F.S.A.,  Somerset  Herald. 
College  of  Arms,  Queen  Victoria  Street, 
London,  E.G. 
„  „  James,  Montagu  R.,  D.Litt.,  F.S.A.     Eton 

College,  Eton. 
Lyte,  Sir  Henry  C.  Maxwell,  K.C.B.,  M.A. 

61  Warwick  Square,  London,  S.W. 
„  ,,  Prior,  E.  S.,  M.A.,  A.R.A.,  F.S.A.  Fairview, 

Shaftesbury  Road,  Cambridge. 
Read,    Sir    C.    Hercules,    LL.D.,    V.P.S.A. 

British  Museum,  London,  W.C. 
1920.       —          Lethaby,  Prof.  W.  R.,  F.S.A.   Ill  Inverness 

Terrace,  London,  W.2. 

„  Biver,  Count  Paul.     Jouy-en-Josas,  Seine- 

et-Oise,  France. 


SOCIETIES     WHICH     EXCHANGE     TRANSACTIONS 

WITH   THE   HISTORIC   SOCIETY   OF    LANCASHIRE 

AND   CHESHIRE. 


Society  of  Antiquaries  of  London. 

Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Scotland. 

Royal  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Ireland. 

New  England  Historical  and  Genealogical  Society. 

Bristol  and  Gloucestershire  Archaeological  Society. 

Cambridge  Antiquarian  Society. 

Chester  Archaeological  Society. 

Cumberland  and  Westmoreland  Antiquarian  Society. 

Exeter  Diocesan  Architectural  and  Archaeological  Society. 

Kent  Archaeological  Society. 

Lancashire  and  Cheshire  Antiquarian  Society. 

Leicestershire  Archaeological  Society. 

Architectural  and  Archaeological  Society  of  Lincoln  and  Notts. 

London  and  Middlesex  Archaeological  Society. 

Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Shropshire  Archaeological  and  Natural  History  Society. 

Somersetshire  Archaeological  and  Natural  History  Society. 

Suffolk  Institute  of  Archaeology  and  Natural  History. 

Sussex  Archaeological  Society. 

Thoresby  Society,  Leeds. 

Yorkshire  Archaeological  Society. 


THE  HISTORIC  SOCIETY  SUBSCRIBES  TO  THE  FOLLOWING  : 

Congress  of  Archaeological  Societies. 
Lancashire  Parish  Register  Society. 
Lancashire  and  Cheshire  Record  Society. 


xxiii 


TRANSACTIONS. 


EARLY    LIVERPOOL    COACHING. 
By  A.  H.  Arkle,  O.B.E. 

Read  13  March,  1919,  and  10  February,  1921. 


TTHERE  appears  to  be  little  to  be  said  about 
A  coaching  in  England  before  the  Restoration 
period.  Jusserand  tells  us  that  coaches  were 
introduced  into  England  in  1564  :  "A  coach," 
he  says,  "  was  a  strange  monster  in  those  days, 
and  the  sight  of  them  put  both  horses  and  man 
into  amazement ;  some  said  it  was  a  crab-shell 
brought  out  of  China,  and  some  imagined  it  to 
be  one  of  the  pagan  temples  in  which  the  cannibals 
adored  the  devil."  But  a  little  before  the 
Restoration  the  desire  for  travel,  together  with 
the  growth  of  commercial  life,  brought  into  being 
that  most  picturesque  of  all  the  modes  of  travel 
we  know  of,  the  Stage  Coach. 

In  the  Mercurius  Politicus  for  8  April,  1658,  is 
the  following  advertisement  : 

From  the  26  April,  1658,  there  will  continue  to  go  stage 
coaches  from  the  George  Inn  without  Aldersgate,  London, 
into  the  several  cities  and  towns,  for  the  rates  and  at  the 
times  hereafter  mentioned  and  declared. 
EVERY  MONDAY,  WEDNESDAY  AND  FRIDAY  : 

To  Salisbury,  in  2  days  xx.  s. 

,,  Exmaster,  Hinnington 

and  Exeter  ....in  4  days       ....        xl.  s. 

,  Doncaster  and  Ferribridge  ....         ....  xxxv.  s. 

,  York,  in  4  days       xl.  s. 

,  Blandford  and  Doncaster  in  2|  days      ....     xxx.  s. 

,  Burput,  in  3  days xxx.  s. 

,  Stamford,  in  2  days  ....         ....         ....       xx.  s. 

,  Bawtrey,  in  3  days  xxx.  s. 


2  Early  Liverpool  Coaching 

MONDAY  AND  WEDNESDAY : 

Ockinton,  Plimouth       1.  s. 

EVERY  MONDAY  : 
To  Darneton,  Ferryhil,  Helperby  and 

Northallerton      xlv.  s. 

„  Durham      Iv.  s. 

,,  Newcastle  ....         ....         ....         ....         ....        Iv.  s. 

Once  every  fortnight   to  Edinburgh,   iv.  £  a  peece,   on 

Mondays. 
Every  Friday  to  Wakefield,  in  4  days  ....        xl.  s. 

All  persons  who  desire  to  travel  into  the  cities  and  towns 
and  roads  herein  hereafter  mentioned  and  expressed, 
namely  to  Coventry,  Litchfield,  Stone,  Namptwich,  Chester, 
Warrington,  Wigan,  Chorley,  Preston,  Garstang,  Lancaster 
and  Kendal. 

Also  to  Stamford,  Grantham,  Newark,  Tuxford,  Bawtrey, 
Doncaster,  Ferribridge,  York,  Helperby,  North  Allerton, 
Darneton,  Ferry  Hill,  Durham,  Newcastle,  Wakefield, 
Leeds,  and  Halifax. 

Also  to  Salisbury,  Blandford,  Dorchester,  Barput,  Ex- 
master,  Hinnington,  Exeter,  Ockinton,  Plimouth  and 
Cornwall,  let  them  repair  to  the  George  Inn  at  Holborn 
Bridge,  London,  and  thence  they  shall  be  in  good  coaches 
with  good  horses  upon  every  Monday,  Wednesday  and 
Friday  at  and  for  reasonable  rates. 

From  the  same  paper  of  24  June,  1658 : 

The  Postmasters  on  Chester  road  petitioning  have  received 
orders  and  do  accordingly  publish  the  following  advertise- 
ment : 

All  gentlemen,  merchants  and  others  who  have  occasion 
to  travel  between  London  and  Westchester,  Manchester 
and  Warrington,  or  any  other  town  upon  the  road  for  the 
accommodation  of  trade,  despatch  of  business  and  ease  of 
purse,  upon  every  Monday,  Wednesday  and  Friday  morning 
betwixt  six  and  ten  of  the  clock  at  the  house  of  Mr. 
Christopher  Charteris  at  the  sign  of  the  Hart's  Horns  in 
West  Smithfield,  and  postmaster  there,  and  at  the  postmaster 
at  Chester  and  at  the  postmaster  of  Warrington,  may  have 
a  good  and  able  single  horse  or  more  furnished  at  3d.  the 
mile  without  charge  of  a  guide,  etc.,  etc. 

All  those  who  intend  to  ride  this  way  are  desired  to  give 
a  little  notice  beforehand  if  conveniently  they  can  to  the 
several  postmasters  where  they  first  take  horse. 


Early  Liverpool  Coaching  3 

My  attention  was  called  to  these  interesting 
extracts  by  Mr.  F.  C.  Beazley.  They  are  taken 
from  the  first  volume  of  Notes  and  Queries.  They 
give  us  the  main  lines  of  traffic  as  they  existed 
at  the  time. 

That  there  were  other  ideas  about  the  advan- 
tages of  travel  is  evident  from  the  following 
quotation  from  an  early  paper  : 

In  the  year  1672,  when  throughout  Great  Britain  there 
were  only  six  stage  coaches  constantly  going,  a  pamphlet 
was  written  for  their  suppression.  It  stated  :  "  These 
stage  coaches  make  gentlemen  come  to  London  on  every 
small  occasion,  which  otherwise  they  would  not  do  but 
upon  urgent  necessity.  Nay,  the  convenience  of  the 
passage  makes  their  wives  often  come  up,  who  rather  than 
come  on  such  long  journeys  on  horseback  would  stay  at 
home.  Here  when  they  have  come  to  town  they  must 
presently  be  in  the  mode,  get  fine  clothes,  go  to  plays  and 
treats  and  by  these  means  get  such  a  habit  of  idleness  and 
love  of  pleasure  that  they  are  uneasy  ever  after." 

But  the  object  of  this  paper  is  not  to  go  into 
the  question  of  coaches  and  coaching  at  large. 
I  am  only  endeavouring  to  give  an  outline  of 
how  the  coaching  around  Liverpool  developed 
until  it  grew  into  the  wonderful  and  efficient 
instrument  which  we  find  in  the  early  nineteenth 
century — until,  indeed,  its  great  rival  steam 
drove  it  almost  entirely  off  the  road. 

John  Ogilby  published  in  1675  his  well-known 
book  of  road  maps  through  England.  He  names 
and  describes  the  great  trunk  roads  of  Great 
Britain  as  follows  : 

1st. — The  Northern  Road,  extending  to  Berwick  and  thence 

to  Edinburgh. 

2nd. — The  North-East  Road  to  Yarmouth  in  Norfolk. 
3rd. — The  Kentish  Road  or  Eastern  to  Dover. 
4th. — The  South-Western  Road  to  Chichester  and  adjunct 

to  the  Great  Western  Road  to  Plymouth. 
5th.— The  due  West  or  Bristol  Road. 

6th. — The  North-West  or  Chester  Road,  extending  to  Holy- 
head. 


4  Early  Liverpool  Coaching 

Under  these  headings  he  adds  a  list  of  what 
are  called  "  depending  branches,"  and  for  the 
last  of  these  main  roads  one  of  the  depending 
branches  is  "  Warrington  to  Liverpool,"  much  in 
the  same  way  as  Neston  is  on  a  depending  branch 
from  Chester. 

These  main  roads  go  S.W.,  W.,  N.W.,  N.E., 
and  E.,  but  on  none  of  these  lines  was  the  ancient 
town  of  Liverpool  situated  ;  and  until  the  trade 
with  Ireland  and  the  Plantations,  especially  the 
West  Indies,  began  to  develop,  Liverpool  was 
quietly  pursuing  various  local  industries,  such  as 
the  potteries,  with  scarcely  a  thought  of  the  vast 
field  of  commerce  that  was  only  just  beginning 
to  open  to  the  enterprize  and  energy  of  her 
citizens. 

Until  the  middle  of  the  18th  century,  Liverpool 
was  almost  entirely  cut  off  from  the  rest  of  the 
country  by  the  want  of  good  main  roads.  So 
far  back  as  November,  1725,  the  Common 
Council,  taking  into  consideration  that  the  road 
between  this  town  and  Prescot  "  hath  been 
almost  impassable,  and  that  the  inhabitants  of 
this  town  have  suffered  much  for  want  of  getting 
their  coals  home  during  the  summer  season,  thro' 
the  great  rains  that  have  happened  in  these 
parts,  and  that  it  would  be  highly  necessary  to 
get  an  act  of  Parliament  for  the  repairing  that 
road  so  that  it  may  be  passable  at  all  times  of 
the  year  and  for  erecting  a  turnpike  thereon  : 
It  is  now  ordered  that  a  petition  to  Parliament 
for  that  purpose  be  prepared." 

In  January  the  following  year  (1726)  the 
Council,  taking  into  further  consideration  "  the 
great  charge  of  bringing  coals  and  merchandises 
to  this  town  and  port  in  bad  weather,  and 
especially  in  the  winter  season  and  at  all  times 
when  the  weather  happens  to  be  wet  and 


Early  Liverpool  Coaching  5 

unseasonable  as  it  hath  happened  the  last 
summer,  and  that  the  roads  to  the  coal  pits,  and 
particularly  in  Prescot,  cannot  be  sufficiently 
repaired  by  the  statute  work  as  it  will  be  passable 
at  such  times,  without  the  help  and  assistance  of  a 
toll :  it  is  now  ordered  and  agreed  that  applica- 
tion be  made  to  Parliament  to  obtain  an  act  for 
that  purpose  and  that  the  treasurer  do  advance 
one-half  of  the  charge." 

James  Chadwick  was  employed  to  survey, 
measure  and  map  out  this  road  to  Prescot;1  for 
which  he  was  advanced  the  sum  of  £3  3s.  Yet, 
after  all  this,  it  seems  that  the  two  acts  of 
Parliament,  dated  1746  and  1753,  were  passed, 
and  that  a  period  of  nearly  30  years  elapsed 
before  the  road  was  properly  completed  from 
Liverpool  to  Warrington  ;  for  it  was  only  in 
1757  that  a  contract  was  entered  into  for  making 
the  unfinished  part  of  the  road  between  Prescot 
and  Warrington,  to  be  completed  in  two  years. 

There  must  have  been  roads  of  a  sort  both 
from  Wigan  and  Warrington  into  Liverpool  by 
way  of  St.  Helens  and  Prescot,  but  they  were 
evidently  in  a  sad  state  of  unrepair,  and  no  doubt 
until  about  1760  most  of  the  goods  traffic  between 
Liverpool  and  other  towns  was  carried  by  pack 
horses,  and  passengers  had  to  go  on  horseback 
as  far  as  WTarrington  and  there  wait  for  the  stage 
wagon  or  post  coach  to  their  destination. 

From  Troughton's  History  of  Liverpool,  speaking 
of  the  period  before  coaches  were  established,  we 
gather  that  a  stage  coach  from  the  north  of 
England  to  London  passed  through  Warrington 
every  week.  It  was  customary  for  travellers 
from  Liverpool  to  the  capital  to  go  to  Warrington 
on  Sunday  to  be  ready  to  set  out  in  the  coach 

1  Prescot  Road  began  at  the  stone  bridge  which  crossed  the  Pool 
at  the  top  end  of  Dale  Street,  where  is  now  William  Brown  Street. 


6  Early  Liverpool  Coaching 

at  3  a.m.  on  the  Monday,  and  they  thought 
themselves  fortunate  if  they  arrived  in  London 
late  on  the  Saturday.  Troughton,  who  probably 
wrote  about  1805  or  1806,  says  (page  107)  : 
"  Vestiges  of  the  old  road  from  Warrington  to 
Liverpool  are  yet  discernible  near  the  nursery  at 
Wavertree,  and  this  road  or  lane,  which  is  not 
4  yards  broad,  is  continued  at  intervals  between 
the  Edge  Lane  Road  and  Wavertree  Lane  to 
within  a  short  distance  of  Wavertree  Hall." 

Such  being  the  difficulties  and  delays  in  com- 
pleting even  one  good  road,  how  the  merchants 
of  those  times  must  have  welcomed  the  great 
canal  system  inaugurated  by  the  Duke  of  Bridge- 
water  and  carried  out  by  his  engineer,  Brindley  ! 
In  the  same  spirit  of  enterprize  local  business 
men  saw  early  in  the  19th  century  the  enormous 
advantage  of  a  rail  road  to  enable  them  to  cope 
with  the  increasing  demands  of  the  traffic  to  and 
from  the  port. 

At  last,  early  in  1760,  the  road  through  Prescot 
to  Warrington  was  completed,  and  Liverpool  was 
united  to  the  great  trunk  roads  running  in  all 
directions  throughout  England.  The  first  men- 
tion of  a  coach  in  connection  with  Liverpool  occurs 
in  an  advertisement  in  the  Liverpool  Advertiser  of 
14  January,  1757,  referring  probably  to  a  casual 
arrival  in  Liverpool  for  which  the  proprietors 
wanted,  if  possible,  to  secure  a  return  fare.  It 
runs  as  follows  : 

For  Birmingham  or  other  parts  of  Warwickshire,  Oxford, 
London,  Bath,  or  any  place  adjacent,  a  returned  coach 
which  will  set  out  from  Liverpool  on  the  20th  or  21st 
instant.  Apply  to  the  Talbot  Inn  or  Mr.  John  Crosbie, 
merchant. 

Another  three  years  elapsed  before  a  coach 
service  began  ;  the  first  advertisement  runs  as 
follows  : 


Early  Liverpool  Coaching  7 

A  machine  "  sets  out  on  Monday,  Sept.  1st,  1760,  and 
on  every  Monday  and  Thursday  morning  at  6  o'clock  from 
Mr.  Budworth's,  the  Bull's  Head  Inn  in  Manchester  ; 
will  call  at  the  Red  Lyon  Inn  in  Warrington  ;  at  Mr. 
Reynolds's,  the  Old  Legs  of  Man,  in  Prescot  ;  and  lies  at 
Mr.  Banner's,  the  Golden  Fleece,  in  Liverpool.  Returns 
from  thence  every  Tuesday  and  Friday  morning  at  6 
o'clock,  and  calls  at  the  above  places  on  its  way  back  to 
Manchester.  Each  passenger  to  pay  8s.  and  so  in  pro- 
portion for  any  part  of  the  road.  To  be  allowed  14  Ib. 
weight  of  luggage,  and  all  above  to  pay  Id.  per  pound. 
Perform'd  (if  God  permits)  by 

JOHN  STONEHEWER, 
JAMES  FRANCE. 

John  Stonehewer  was  apparently  the  driver  of 
this  first  venture  for  at  least  six  or  seven  years, 
for  I  find  a  foot-note  in  Troughton's  History  of 
Liverpool  which  gives  this  extract  from  the 
Liverpool  Chronicle  of  21  January,  1768  : 

John  Stonehewer,  driver  of  the  stage  coach  between 
Liverpool  and  Manchester,  having  been  thrown  off  the 
box  had  his  thigh  broken  by  the  fall,  begs  his  thanks  may 
be  acceptable  to  his  benefactors  at  Warrington  for  their 
generous  contributions  to  the  support  of  his  wife  and  4 
children  during  his  illness.  John  is  a  careful,  honest  man, 
a  good  driver,  and  takes  care  of  his  horses.  Those  whose 
business  requires  frequent  passing  between  Liverpool  and 
Manchester  have  lost  in  him  for  a  time  a  good  servant, 
but  they  may  accelerate  his  cure  and  make  his  misfortune 
easier  by  their  donations  at  the  Bull  and  Punch  Bowl,  Dale 
Street,  where  the  poor  man  still  continues  very  ill. 

Communication  between  Liverpool  and  Man- 
chester, while  very  important,  was  only  one  step 
on  the  way  for  bringing  Liverpool  into  touch 
with  all  the  great  towns  ;  and  of  these,  the  most 
important  was  a  good  service  with  the  Metropolis. 
So,  in  the  spring  of  the  next  year,  20  March, 
1761,  the  following  interesting  announcement 
appeared  in  the  press  : 

The  Liverpool,  Warrington  and  Litchfield  Flying  Machine 
to  London  in  3  days,  and  as  soon  as  the  weather  permits 
in  2  days,  sets  out  from  the  Golden  Lyon  in  Liverpool 


8  Early  Liverpool  Coaching 

every  Monday  and  Thursday  morning,  and  from  the  Bell 
Inn  in  Wood  Street,  London,  every  Monday  and  Thursday 
morning  likewise ;  and  arrives  at  the  above  places 
Wednesday  and  Saturday. 

Prices  from  Liverpool,  £2  6s.  ;  Warrington,  £2  2s.  ; 
Litchfield,  £1  7s.  Half  the  money  to  be  paid  at  taking 
place  and  other  half  on  taking  coach.  14  Ibs.  luggage  ; 
all  above  to  pay  3d.  per  Ib.  Outside  passengers  and  child 
on  lap  to  pay  half-price.  And  so  in  proportion  for  any 
part  of  the  road. 

In  June,  1763,  the  Flying  Machine  accomplished 
the  journey  in  two  days,  travelling  three  days  a 
week.  But  the  times  were  difficult,  and  coach 
owners  soon  found  that  to  maintain  anything 
like  a  regularity  in  arriving  at  their  destinations, 
it  was  absolutely  necessary  to  have  far  better 
roads.  Winter,  with  its  flooding  rain  and  snow, 
must  have  caused  great  inconvenience  at  the 
least  to  the  travellers  of  those  days,  and  one  is 
inclined  to  think  that  a  journey  to  London, 
especially  in  the  winter  months,  required  con- 
siderable fortitude.  For  instance,  on  23 
January,  1767,  the  proprietors  of  the  local  paper 
say  : 

Since  our  last  the  London  mails  have  come  in  here  very 
irregularly  owing  to  the  prodigious  fall  of  snow,  which  has 
been  much  greater  upwards  than  here.  The  mail  which, 
had  it  come  as  usual,  would  have  been  here  on  Thursday 
15th,  did  not  arrive  till  late  on  Sunday  following  ;  that  for 
Friday  16th,  and  Sunday  18th,  both  on  Wednesday.  As 
the  frost  is  now  broke  with  rain  we  are  fearful  that  the 
waters  are  so  much  out  as  to  cause  a  further  delay  to 
yesterday's  and  this  day's  mails,  which  were  not  arrived 
this  morning  at  10  o'clock.  Therefore  we  publish  the 
papers  without  waiting  any  longer  for  them. 

Again,  in  February  the  following  year,  1768  : 

Owing  to  heavy  rains  which  have  fallen  this  week,  the 
River  Ribble  at  Walton  Bridge  was  never  known  so  high 
by  10  inches.  The  London  mail,  which  should  have  come 
in  here  yesterday  morning,  did  not  arrive  till  5  o'clock  in 
the  evening  ;  and  as  we  fear,  from  the  rains  which  fell 


S' 


Mambefter,    Worrington,    frejfot,    and   Lrverpod: 
MACHINE, 

:ETS  out  on  Monday,  S«p«cmbcT  i.  ijtfor 
and  on  every  Monday  and  Thurf  jay  Mors- 
:,g.  at  fin  o'Clock.  from  Mr.  Budworh'j,  the 
ibll't  Head  Inn.  in  Manchefier  ;  »ill  caH  at 
che  R  d  L»"»  ]"n.  in  U'irrjigton  ;  «t  Mr. 
fteynoUs'5,  ti:c  Old  Legs  of  Man,  in  Pttfcot  ; 

add  lie;  at  Mr  Banner'*,  the  Golden  Fleece,  in  Live  pool  Rttixntlruui 
thercejevetv  Tucfday  and  Friday  Mornin..-.  Jt  fi»  o'clock,  and  calls  at 
the  atx'Te  Placet  en  its  Way  Kick  to  Miocheiier.  Fach  Hafficngcr  to  pay 
Eight  Shillings,  and  fo  In  Projomcn  Icr  any  Part  ol'lhc  Rojd.  Tu  be 
lllo»-ed  14  Ib.  Weight  of  Luggjge,  <n3  all  above  t.i  pay  i  d  |*r  Pound. 


.  The  LIVERPOOL,  WARRINGTON,  &  LITCHFIELD 

FLYING     MACHINE, 

To  LONDON  io  three  Day*,  and  at  foon  as  tbe  Weather  per- 
mits in  two  Oays, 

SETS  out  from  the  Golden  Uyon,  in  Liverpool,  rvery  Monday  and 
'Itiurfdiy  Mori.ii'g;  snjftfim  the  Bill  Inn,  in  WosJ-ftrect,  London, 
rtery  Mondi)  and  Thurfiiy  Morning  likc»ifc,  anJ  ariives  at  the  above 


PRICES  :  From  Li 
from  Litcl.ficlJ.  i  I. 
and  the  other  Half  on 


Wcdnerday  ar.d  Satiuday. 


,  »1.  6S.     from  Waninjton,  a  I.   a  i.  and 
Half  the  Money  to  be  pjid  at   taking  Place, 
anu  me  omcr  nan  un  Ld»ju£  coach, 

Each  Paifcnger  to  be  a!lo«  'd  14  Ib.  of  Luggage ;  ail  abore  to  pay  three 
Pence  a  Pound.     Out-fid.-  i  >licngrtt,  srd  Children  CTI  Lap,   to  p»y  HalJ 


. 
Fr.cc  ;  ar.d  fo  in  Proportion  tor  ary  Part  of  ih.-  Ro-.d. 

/{_V  No  Plate,  Money,  Watches,  ot  ar>  Thii.j  ot   Valise. 
counted  for.  unkfs  ente'f'd  ai  fuch   and  paid  for  iccaidingt^ 


iU  be  »c 


TAI.BOT  ?NN,  trrn,7t»-frr*^T  LIVERPOOL' 

The  Ci.D-»nd  Wn^-AccwiTftMeo  | 

LONDON     and     LIVERPOOL 
STAGE-COACH» 

to,  «O  hours,  with  a   (JUAKD,  which  ic  ei;<bt  hours  left 
time  than  the  tifual  performsnce 

THW5UCH  Wt-rrinjitoii,   Nnnnwieli,   Mid.Uewicl\, 
Stt'Ot,    l.ichJkld,   «lHl   Covetitiy,     wtiich    i*   <tie 
^tlt  and  iniich    ncart  (i   lo.if!,   rvrfy    Sno<!ny    momiujj,  : 
.•I  !>alf  ,p*ft  t-t\M  n't!  ,<;;  Jtl(j  evciy  Monday,  Taefday, 
U'ert«!trf<|ay.TU»iir!:.y,  an<i  Ktijay,  ai  5  in  the  evcnrnj.   t 


EARLY   COACH   ADVERTISEMENTS. 


u.  N 

»i:i?  T(K  th 


chrtlcr,  snd  lies  ac  rh»  Aoff\.  In 


.Nmb...  j,t..h.  t:.<:  lull  .\iglw,  t»c  i  toiiJ  at  iLc  George  Jnn.  in  Drrby 
r.'  at  Mitichefter  ;  »tid  «i  rtw«  ftme  II.KS  from   M:»cht.ner  10 


I.or  Jon.     Rac»i  PalVnvcr  10  pay  Tw»  Pmuij>  Five  SMIIuigt,  a»J  to  bo 
alio*td  fowirctn  J:onnJs  \Veigfit  of  ui^igc.  *l!  »t>ni»c  c»  p*y  T1>r<«- 


:  per  PounJ.     OjlfiJ' 
batf  Trice, 


\Veight  „,  .  r.7 

e    Piflengw*,    jod   Children  on  Lap.  t« 
r  JOHN  HAN  ro  «r».  -    . 


Ptrf#m'f(  i/ GOD 

CHILLI  AM    RlC  kitniON. 

.V.  B.  Plicn  -obc  ukcr,  mi]  PiiceU  taken  ip,  «t  Mr.  IrU«X  nta< 
«he   ft^o.'-Ott   Inn,  in    .\1arett-Slrfa-Ltxc.  MAX^trrt*,  tn^    gj  ^ 
•ii  L*4-Lt*t> JLaNDOM.  le 


frULL  INN,    DALE-STRIET,   LIVKRPGOL- 


Tlie    LONDON    and    LIVERPOOL 
FLYING       MACHINE. 

On  ST^EL  SPRINGS,  wuh  a  OU.-VRL>. 
Thro'  Prefect,  Warringtoe,  KnutsforH,  liuimtS  Ch«p<-', 
Barflcm,  Hanlcy-Crtew,  t'ttoicter,  Burton  upr>i. '1  ;cul, 
Afhhf  de  la  Zonch,  Lticefttr,  Wclfoid  aftH  No-tlmrp- 
tnn,  which  it  mucli  (be  bcB  road,  and  veil  k^iuwa  by 
palTcngcrt  to  be  (he  qitkkcft  co.-ivey»»cc. 


EARLY   COACH    ADVERTISEMENTS. 


Early  Liverpool  Coaching  9 

yesterday,  the  mail  for  to-day  will  be  as  late,  we  hope  \ve 
shall  be  excused  for  publishing  without  waiting  longer  for 
Thursday's  papers. 

But  difficulties  of  weather  or  bad  roads  would 
not  be  likely  to  daunt  the  enterprising  people  of 
Lancashire  ;  and  in  October,  1767,  we  find  that 
another  Liverpool  Flying  Machine  to  London  in 
three  days  was  advertised  to  run  twice  a  week. 
Setting  out  from  the  Talbot  Inn,  Water  Street, 
on  Tuesday  27th,  it  was  to  go  thence  to  London 
every  Tuesday  and  Saturday  ;  arriving  in  Liver- 
pool Monday  and  Friday  during  the  winter 
season. 

The  development  of  local  traffic  is  shown  by 
an  announcement  that  a  Prescot  stage  coach 
would  set  out  from  the  Angel  Inn  on  Sunday, 
29  November,  1768,  about  9  a.m.,  for  the  Legs- 
of-Man  and  Bull  Inn,  Prescot,  and  return  about 
5  o'clock  for  the  Angel  Inn  ;  and  would  continue 
the  same  every  day  in  the  week.  Fares,  Is.  Qd. 
inside  ;  6d.  out.  Thomas  Adlington,  driver. 

It  is  important  to  remember  that  for  those 
who  did  not  want  Flying  Machines  there  were 
"  The  Old  and  Constant  Stage  Wagons."  These 

set  out  from  the  Nag's  Head,  Workhouse  Lane,  every 
Tuesday  and  Friday  evenings,  arriving  at  the  Axe 
Inn,  Aldermanbury,  London,  every  Tuesday  and  Friday  , 
leaving  to  return  every  Wednesday  and  Saturday,  arriving 
at  Liverpool  every  Tuesday  and  Friday,  in  9  days  ;  carrying 
passengers  and  goods  to  London  or  any  part  of  the  road. 
Performed  (if  God  permit)  by 

JOSEPH  HULSE, 
JONATHAN  HIGGINSON, 
WILLIAM  WIDDERS. 

Thomas  Sutton,  Bookkeeper  ;  who  may  be  spoke  with 
every  day  in  the  week  upon  Change  at  Change  Hours. 

By  April,  1773,  the  traffic  to  Manchester 
demanded  a  coach  three  times  a  week  ;  for  John 
Randies,  on  removing  from  the  George  Inn, 


10  Early  Liverpool  Coaching 

High  Street,  to  the  Bull  and  Unicorn  in  Dale 
Street,  states  that  the  Manchester  stage  coach 
set  out  from  the  latter  inn  every  Tuesday, 
Thursday  and  Saturday  morning  at  7  o'clock. 
This  coach  dined  at  Warrington  each  day  at  the 
George  Inn,  carrying  passengers,  etc.,  etc. 
Travellers  would  meet  with  friendly  usage  and 
good  accommodation  at  the  above  inns. 

Something  must  next  be  said  about  another 
route  from  Liverpool  to  distant  parts  :  that  by 
crossing  the  Mersey  by  one  of  the  numerous 
ferries,  thence  to  Chester,  there  connecting  with 
coaches  to  all  parts.  The  ferries  in  these  early 
days  were  all  sailing  boats,  the  first  steamer  to 
ply  on  cross  traffic  being  the  Etna,  in  1817. 

It  has  already  been  shown  that  coaches  were 
running  from  London  to  Chester  at  least  as  early 
as  1658,  and  as  early  as  1707  Blundell's  Diary 
records  that  the  writer  made  use  of  the  "  Eastom  " 
ferry  boat  to  go  to  Chester,  and  in  1709  he  made 
use  of  the  Rock  House  and  Woodside  Ferry.  I 
can  find  no  trace,  however,  of  a  coach  running 
regularly  between  Chester  and  Woodside  Ferry 
before  4  June,  1762,  when  it  was  announced 
that  a  new  machine  with  six  able  horses  would 
set  out  from  the  Golden  Talbot,  in  Chester,  for 
the  Woodside  Ferry  Boathouse  every  Tuesday, 
Thursday  and  Saturday  morning  at  8  o'clock, 
and  take  passengers  at  4s.  each,  returning  at 
4  o'clock  on  the  same  day  to  Chester.  The 
same  machine  went  every  Monday,  Wednesday 
and  Friday  to  Parkgate,  at  2s.  6d.  each.  Boats 
would  attend  at  the  Woodside  on  the  above  days 
to  carry  passengers  to  Liverpool. 

It  is  somewhat  difficult  to  determine  what 
road  the  coaches  used  between  Chester  and 
Woodside.  At  first  the  route  appears  to  have 
been  from  Chester  to  Bromborough  Pool  (the 


MflP 


SHOW, NO    Tne     VflRious     CO/HI- 


INTO       Tut.       TO*J 


Early  Liverpool  Coaching  11 

present  Chester  Road)  ;  thence  by  Lower 
Bebington  and  Dacre  Hill  to  Tranmere,  along  what 
is  now  Church  Road,  and  down  Whetstone  Lane 
to  Grange  Lane  (now  Grange  Road),  and  on  to 
Woodside.  About  1790  the  Old  Chester  Road 
was  improved  and  the  coaches,  after  passing 
Lower  Bebington  to  Dacre  Hill,  there  turned  to 
the  right  along  the  Old  Chester  Road,  crossing 
the  Pool  (Tranmere)  by  the  bridge,  or  rather 
embankment.  In  the  Liverpool  and  Lancaster 
Herald  of  7  August,  1790,  we  read  as  follows  : 

We  hear  that  the  embankment  at  Birkenhead  Pool  in 
Cheshire  to  complete  the  communication  of  the  turnpike 
road  leading  from  Chester  to  the  Woodside  Ferry  opposite 
this  town  was  made  possible  for  horses  and  carriages  above 
the  highest  spring  tides  in  the  month  of  March  last,  and 
the  turnpike  road  is  now  in  such  a  state  of  forwardness 
that  it  is  expected  that  anotner  summer  will  complete  the 
whole  length  from  Chester  to  the  above  ferry  ;  the  distance 
16  miles  only. 

The  New  Chester  Road,  connecting  Brom- 
borough  Village  with  Birkenhead  and  avoiding 
the  steep  gradients  by  Lower  Bebington,  is  quite 
a  modern  road,  having  been  made  about  1840 
by  Mr.  J.  Brassey,  the  famous  contractor. 

In  1774  we  get  the  first  mention  of  New  Ferry. 
It  had  considerable  advantages  at  that  time. 
From  that  point  to  Chester  was  a  much  shorter 
road,  and  the  rather  difficult  and  hilly  road  over 
Tranmere  Hill  was  avoided.  At  the  same  time 
the  voyage  was  considerably  shorter  than  that 
by  Eastham  (or,  as  it  was  sometimes  called, 
Carlett  Ferry),  and  it  escaped  the  troublesome 
sandbanks  of  the  river  at  that  point,  which  made 
navigation  for  sailing  boats  both  difficult  and 
dangerous.  The  tenant  at  this  period  was  Mr. 
Englefield  Lloyd.  A  coach  was  fixed  to  set  out 
from  the  New  Ferry  House  every  day  at  9-30  in 
the  morning  for  Chester  (Pyed  Bull  Inn,  Northgate 


12  Early  Liverpool  Coaching 

Street,  kept  by  Simon  Leet).  Each  passenger 
paid  4s.  in,  or  2s.  outside.  By  applying  to  Richard 
Davenport  at  the  Friendship  Coffee  House,  Strand 
Street,  Liverpool,  passengers  could  be  accommo- 
dated with  boats  to  the  said  ferry  on  the  shortest 
notice. 

There  was  still  another  direction  in  which 
coach  traffic  was  bound  to  develop — the  outlet 
from  Liverpool  at  the  north  end.  In  October, 
1763,  the  development  began  by  an  advertisement 
that  the  Liverpool  and  Kendal  stage  coach 
machine  would  run  from  the  White  Lyon,  Kendal, 
every  Friday,  arriving  at  the  Black  Horse  and 
Rainbow,  in  High  Street,  Liverpool,  next  day 
(Saturday)  to  dinner.  The  return  journey  began 
on  Monday  morning.  Passengers  dined  at  the 
George  Inn,  Preston,  and  lay  at  the  King's  Arms, 
Lancaster,  going  on  to  Kendal  the  next  morning. 
The  fares  to  and  from  Kendal  were  22s.  ;  to 
Lancaster,  16s.  ;  to  Preston,  10s.  ;  and  to  Wigan, 
6s.  ;  children  on  lap  and  outside,  half-price. 

The  turnpike  road  from  Liverpool  through 
Ormskirk  was  not  in  existence  as  the  Act  for  it 
was  only  obtained  in  1770.  The  traffic,  therefore, 
no  doubt  went  either  through  Prescot  and  Wigan 
or  via  Warrington.  I  am  indebted  to  Mr.  R. 
Stewart-Brown  for  a  notice  that  the  first  coach 
for  Preston  by  the  Ormskirk  road,  passed 
through  Aughton  on  15  June,  1774.1  In  this 
connection  it  is  worth  while  quoting  the  earnings 
of  the  various  gates  between  Liverpool  and 
Preston  : 

Walton,  Lydiate,  Burscough,  Tarleton,    Penwortham 

1775      £174            57  20  96  91 

1779        201             72  105  100  100 

1803        424           194  234  184  330 

1806        530           190  222  198  466 

1811         700          302  260  300  416 
1  Newstead's  Annals  of  Aughton. 


Early  Liverpool  Coaching  13 

These  figures  show  the  enormous  development 
on  this  one  main  road. 

The  extraordinary  hours  at  which  people  of 
those  times  had  to  begin  their  journeys  will  not 
have  escaped  notice.  It  must  have  required  a 
good  deal  of  moral  courage  to  get  up  in  time  for 
a  coach  starting  off,  as  many  did,  at  any  hour 
between  3  and  6  a.m. — or  say  on  a  winter's 
night  at  9  p.m. — for  a  long  ride.  Only  a  very 
small  proportion  of  the  population  ventured  to 
travel  at  all ;  but  those  who  did,  had  to  carry  out 
their  project  under  trying  and  inconvenient 
circumstances. 

It  is  important  too  to  remember  that  while  pas- 
senger traffic  did  not  attain  large  dimensions  until 
the  beginning  of  the  nineteenth  century,  the  goods 
traffic  of  the  country,  stimulated  no  doubt  by 
the  competition  of  the  canals,  increased  to  a 
much  larger  extent.  We  find,  for  instance,  that 
not  only  were  stage  waggons  rumbling  their  way 
leisurely  between  Liverpool  and  London  and 
other  places,  but  also  express  waggons,  or,  as 
they  called  them,  "  Flying  Waggons,"  which  did 
the  journey  to  London  in  five  days,  the  pro- 
prietors hoping  that  such  expedition  would  meet 
with  proper  reward. 

About  1780  the  greatest  of  all  coaching 
developments  occurred  :  the  invention  of  the 
mail  coach.  How  did  our  forefathers  manage 
with  their  mails  ?  Down  to  1673,  Liverpool  had 
not  even  a  horse  post.  About  that  date,  the 
Deputy  Postmaster  General  (Colonel  Roger 
Whitley,  probably  a  Cheshire  man)  admitted  that 
something  ought  to  be  done  to  improve  postal 
facilities.  A  letter  is  quoted  in  Hyde's  book  on 
the  Early  History  of  the  Post,  in  which  Whitley 
says  :  'I  agree  with  you  that  the  trade  of  that 
industrious  place  (Liverpool)  ought  to  have 


14  Early  Liverpool  Coaching 

quicker  despatch  in  its  correspondence  and  may 
deserve  a  horse  post ;  but  if  the  charge  is  im- 
posed on  the  Office  the  benefit  will  not  balance 
the  expense."  One  can  almost  imagine  that 
His  Majesty's  Post  Office  had  this  last  phrase 
framed  and  placed  in  some  prominent  place  for 
the  benefit  of  succeeding  generations.  However, 
it  seems  that,  with  the  help  of  Alderman  Chandler, 
of  Liverpool,  this  improvement  was  inaugurated, 
and  this  system  of  mail  carriage  was  carried  on 
for  more  than  100  years.  Previous  to  1673, 
letters  (say)  from  Manchester  for  Ireland  were 
carried  up  to  London,  and  then  by  way  of  Chester 
and  Holy  head  ;  but  in  the  year  1673  an  improve- 
ment was  effected,  the  letters  being  taken  only 
as  far  south  as  Stone,  in  Staffordshire,  there 
picking  up  the  connection  with  the  London 
mails.  Brooke  tells  us  that  the  Post  Office  for 
Liverpool  in  1775,  and  for  some  years  after,  was 
in  North  John  Street,  on  the  east  side,  between 
Dale  Street  and  the  opening  leading  into  Princes 
Street,  and  was  just  like  what  one  sees  in  a  small 
country  town,  with  an  aperture  for  receiving 
letters  and  a  moveable  square  or  little  door-like 
opening  in  the  window  for  delivery  of  letters.  In 
that  year  (1775)  Liverpool  had  only  one  letter 
carrier  ;  no  town  except  London  was  allowed 
more  than  one.  In  1800  the  office  was  established 
at  Old  Post  Office  Place  ;  in  1839  it  was  transferred 
to  Canning  Place,  part  of  the  Dock  Office  of  that 
period,  where  the  head  office  remained  till  the 
large  building  in  Victoria  Street  was  built  in 
1899.  In  1792  the  salary  of  the  Postmaster  was 
£100  per  annum  ;  Bath,  at  £150,  was  the  highest 
out  of  London.  In  1801,  the  charge  for  a  single 
letter  from  London  to  Liverpool  was  9d. 
However,  better  times  were  coming.  In  1782, 
John  Palmer  put  forward  his  plan  for  reform  of 


Early  Liverpool  Coaching  15 

the  postal  system.     There  is  a  full  account  of 
him   in    the    Dictionary   of  National    Biography. 
He  was  born  at  Bath  in  1742.     His  father  (John 
Palmer)    was   a   prosperous    brewer    and    tallow 
chandler  ;    his  mother  was  one  of  the  Longs  of 
Wraxall  Manor,  Wilts.     Young  John  wished  to 
go  into  the  army,  but  eventually  took  his  place 
in  the  counting  house  of  the  brewery  until,  owing 
to  fear  of  consumption  of  the  lungs,  he  had  to 
give  up  the  work.     His  father,  in  the  meantime, 
had  become  proprietor  of  a  theatre  in  Bath,  and 
in   1768  obtained  a  practical  monopoly  of  the 
theatrical  properties  in  Bath  for  21  years.     Young 
Palmer  acted  for  his  father  in  London,  and  had 
to  make  many  journeys  in  connection  with  his 
business.     He  noticed  that  the  state  post  was 
the  slowest  mode  of  conveyance  in  the  country. 
The  mail  then  took  three  days  between  London 
and  Bath,  and  he  had  frequently  accomplished 
the  distance  in  one.     His  plan  for  the  reform  of 
the  postal  service  had  for  its  main  idea  to  send 
the  mails  by  the  stage  coaches  instead  of  by 
post  boys  on  worn-out  horses.     The  coach  was 
to  be  guarded,  to  carry  no  outside  passengers, 
and  to  travel  at  8  or  9  miles  per  hour.     After 
some    delay    and    opposition    from    the    postal 
officials,  it  was  decided  to  try  the  plan  on  the 
London  and  Bristol  Road,  the  first  mail  coach 
leaving  Bristol  for  London  on  2  August,   1784. 
On  the  23rd  August  it  was  suggested  that  the 
mail  coach  service  should  be  extended  to  Norwich, 
Nottingham,  Liverpool  and  Manchester  ;   and  by 
the    autumn    of    1785    mail    coaches    were    also 
running  to  Leeds,  Gloucester,  Swansea,  Hereford, 
Milford  Haven,  Worcester,  Birmingham,  Shrews- 
bury, Holyhead,  Exeter,  and  many  other  places, 
and    in    1786    to    Edinburgh.     On    11    October, 
1786,  Palmer  was  appointed  Comptroller  General 


16  Early  Liverpool  Coaching 

of  the  Post  Office.  Honours  poured  in  on  him 
from  many  quarters,  and  amongst  others  he  was 
presented  with  the  freedom  of  Liverpool  and 
Chester.  He  died  at  Brighton,  16  August,  1818, 
having  done  splendid  work  for  the  country. 
Before  1784  there  had  been  constant  robbery  of 
the  mails,  but  from  1784  to  1792  no  mail  coach 
was  stopped  or  robbed.  In  1788,  320  towns 
which  formerly  had  a  post  three  times  a  week, 
had  one  every  day.  The  speed  had  been  in- 
creased from  5  or  6  miles  an  hour  to  7,  and  by 
1792  the  old  unsatisfactory  coaches  had  all  been 
replaced  by  new  and  modern  types. 

On  14  July,  1785,  the  following  announcement 
appeared  in  Gore's  Advertiser  : 

A  further  extension  of  Mr.  Palmer's  plan  will  take  place 
on  Sunday  evening  24th  inst.,  from  which  day  the  office 
will  be  open  for  the  receipt  of  letters  for  London  and  the 
inter-places  every  night  till  10-0  (except  Fridays)  and  for 
the  delivery  of  letters  every  morning  at  8  o'clock  except 
Tuesdays. 

N.B. — No  business  will  be  done  at  the  office  on  Sunday 
from  10  in  the  morning  till  after  evening  service.  It  will 
likewise  be  shut  up  at  9  p.m. 

On  21  July  in  the  same  year  appeared  the 
following  : 

GOLDEN  LION  HOTEL,  DALE  STREET. 

The  original  Mail  Coach  with  a  guard  all  the  way  will 
set  off  on  Monday  25th,  at  4  in  the  morning  to  go  in  30 
hours.1 

Notice. — That  all  carters,  chaise  boys,  etc.,  betwixt 
Liverpool  and  London  to  observe  when  they  hear  the 
horn  of  the  guard  to  the  Mail  Coach  they  are  immediately 
to  turn  out  of  the  road  and  make  way  for  the  same.  If 
this  caution  is  not  strictly  attended  to,  etc.,  etc. 

On  29  June,  1786,  the  mail  was  transferred 
from  the  Golden  Lion  to  the  hotel  at  the  bottom 
of  Lord  Street,  and  the  time  of  departure  was 

1  On  1st  September  reduced  to  27  hours. 


GOLDEN 
L 


LION,    D  A  L  K  -  S  T  IlIiL  T, 
I  V  E  R  P  O  O  1,. 


THE 


M 


A    l    L?B  &\f  COACH' 

v^i ,'.  V) 


fr  v  Tit***  N-I 

\Vith  a  GUARD  JU^^^T     .  i,   A!I  thc  VVay> 


SETS  out    from    the  above   INN    every  Morning  at 
4  o'CI<M.k;    and   goes    in    27  Helm,   to   «>>e  S 
\\Iiif    TWO   NECKS,    LAD-JLANI'.,   LOWDON. 


Fare  3!.  T  ;s.  6.J. 

.Alio,  The  Ot»  and  WELL-ACCUSTOMED 
LONDON       and      L  I  V   K  K  P  O  O  L 

STAGE-COACH, 
REMOVED  FROM  the  TAI.BoT,  in  W,\T*»  STREET, 

i»  rhc  AftOVEINN^ 

Goes  iu  43  hf.uif,  which  i*  lef"  "'mc  f1'»"  *uy  °^'« 
'nucltinc  from  jlii*  place,  fhro*  Wiirrinpron,  MttWIcwif  h, 
^loiic.  Li'ctifit'  vrntry,  every  Sunday,  m.-trin^ 

.it  l.:-lf  paft  eith't  o'clock?  and  every  Monday.  Tucj.'.ay. 
\v*f!ncfday,  /I  hurfday,  an^l  riMay,  at  5  in  the*vcnm;. 
—  TiiQdc  J<.  IOF.  —  vHnTidc  ll  5" 

-The  o,u!f  COACH  to  BlKMUfOI***,  f'>  m  the  above 
Inn.  ;',.  •.  r.:».  days  aud  hours  —  lufi^e  ll.  5*.  6d  Out- 
fide.i.is.  61 

Places  in  all  the  ab^ve  ccucUt^  n»  be  uken  at  the 
GOLDEN  UON,  Dale-arcrt.  ONLY-' 

Full  'fare  to  he  pait)  al  ukiug  icat:  ;  and  if  fail  £<nog» 
one  bait  \»ill  be  returned. 

r  H.  FOK-SH  AW,  Liverpool,    } 
fr«fowr»toi  by  <  C   CkOS^.KY,  Waiiingion,  S  &  Co. 

(.T.  WILSON,  1-f'H.lon  -  ) 

The  p>-o«itaor*  wit4  hoi  be  accountable  f&r  any  thing 

above  5!.  vJwc.  wnlef*  entered  as  fuch,  an.  -I  p»i'l  for  ac- 

cortKuglyj  neither  t*))l  they  he  aecountHhlc    for  g"od* 

t!<*Brtape(l,  anlcffc  v/cli  *md  rufficitntly  packed  :    An.)  they 

m«(V  refpe,3  fully  re<(Ueft  their  f.-icwl*  will  be  attentive' 

in  f«ii«Jag  parcels  to  Mr.  frtfUSILUA  \.   Hie 

'N,  .a»  6rir.ral  rniftake*  liavc  I^ppc':c.l   « 

>t  °'og  »t>  the  i'lii  Offi  e  in  Waier-Uiei-t,  which 

pa«y  Jw*  lift  itov  «'»uctJT»  With. 


LIVERPOOL   TO    LONDON    MAIL   COACH    ADVERTISEMENT. 


Early  Liverpool  Coaching  17 

altered  to  11  o'clock  in  the  evening.  On  1  June, 
1789,  this  hotel  was  sold  up  and  the  royal  mail 
transferred  to  the  London  Tavern  and  Talbot 
Inn.  The  old  Talbot  Inn  had  been  pulled  down 
in  1787,  but  rebuilt  and  opened  by  Messrs. 
Harris  and  Bates,  vintners,  from  London,  on  17 
April,  1788.  The  royal  mail  for  the  north 
started,  in  October,  1785,  from  the  old  Talbot 
Inn  at  3-30  every  morning.  In  February,  1786, 
this  coach  was  transferred  to  the  Cross  Keys,  in 
Dale  Street,  and  immediately  after  to  the  Golden 
Lion.  Its  route  was  by  Preston,  where  it  joined 
up  with  the  London  and  Carlisle  mail  coach. 

As  traffic  developed  all  over  the  country,  it 
was  natural  that  there  should  be  a  linking  up 
of  the  towns  on  the  various  lines  of  traffic.  I 
think  it  was  between  1780  and  1790  that  this 
feature  began  to  assume  importance.  In  July, 
1779,  occurs  perhaps  the  first  example  of  this 
phase  of  coaching  : 

The  Liverpool  and  Lancaster  stage  coach  sets  out  from 
Mr.  Lewis's,  the  Horse  and  Rainbow,  High  Street,  Liverpool, 
every  Tuesday,  Thursday  and  Saturday  morning  at  6  o'clock. 
The  return  journey  from  Mr.  Capstick's,  the  New  Inn, 
Lancaster,  Monday,  Wednesday  and  Friday,  at  4  o'clock. 
Going  from  Liverpool,  the  coach  breakfasts  at  Mr.  Abram's, 
Burscough  ;  dines  at  Preston  about  1  p.m.  By  which 
means  passengers,  parcels,  etc.,  from  the  London  coach 
are  regularly  conveyed  to  Lancaster  the  same  evening. 

In  1781  a  further  example  may  be  cited  : 

Mr.  Cooper,  of  Preston,  sets  out  from  Preston  on  Friday, 
25  May,  at  6  a.m.  ;  arrives  at  Mr.  Banner's,  the  Golden 
Fleece,  at  noon.  Returns  at  2  p.m.  ;  arrives  Preston  same 
evening  ;  there  meets  the  Lancaster,  Kendal,  Penrith  and 
Carlisle  coach  ;  which  leaves  at  6  a.m.  next  morning, 
arrives  Carlisle  same  evening,  at  10  p.m.  ;  thence  by 
diligence  at  4  a.m.  to  Dumfries. 

Another  feature  in  the  journeys  comes  out 
about  the  same  period,  i.e.,  publishing  the  exact 


18  Early  Liverpool  Coaching 

route  of  the  journey,  and  in  some  cases  making 
a  regular  itinerary  of  each  stage,  thus  : 

12  July,  1781.  From  the  Cross  Keys  Inn,  the  London 
New  Post  Coach  in  two  days,  thro'  Warrington,  Knutsford, 
Macclesfield,  Leek,  Ashbourne,  Derby,  Loughboro', 
Leicester,  Welford,  Northampton.  Breakfast,  Derby ; 
dine,  Leicester ;  lie  at  Angel  Inn,  Northampton  ;  leave 
3  a.m.  Arrive  Blossoms  Inn,  Laurence  Lane,  London, 
early  in  afternoon. 

There  is  one  more  main  route  which  deserves 
notice,  the  great  road  through  the  East  Lan- 
cashire and  Yorkshire  industrial  area,  right 
through  to  the  east  coast  ports  of  Hull,  Newcastle, 
etc.  In  January,  1787,  W.  Henshaw,  of  the 
Black  Bull  in  Lord  Street,  J.  Hoyle  of  the  Angel 
in  Dale  Street,  and  Walkers  of  the  Cross  Keys, 
Dale  Street,  advertised  a  diligence  every  morning 
from  Liverpool  to  Manchester,  where  it  met  the 
diligence  which  went  to  Leeds,  York,  Hull  and 
Scarboro',  "  the  only  diligence  which  travels  that 
road." 

Hitherto,  arrangements  for  traffic  had  been  in 
the  hands  of  innkeepers,  each  one  usually  taking 
a  particular  route.  We  now  come  to  the  era  of 
big  firms  running  a  large  complement  of  coaches 
every  day  to  all  parts  of  the  country.  This  idea 
grew  rapidly,  especially  towards  the  end  of  the 
18th  century,  and  increased  more  and  more  in 
the  new  century.  In  1789,  Thomas  Simpson, 
proprietor  of  the  London  Tavern  and  Talbot  Inn, 
Water  Street,  advertised  the  following,  viz.  : 

London  Stage  Coach. 

London  Post  Coach. 

The  only    Birmingham    Coach,    via    Stafford    and 

Wol  verhampton . 

The  only  Bath  and  Bristol  Coaches. 
A  Daily  Coach  to  Lancaster.     And  later, 
A  Daily  Coach  to  Manchester  and  Chester. 


Early  Liverpool  Coaching  19 

In  1793,  Thomas  Simpson  disappeared,  and  in 
his  place  came  M.  Harris,  who  shortly  before  had 
signed  the  contract  with  the  General  Post  Office 
for  a  mail  coach  to  York  ;  and  so  he  advertised, 
from  the  London  Tavern  and  Talbot  Inn,  the 
mail  coach,  leaving  at  3  o'clock  every  morning, 
through  Warrington,  Manchester,  Rochdale, 
Halifax,  Bradford,  Leeds,  Tadcaster,  York, 
Newcastle-on-Tyne  and  Edinburgh.  The  fares 
were — to  Warrington,  6s.  ;  Manchester,  12s.  ; 
Rochdale,  17s.  ;  Halifax,  23s.  ;  Bradford,  26s.  ; 
Leeds,  30s.  ;  Tadcaster,  35s.  ;  York,  38s.  ; 
Newcastle-on-Tyne,  60s.  ;  Edinburgh,  101s.  After 
a  very  short  career,  M.  Harris  dropped  out,  and 
in  the  latter  part  of  1793,  the  working  of  the 
coaches  was  taken  over  by  Anderson,  Evans 
and  Co.,  who  for  many  years  worked  the  royal 
mail  to  London  until,  in  1799,  Thomas  Cooper 
and  Co.,  a  Preston  firm,  appear  as  the  pro- 
prietors. 

In  1794,  H.  Stantton  &  Co.  were  running  a 
coach  from  the  Black  Horse  and  Rainbow  Inn. 
High  Street,  Liverpool,  to  Manchester  and  back. 
In  1796  they  were  working  from  the  Crown  Inn, 
Red  Cross  Street,  with  coaches  to  Birmingham 
and  London,  evidently  making  a  bid  for  the  fast 
traffic  to  the  metropolis.  In  April  they  announced 
the  journey  to  be  done  in  38  hours,  and  by  June 
they  reduced  it  to  34  hours.  In  1797  they 
started  coaches  to  Carlisle  and  Scotland.  They 
stated  that  they  were  determined  that  their 
coaches  should  be  conducted  with  the  greatest 
regularity  and  expedition  ;  that  every  passenger 
would  have  a  card  of  the  distance  of  each  stage 
and  the  time  of  arrival  at  the  same.  They  seem 
to  have  introduced  the  idea  of  naming  the  coaches, 
such  as  Telegraph  light  coach ;  Expedition 
coach ;  The  Traveller ;  Camperdown ;  Resolution ; 


20  Early  Liverpool  Coaching 

and  many  others.  This  soon  became  the  general 
practice. 

In  1800  appears  a  name  destined  to  become  the 
most  important  in  the  coaching  affairs  of  Liverpool 
and  district  :  the  Bretherton  family.  On  11 
January,  1800,  P.  Bretherton  purchased  Mr. 
Stantton's  share  in  the  London  Expedition  Coach 
from  Crown  Inn,  Red  Cross  Street.  (This  coach  had 
good  horses,  it  was  declared,  was  well  lighted, 
and  had  a  guard  all  the  way  the  same  as  the 
mail.)  Also  the  Birmingham  Expedition  Coach; 
the  Bath  and  Bristol  Coach  ;  and  the  Carlisle 
Coach.  A  week  or  two  later  it  was  stated  that 
the  purchase  of  Stantton's  business  was  made  by 
Bartholomew  Bretherton  &  Co.,  who  seem  some- 
times to  have  advertised  themselves  as  B.  &  F. 
Bretherton.  In  May  of  the  same  year  P. 
Bretherton  &  Co.  advertised  a  coach  for  Bolton, 
Bury  and  Rochdale  from  Peter  Bretherton's,  the 
Wheat  Sheaf  in  Dale  Street  ;  so  that  they  are 
a  somewhat  mixed-up  family.  There  was,  at 
the  beginning  of  the  Brethertons'  career,  con- 
siderable trouble  with  the  old  firm  of  Thomas 
Cooper  &  Co.,  of  Liverpool  and  Preston.  Bitter 
words  appeared  in  the  newspapers  during  the 
year  1800,  suggesting  that  Cooper's  friends  in 
the  various  towns  had  been  "  got  at  "  by  the 
Brethertons,  or  that  some  influence  had  been 
brought  to  bear  by  which  Cooper's  connections 
were  seriously  handicapped. 

The  Brethertons  appear  at  first  as  if  they  were 
one  large  firm.  In  the  beginning  of  December, 
1801,  we  find  the  following  : 

The  cheapest  coaches  of  all  others  travelling  out  of 
Liverpool  northwards  from  the  Crown  Inn,  Red  Cross 
Street,  every  morning  at  7  o'clock  for  Preston,  Lancaster, 
Ulvei  stone,  Whitehaven,  Kendal,  Penrith,  Carlisle,  and  all 
parts  of  Scotland.  The  Public  is  cautioned  that  there  is 


Early  Liverpool  Coaching  21 

no   other   coach    by   which   passengers    or   parcels   can    be 
forwarded  north  of  Kendal. 

The  London  Light  Coach  through  Birmingham  and 
Oxford,  every  evening  at  6  o'clock  ;  also  to  Bristol,  Bath, 
Exeter  and  Plymouth. 

The  Northwich,  Middlewich,  Sandbach,  and  Newcastle 
Coach,  three  times  a  week,  at  8  o  clock  in  the  morning. 

Passengers  finding  themselves  tired  by  the  length  of  the 
journey  may  rest  on  the  load  and  proceed  without  additional 
faie. 

BRETHERTONS  &  Co. 

The  year  1801  was  remarkable  for  the  severity 
of  the  winter.  On  the  7th  December  we  read 
"  the  fall  of  snow  on  Friday  extended  to  every 
quarter  whence  we  have  received  accounts." 
Near  Marlboro'  the  snow  was  drifted  to  the  depth 
of  several  feet,  additional  horses  were  procured, 
and  the  coach  was  drawn  through  ;  but  its  way 
was  again  impeded  when  one  of  the  passengers 
disengaged  himself  from  the  carriage  and  fell  into 
a  pit  8  feet  deep,  and  it  was  with  extreme  difficulty 
his  life  was  saved.  In  prosecuting  their  journey 
they  were  overturned,  the  guard  being  very 
severely  hurt.  The  coaches  for  Liverpool  and 
Leeds  were  buried  in  the  snow  on  Chalk  Hill,  and 
an  hour  and  a  half  was  spent  in  extricating 
them.  Near  Dunstable  the  mail  again  sank  in 
snow  above  the  axle-tree,  and  it  was  necessary 
to  send  back  for  additional  horses.  At  Stoken- 
church  Hill  all  the  coaches  which  left  London  on 
Friday  morning  were  stopped.  The  Manchester 
and  Shrewsbury  heavy  coaches,  which  left  at 
the  same  time,  were  unable  to  get  beyond  Chalk 
Hill.  At  Hockliffe  the  Chester  coach  stuck. 
Many  other  accounts  from  all  parts  of  the  country 
show  what  a  terrible  time  passengers,  drivers  and 
horses  must  have  experienced. 

The  commencement  of  the  nineteenth  century 
witnessed  a  very  large  increase  in  the  Liverpool 


22  Early  Liverpool  Coaching 

coaching  traffic.  In  addition  to  the  Brethertons 
may  be  mentioned  Peacock,  Yates  &  Linley, 
with  coaches  from  the  Coach  and  Horses  Inn  at 
the  end  of  Whitechapel,  near  the  bottom  of 
Lord  Street ;  Anderson,  Evans  &  Co.,  from  the 
Talbot  Inn  ;  and  many  others.  From  the  Talbot 
alone,  in  1805,  Anderson,  Evans  &  Co.  despatched 
the  following  mail  coaches  and  other  carriages  : 

The  London  Royal  Mail  every  night  at  9-15. 

Manchester  and  Leeds  Royal  Mail  every  night  at  9-15. 

York,  Hull  and  Edinburgh  Royal  Mail  every  morning. 

London  Coach  (the  Lord  Nelson)  every  afternoon  pre- 
cisely at  5  o'clock,  in  38  hours. 

Bristol,  Bath,  Exeter  and  Plymouth  Expedition  Coach 
every  day. 

Birmingham  and  Oxford  Coach  every  afternoon  at 
5  o'clock. 

Preston,  Lancaster  and  Carlisle  Coach  every  day  at 
noon. 

In  the  winter  of  1806  the  mail  for  London  left 
at  9-30  p.m.,  at  the  reduced  fares  of  £4  4s.  inside, 
£2  2s.  out.  In  August,  1807,  Anderson,  Evans 
and  Co.  started  a  new  Royal  Mail  to  Carlisle, 
Glasgow  and  Edinburgh — to  reach  Glasgow  in 
36  hours  ;  leaving  Liverpool  every  evening  at 
5  o'clock.  In  connection  with  this  the  Post- 
master announced  that  the  office  would  be  closed 
at  5  p.m.  for  the  despatch  of  letters  to  Ormskirk, 
Preston,  Lancaster,  all  Westmorland,  Cumber- 
land, Isle  of  Man,  Northumberland,  Scotland,  and 
North  of  Ireland. 

During  1807  and  part  of  1808  another  firm, 
Newby,  Varty  &  Duckworth,  were  carrying  on 
a  large  trade.  There  was  a  series  of  angry 
advertisements  in  the  newspapers  respecting  the 
ownership  of  a  coach  called  the  Royal  Sailor, 
with  the  Brethertons.  Each  firm  contradicted 
the  statements  of  the  other,  and  both  of  them 
kept  on  asserting  that  their  coach  was  not 


Early  Liverpool  Coaching  23 

discontinued  as  the  other  company  affirmed,  but 
was  still  running  as  usual,  and  each  got  to  its 
destination  before  the  other  (on  paper,  at  least). 

In  1808  the  Postmaster  ordered  the  establish- 
ment of  a  mail  coach  between  Shrewsbury  ahd 
Holyhead,  to  commence  on  6th  September,  and 
as  the  packet  was  to  sail  for  Dublin  immediately 
on  the  arrival  of  the  coach — and  so  four  hours 
before  the  mail  from  Chester,  for  which  the  packet 
was  not  to  wait — a  daily  communication  was 
opened  between  Chester  and  Chirk  to  meet  the 
Shrewsbury  and  Holyhead  coach,  performed  by 
an  armed  express  rider  from  Chester,  and  the  same 
on  return.  It  was  expected  that  in  this  way  the 
Irish  mails  would  arrive  in  Liverpool  a  whole  day 
earlier.  The  authorities  were  first  obliged  to 
turn  their  attention  to  the  condition  of  the 
Shrewsbury  and  Holyhead  road,  and  that 
effectively  prevented  the  maintenance  of  a  regular 
service.  Telford  was  asked  to  report  on  the 
road,  and  in  1811  sent  in  a  report;  but  the 
country  was  just  entering  on  its  last  desperate 
struggle  with  Napoleon,  so  that  it  was  not  until 
1815  that  he  was  authorised  to  proceed  with 
his  suggested  improvements.  Even  now,  a 
hundred  years  later,  one  can  admire  the  genius 
which  planned  and  carried  into  effect  such  a 
magnificent  specimen  of  road-making. 

These  and  similar  improvements  to  other  main 
routes  in  due  time  caused  a  lowering  of  the 
records  for  the  various  journeys  ;  and  in  the 
course  of  the  next  ten  years  several  coaches  were 
able  to  run  to  Liverpool  from  London  in  26  hours, 
from  Birmingham  in  12  hours,  from  Bristol  in 
24  hours,  and  from  Glasgow  in  30  hours.  The 
increase  of  speed  brought  its  natural  consequences 
and  the  racing  of  coaches  became  very  prevalent. 
No  doubt  it  was  difficult  to  deal  with.  The 


24  Early  Liverpool  Coaching 

following  curious  instance   I   copy  from   a  con- 
temporary paper : 

22  May,  1814.  On  Friday  se'nnight  in  the  morning  the 
True  Britain  Coach  from  Leeds  to  York,  in  passing  the 
other  coaches,  while  delivering  a  parcel  at  Tadcaster  (the 
last  stage  before  York)  came  in  contact  with  splinter  bar, 
was  overturned  and  the  driver,  Matthew  Irish,  was  killed. 
The  coroner's  inquest  gave  a  verdict,  "  That  the  said 
Matthew  Irish  being  carelessly  wilfully  driving  the  True 
Britain  Coach  the  same  was  thrown  to  the  ground  and  the 
coach  falling  upon  his  body  he  received  several  mortal 
injuries,  of  which  he  died  about  two  hours  after."  The 
coach,  horses  and  harness  were  declared  "  deodand,"1  and 
valued  at  £100.  We  hope  this  will  be  a  caution  to 
proprietors  and  their  servants. 

In  November,  1819,  R.  Chambers  &  Co., 
Liverpool,  coach  proprietors,  with  reference  to 
their  coach  to  Nottingham,  state  : 

Notwithstanding  artful  and  unprincipled  attempts  to 
do  away  with  it  by  their  own  late  middle  partners  and  the 
opposition  company,  they  still  continue  to  run  on  Tuesday, 
Thursday  and  Saturday. 

The  public  are  acquainted  that  by  recent  and  generally 
approved  arrangement  they  agreed  to  run  on  separate 
days  to  prevent  all  that  danger  so  incident  to  passengers 
by  contested  racing,  but  since  most  singular  attempts  upon 
the  destruction  of  the  favourite  Britannia,  the  opposition 
party  have  again  shifted  their  days,  most  likely  to  promote 
that  continued  warfare  formerly  so  long  and  so  desperately 
kept  up.  All  such  practices  are  discountenanced  by  the 
said  proprietors. 

Down  to  1808  the  Tranmere  ferry — W.  Roberts, 
Ferry  House — had  been  enjoying  a  large  and 
increasing  business.  For  instance,  in  June  of 
that  year,  we  find  : 

Royal   Mail   Coach   to   Chester   and   Holyhead,    every 

morning  at  6  o'clock. 
Commercial    Coach    to    Shrewsbury,    through    Neston, 

Chester,   Whitchurch,  and  Wem. 

1  The  unusual  word  "  Deodand,"  according  to  the  Oxford  English 
Dictionary,  signifies  a  thing  forfeited  to  the  Crown  to  be  used  in 
alms,  etc.,  as  having  caused  a  human  death. 


Early  Liverpool  Coaching  25 

Coach  to  Wrexham  and  Oswestry,  three  times  a  week, 

at  9  a.m. 
Three    times    a    week    to    Shrewsbury,    via    Neston, 

Ellesmere,  etc.,  at  9  a.m.  ;    and 
A  boat  every  morning  from  Liverpool  at  8  o'clock,  to 

carry  passengers  to  above. 

However,  on  7  November,  1808,  appeared  the 
following  advertisement : 

The  Postmaster  has  been  pleased  to  order  that  the  mail 
coach  between  Liverpool  and  Chester  shall  proceed  by  direct 
road  by  Thornton  and  Sutton,  and  that  the  mails  should 
in  future  cross  the  Mersey  to  and  from  Woodside  Ferry 
instead  of  Tranmere.  The  public  are  informed  that  the 
arrangement  started  yesterday  and  that  the  Post  Office 
will  be  kept  open  for  Ireland,  North  Wales  and  Shropshire 
till  3  p.m.  The  mail  boat  to  carry  mail  coach  passengers 
only. 

In  all  my  researches  in  coaching  literature  I 
have  only  once  found  mention  of  the  modern  idea 
of  coaching  as  a  form  of  amusement  and  pleasure, 
and  I  think  it  is  worth  noting.  It  was  in  1805, 
October  9  (a  bit  late  in  the  year,  perhaps)  : 

The  Commercial  Coach  leaves  Poole  (probably  Tranmere 
Ferry)  every  evening  at  5  o'clock,  through  Chester  and 
Wrexham,  passing  near  the  grand  aqueduct  across  the 
Dee  at  Pont  Cysyllte,  to  Chirk,  where  it  meets  the  coaches 
from  Shrewsbury  to  Holyhead  by  way  of  Lord  Penrhyn 
New  Inn  at  Capel  Curig.  The  peculiar  advantage  of  travel- 
ling this  way  must  be  apparent  when  it  is  considered  that 
besides  obviating  the  inconvenience  of  several  steep  and 
almost  inaccessible  hills,  passengers  avoid  by  this  convey- 
ance the  ferry  at  Conway  and  have  the  advantage  of  sleeping 
one  night  on  the  road  at  Capel  Curig,  which  for  extensive 
and  convenient  accommodation  as  an  inn  and  romantic 
and  beautiful  scenery  in  the  neighbourhood  is  not  to  be 
excelled  in  the  Principality. 

In  1805  we  see  the  beginning  of  the  modern 
omnibus  or  tram  traffic.  Higginson  &  Co.  adver- 
tised : 

The  Cornwallis  from  the  Grapes  Inn,  Williamson  Street, 
through  Wavertree,  Childwall,  Woolton  and  Hale,  to 


26  Early  Liverpool  Coaching 

Runcorn.  Fares  :  Wavertree,  1/6  in,  I/-  out  ;  Childwall, 
2/-  in,  1/6  out  ;  Woolton,  2/-  in,  1/6  out  ;  Hale  and  Speak, 
3/-  in,  2/-  out. 

In  April,  1817,  a  strange  new  portent  comes 
across  my  story,  the  power  behind  which  was 
eventually  to  sweep  away  coaches  and  all  their 
ways.  In  the  local  papers  appeared  the  adver- 
tisement, accompanied  by  an  extraordinary  illus- 
tration, of  the  Etna,  sailing  or  "steaming"  from 
Tranmere  Ferry.  There  is  little  more  to  say,  for 
soon  after  steamers  came  the  locomotive.  Though 
at  first  the  coach  made  a  brave  fight,  it  was  very 
soon  evident  that  horses  had  no  chance  against 
steam.  However,  to  show  the  enormous  develop- 
ment of  coaching  immediately  prior  to  the 
locomotive,  I  have  written  out  a  list  of  the  coaches 
despatched  by  the  three  firms  of  Bretherton  in 
the  year  1822. 

Regarding  the  firms,  it  is  very  difficult  to  under- 
stand the  relations  between  these  three  brothers 
(if  they  were  brothers),  Peter,  Bartholomew  and 
Francis.  The  first  to  appear  was  Peter,  who 
bought  the  shares  of  H.  Stantton  &  Co.  in  1800. 
At  that  time  he  had  no  address  in  Liverpool  and 
he  is  not  mentioned  in  the  Directory  until  1807, 
when  he  was  located  at  Parr,  near  St.  Helens.  It 
is  only  in  1813  that  his  coach  office  is  mentioned 
as  180,  Dale  Street.  In  1816  it  is  161,  Dale 
Street  ;  in  1818,  176,  Dale  Street  ;  in  1823,  184, 
Dale  Street.  In  all  these  cases  his  coaches  are 
described  as  from  the  Golden  Lion  ;  and  in  1823 
it  is  distinctly  stated,  Golden  Lion,  184,  Dale 
Street.  The  other  two,  Bartholomew  and 
Francis,  started  together  in  Red  Cross  Street — no 
doubt  the  Crown  Inn.  In  1813  they  appear  to 
have  separated,  for  in  that  year's  Directory 
Bartholomew  is  described  as  at  177,  Dale  Street, 
Francis  remaining  at  the  Crown.  In  1816 


Jiead  and  lie  A  c"mnwdated. 


RIKA, 
TRANMERE  FE;!RY  STRAM. PACKET. 

HI.S  Fn.-ktt  has  romim-nced  running  t'rntn  thr 
New  Slip  at  (lie  Wf»t  Side  of  the  Queen's  Dork 
.(ita»mtf  Docks,  where  every  coii'Trivrnre  will  h« 
fouufl  fur  taking  nn  board  and  di»etMrgt<>g  C^in  ii»K**. 
Cari»,  H  -rses,  ami  Cattle  ofe»erv  df-htri|.|i'»n,  U'-iiip 
(•i  and  from  C!i«?hire,  without  tlie  Iroulilf  thru  ln- 
!  ii unto  t»een  e«prrii  noni  in  the  C'mnmon  Sail  lloals, 
:«nd  which  ir  i$  the  intt-nuon  of  Ihe  Proprietors  u> 
much  a»  po'^ihl*  toobiiate.  Thi«  \>i»H  is  |»cru'iml. 
I'lapted  for  CnrrifMtet ,  &c  tud<i>f>  on  hnard,  with- 
•  ml  tl'.e  trouble  of  L-NHAUM-SSINC,  and  wiilhr  trtuuil  a 
<iio«.'t  elivihlr  mid  safe  Conveyance  for  Gentlemen 
jrniug  l«  CHKSI'KR  RACKS,  a<  she  rrossf*  iVoin  Li- 
verpool to  TianiiH.-re  every  half  hour,  reitiaiuing  only 
Cen  minute^  on  each  mrlr. 

TERMS  OF  HAS»ACE  J 

A  Four-wheelrd  Carriii^e,   witU   t«»   Horfes  ?  s.     <f. 
iind  Pt^senCers \  10     0 


TRANMERE   FERRY   STEAMER,    1817. 


Early  Liverpool  Coaching  27 

Bartholomew's  coach  house  is  described  as 
Dale  Street.  In  1818  it  is  the  Saracen's  Head, 
130,  Dale  Street.  Francis  in  the  meanwhile  adds 
the  White  Horse,  Dale  Street  to  the  Crown  in 
Red  Cross  Street.  In  1821  the  Saracen's  Head 
was  numbered  135,  Dale  Street,  while  the  White 
Horse  was  No.  8.  In  1827  there  were  further 
changes,  for  Bartholomew  had  taken  over  the 
Talbot  Inn,  Water  Street,  together  with  the 
Saracen's  Head ;  Francis  remaining  as  before. 
In  1832,  Francis  had  retired  to  Lydiate,  while 
Bartholomew  had  added  the  Angel  Inn,  Dale 
Street.  It  is  worth  noting  that  the  family  were 
wise  in  their  generation,  for  in  1825  there  was  a 
Joseph  Bretherton,  who  was  a  veterinary  surgeon, 
while  a  Daniel  and  Thomas  were  coach-builders. 
With  the  early  thirties  coaching  days  were 
numbered,  and  now  with  petrol  and  steam  power, 
and  probably  electricity,  we  shall  never  look  upon 
their  like  again. 

APPENDICES. 


TIME  BILLS. 

(A.) — LONDON  EXPEDITION  COACH  :    H.  H.  STANTTON  AND 

Co.,  1800. 
p.m.  Miles. 

7  0     Sets  out  from  Crown  Inn, 

Redcross  Street. 

10     0     Warrington  Mr.  Key's               18     Supper, 

a.m.  10-30. 

4     0     Sandbach  or  Mr.  Gibbin's           32 

Congleton  Red  Bull 

8  0     Stone  Mr.  Gothard's        17     Breakfast. 
10  30     Colwich  Mr.  Coleman          11 

p.m. 

3     0     Birmingham      Mr.  Evett's  26 

stays  3  hours      Saracen's  Head 

10    0     Warwick  Mr.  Plant's  21     Supper, 

a.m. 
3     0     Banbury  Mr.  Wyatt's  18 


28 


Early  Liverpool  Coaching 


a.m. 

6  30     Buckingham 
10     0     Ailesbury 
p.m. 

3    0     Snow  Hill, 
London. 

44  Hours. 


Mr.  Orsbourn 
Mr.  Walton's 


17|  Breakfast. 
16J 


Mr.  Mountain's      40^ 
Saracen's  Head 


218 


(B.) — W.    C.    LILLYMAN  &  Co.,    HOTEL,    CASTLE   STREET, 

1816. 

Post    Coach,    The    Prince    Regent,    every    morning    for 
London. 

Time  occupied 
From  Liverpool  at  8  a.m.  for  each  stage. 


to  Warrington 
Knutsford 

18  miles  ... 
12     „       ... 

.     2  35 
.     1  40 

Congleton 

14     „       ... 

.     2    0 
30m. 

Dinner. 

Talk  o'  th'  Hill  .... 

7£ 

.     1     5 

Stone 

14 

.     2     0 

Lichfield 

22     „       ... 

.     3  30 

Birmingham 

16     „       ... 

20  m. 
.     2  40 
10m. 

Supper. 
Office  bus. 

Wells  Green 

6 

.     1     0 

Coventry.... 
Dunchurch 

12     „       ... 
11     „       ... 

.     1  50 
20  to 
.     1  40 

Change 

20  m. 

Breakfast. 

Daventry 
Towchester 

8     .,       ... 
12     „       ... 

.     1   15 
.     2    0 

Stony  Stratford 
Redburn 

8     „       ... 
27     „       ... 

.     1  10 

.     4     5 

30  m. 

Dinner. 

London   

28£  „       ... 

.     4     5 

216 


34  45 


(C.) — ROSE,  HEWITT  &  Co.,  LIVERPOOL,  May,  1816. 
New  Coach  to  York  at  5  o'clock  every  morning. 

Time        Time  of 
Miles,  allowed,     arrival. 
From  Liverpool 
to  Burscough          ....     16        2  15        7  17 


Early  Liverpool  Coaching 


29 


From  Burscough 
to  Preston   .... 

Blackburn 
Whalley  .... 
Gisburn  .... 

Skipton  .... 
Otley 

Weatherby 
York 


Time      Time  of 
Miles,  allowed,    arrival, 


16 

8 

6 

11 

11 
15 
14 
14 


2  15 

30 

40 
30 


20 
5 
5 

50 


9  30 
20m. 
11  20 
12    0 
1  30 
30  m. 
3  20 
5  25 
7  30 
9  25 

Breakfast 
Dinner 

111       15  30 


(D.) — GLASGOW  AND  EDINBURGH  COACH  :    P.  BRETHERTON 

AND  Co.,  31  July,  1823. 
Leave  Liverpool,  1  p.m.  Time  of 

Miles.  Stage. 

10 


Aughton       

Burscough    7 

Hoole  1\     .... 

Preston         1\     .... 

.   Office  Duty.  —      .... 

Garstang      ....         ....  11 

Lancaster     ....         ....  11 

Burton          11 

Kendal         11 

Supper  and  Office  ....  — 

Hucks  8 

Shap  8       .... 

Penrith         11 

Hesketh        9'     .... 

Carlisle         9 

Office  Duty         ....  —       .... 

Sark  Bridge 9       .... 

Annan  9 

Clarence  Fields       ....  8 

Dumfries       ....         ....  8 

(Break  for  Edinburgh). 

Breakfast — Change  Coach,  etc. 


15 
50 


Con 
Moffat 
Crawford 
Chester  Hall 
Lanark 


11 
10 
15 
9 
11 


52£ 

10 

25 

20 

20 

20 

20 

5 

0 
20 

5 

3 
10 

5 

5 

55 
55 

30 
20 
15 
50 
5 
20 


30  Early  Liverpool  Coaching 


Dinner  and  Office 
Hamilton 
Glasgow 

Miles. 

15 
11 

Time  of 
Stage. 
30 
2    0 
1  20 

237      ....       30  38 

DUMFRIES  TO  EDINBURGH  : 

to  Thornhill            ....  14  ....  1  50 

Dalvene 9  ....  1  10 

Crowford 12  ....  1  30 

Biggar     15  ....  2    0 

Bridge  House    ....  12  ....  1  30 

Edinburgh          ....  16  ....  2    0 

1822.      DEPARTURES  FROM  LIVERPOOL. 

P.  BRETHERTON  &  Co.,  GOLDEN  LION,  DALE  STREET. 

Leeds,  York  and  Hull :        Royal  Mail,  every  evg.  515 
Do.             do.                 Royal   Neptune,   every 

morning 6  45 

Scarborough  :    Mail,  True  Blue,  every  morning  ....  6  30 

Harrogate  :    Mail,  Tally  Ho    ....every  morning  ....  6  45 

Do.                     do.                   every  evening    ....  5     0 

Huddersfield  and  Wakefield  :    every  morning       ....  5  30 

Do.                     do.               every  evening        ....  4     0 

Do.                    do.               every  evening        ....  5     0 

Halifax  and  Bradford :     every  morning    ....         ....  7     0 

Skipton  and  Grazier  :     Sun.,  Mon.  and  Wed.  mng.  7     0 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne  and  Edinboro'  :   Royal  Mail, 

every  evening     ....         ....         ....         ....         ....  5  15 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne  and  Edinboro'  :  Royal  Tele- 
graph, every  morning 6  30 

Carlisle  and  Glasgow  :   every  morning  and  evening 

Shields  and  Sunderland  :   Highflier,  every  morning  6  30 

Bridlington  :    Royal  Mail,  Sun.  and  Wed.  evening  5  15 

Selby  :     Royal  Sailor,  every  morning       6  30 

Do.      Mail,  every  evening           ....         ....         ....  5     0 

Blackburn  :  Royal  Mail,  every  evening    5  15 

Bolton  :    Dreadnought,  every  day,  noon             ....  12  30 

Bolton  and  Blackburn  :  Mon.,  Wed.  and  Fri.  mng.  6    0 

Do.             do.             Duke  of  Leeds,  every  aft.  4  30 

Bury  and  Rochdale  :     Neptune,  every  morning....  7     0 

Do.             do.           Mail,  every  evening         ....  5    0 


Early  Liverpool  Coaching  31 

Burnley  and  Colne  :  every  morning  (exc.  Thursday) 
Preston,  Lancaster  and  Kendal :    every  morning, 

noon  and  night 

Chester  and  Shrewsbury  :   Royal  Liverpool,  every 

morning 7  45 

Chester  :   Bang  up,  every  afternoon          4     0 

Manchester :    Defiance,  morning    5  45 

Do.  Royal  Mail     12  15 

Do.  Balloon  9  45 

Do.  Volunteer        1  45 

Do.  Retaliator       4     0 

Do.  Regulator       4  30 

St.  Helens  and  Wigan  :    Defiance,  every  afternoon     4     0 

Stockport  and  Sheffield  :    every  morning 5  30 

Hereford,  Worcester  and  Gloucester  :  every  mng.  8  0 
Bath  :  every  morning.  Buxton  :  every  morning....  9  30 

London  :  morning,  noon  and  night 

Birmingham,  Bristol,  Bath  and  Exeter  :  mg.  and  ev. 
Derby  and  North  :  Lord  Nelson,  every  afternoon....     4  30 

Darlington,  Durham,  etc.  :    North  Hero,  morning    6  30 
Do.  do.  do.     evening    ....     5    0 

F.  BRETHERTON  &  Co.,  CROWN  INN,  RED  CROSS  STREET, 

AND  WHITE  HORSE,  DALE  STREET. 
Carlisle :  every  evening        ....         ....         ....         ....     7     0 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne  :  Lord  Exmouth,  every  aft.  1  0 
Glasgow  and  Edinburgh  :  North  Briton,  every  aft.  4  15 
Port  Patrick  :  Royal  Mail,  every  evening....  ....  7  15 

Carlisle,  Kendal,  Shap  and  Penrith  :  every  mng 6  30 

Do.  do.  do.         every  evg 7    0 

London  :     Champion,  every  morning        ....         ....  10    0 

Do.      The  Rocket,  every  afternoon  ....         ....     2  45 

Birmingham,  Oxford,  Worcester,  Gloucester,  Bath, 

Bristol,  etc.  :    every  afternoon 
Dumfries,       Sanquhar,      Kilmarnock :       Sunday, 
Tuesday  and  Thursday.... 

Whitehaven,    Keswick,    Cockermouth    and   Mary- 
port  :    every  morning    ....         ....         ....         ....     6  30 

Ulverston  (by  land)  :    every  morning       ....         ....     6  45 

(This  conveyance  by  the  New  road  removes 
objectionable    and    dangerous,    etc.,    crossing 

the  Sands.) 

Kendal :    morning,  afternoon  and  evening 
Lancaster  :    4  a  day 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne  :    4  a  day     .... 

Blackburn,  Chorley,  Bury,  etc.  :   every  morning  ....     1     0 


32  Early  Liverpool  Coaching 

Morpeth,  Alnwick,  Berwick,  Dunbar  and  Hadding- 

ton  :    every  afternoon              ....         ....         ....  1     0 

Manchester :     daily   .... 

Halifax  :   Mon.,  Wed.,  Thurs.  and  Sat.  mornings....  6  45 

B.  BRETHERTON  &  Co.,  SARACEN'S  HEAD,  DALE  STREET. 

Holyhead  :    Royal  Mail,  every  afternoon 3     0 

London  :     Royal  Mail,  every  evening       ....         ....  7  45 

Do.      Alexander,  every  morning        8     0 

Do.      Umpire      p.m.  1     0 

Do.      Defiance,  every  evening            ....         ....  7     0 

Nottingham  :    Tuesday,  Thursday,  Saturday  mgs.  7     0 

Birmingham  :    Bang  up,  morning             ....         ....  6    0 

Do.  Regulator,  Tues.,  Thurs.,  and  Sat., 

a.m.  7    0 

Bath  and  Cheltenham  :    every  morning  and  evg.  6     0 
Bristol  and  South  Wales  :   morning  and  evening.... 

Manchester :    Royal  Mail,  every  day       12     0 

Do.  Coaches  to  and  from  14  times  every 

day  

Chester  and  Shrewsbury  :   every  morning 8    0 

Do.                     do.                 every  evening      ....  3    0 

Carlisle  :    Telegraph,  every  morning          6  45 

Edinburgh  and  Glasgow  :  North  Britain,  every  aft.  4  30 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne  :    Lord  Exmouth,  every  day  1  30 
Preston  and  Lancaster  :   3  times  a  day 

Leicester  and  Derby :     every  morning      ....         ....  7     0 

Do.             do.           every  evening        8     0 


0 

K 
S 
h 


THREE    LOCAL    WINDMILLS. 
By  Charles  R.  Hand. 

Read  24th  November,   1921. 


WINDMILLS  are  very  prominent  in  the  old 
views  of  Liverpool,  and  some  are  of  special 
interest.  Unfortunately  the  statements  about 
them  have  not  always  been  accurate,  and  it  is 
desirable  to  place  certain  facts  on  record.  The 
occasion  has  arisen  by  the  discovery  of  the 
three  drawings  which  accompany  this  article. 
These  drawings,  perhaps  not  of  great  artistic 
merit,  are,  I  believe,  unique,  having  never  been 
seen  in  public  before  and  having  no  duplicates, 
so  far  as  is  known.  They  are  the  property  of 
Mr.  Fred.  Williams,  who  discovered  them,  and  he 
has  assisted  in  this  paper  by  consulting  and  copy- 
ing several  maps.  I  am  also  indebted  to  the 
authors  of  the  History  of  Corn  Milling,  Brooke's 
Liverpool,  and  Stonehouse's  Recollections  of  a 
Nonagenarian  for  interesting  and  valuable  par- 
ticulars concerning  the  mills. 

I.    THE  GALLOWS  MILL. 

Some    confusion    has    existed    concerning    this 

windmill.      In    Herdman's    Pictorial    Relics    of 

Ancient  Liverpool,  vol.  ii.,  plate  xliv.  is  inscribed 

'  London  Road  and  the  Gallows  Mills,"  and  in 

his  description  of  the  picture,  the  author  remarks  : 

"  London  Road  .  .  .  has  been  a  place  of  considerable 
historical  interest,  and  the  plate  is  of  especial  value,  as  it 
contains  a  portion  of  the  Pool  which  ....  may  be  con- 
sidered to  have  been  the  origin  of  the  name  of  the  town. 


34  Three  Local  Windmills 

The  stream  from  the  Moss  lake  having  passed  across 
Pembroke  Place,  came  by  Daulby  Street  to  the  present  wide 
opening  before  Monument  Place,  at  which  spot  it  is  seen 
in  the  drawing.  At  the  time  the  drawing  was  taken  (about 
1825),  the  Pool  was  a  dank,  sluggish  stream,  approaching 
its  end  ...  It  commences  at  the  left-hand,  a  little  west 
of  Stafford  Street,  where  one  of  the  old  coaches  is  seen 
going  out  on  its  five  hours'  journey  to  Manchester.  Next 
is  seen  the  old  Gallows  Mill  Public-house,  which  remained 
until  a  very  recent  date.  The  near  ridge  of  land  is  occupied 
by  the  two  mills  which  were  known  as  the  Gallows  Mills, 
from  various  executions  which  had  taken  place  there, 
not  only  of  the  rebels  in  1715,  but  other  criminal  executions 
which  have  been  chronicled  in  former  works.  .  .  .  The 
author  remembers  everything  in  the  plate  exactly  as  it  is 
there  represented." 

Picton  states  in  his  Memorials  of  Liverpool : 1 

"  On  the  north  side  of  London  Road,  between  Stafford 
Street  and  Gildart  Street,  there  formerly  stood  two  ancient 
windmills  and  a  large  mill-dam.  These  were  known  for  a 
century  as  the  Gallows  Mills,  from  the  fact  of  four  of  the 
rebels  captured  at  Preston,  after  the  failure  of  the  insurrec- 
tion of  1715,  having  been  executed  here.  The  Gallows 
Mills  were  removed  about  1820,  but  one  of  the  miller's 
houses,  originally  thatched,  remained  for  many  years 
standing  at  the  corner  of  Stafford  Street,  converted  into  a 
public-house." 

He  says  further  that  : 

"  In  the  early  years  of  the  present  century,  from  near 
Camden  Street  eastward,  scarcely  a  house  or  building 
existed  in  London  Road  with  the  exception  of  the  Gallows 
Mills,  a  little  above  the  site  of  Monument  Place."* 

It  appears  necessary  that  the  inaccuracies  in 
the  foregoing  statements  should  be  corrected. 

In  the  first  place  it  must  be  noted  that  neither 
of  the  two  windmills  indicated  was  the  Gallows 
Mill ;  nor  could  they  be  considered  "  ancient," 
seeing  that  neither  remained  standing  for  more 
than  one  hundred  years.  There  is  no  evidence 
whatever  that  "  one  of  the  miller's  houses  "  was 

Mi.,  36,  362. 
»ii.,  505. 


Three  Local  Windmills  35 

"  originally  thatched."  The  stream  which  flowed 
past  the  front  of  these  two  mills  had  its  origin  at 
Gregson's  Well,  though  it  was  augmented  at  this 
point  by  the  flow  from  the  Moss  lake. 

What  really  did  take  place  in  this  locality  ? 

Early  in  the  eighteenth  century  four  gentlemen 
who  had  been  implicated  in  the  Jacobite  rebellion 
were  publicly  hanged  close  to  Norris's  mill,  by  the 
lane  leading  to  Prescot.  The  Rev.  Robert  Patten, 
"  who  was  an  eye-witness "  of  the  Battle  of 
Preston,  tells  us1  that  these  gentlemen  were  : 

Archibald  Burnett,  of  Carlips,  who  carried  the  Pretender's 
standard  at  Preston.  He  was  "  a  Gentleman  of  comely 
Appearance :  was  afterwards  Try'd,  found  Guilty,  and 
Executed  in  Lancashire,  at  Liverpool." 

"  George  Collingwood,  of  Northumberland,  a  Papist,  of 
a  valuable  Estate  :  He  was  ordered  for  London,  but  was 
seiz'd  with  the  Gout  at  Wigan,  and  from  thence  was  carried 
to  Liverpool,  and  there  found  Guilty,  and  afterwards 
Executed  there  the  25th  of  February.  He  was  a  very 
pious  Gentleman,  and  well  beloved  in  his  Country." 

Alexander  Drummond,  gentleman,  "  of  Logie  Drummond's 
3rd  Regiment  of  Foot." 

"  John  Hunter,  of  Northumberland,  executed  at  Liver- 
pool, a  Protestant ;  he  was  shot  thro'  the  Leg  at  Preston." 

Norris's  was  a  water-mill  which  had  been 
erected  in  this  neighbourhood  about  1587,  or  a 
little  earlier,  and  which  was  still  driven  by  the 
ancient  stream.  On  the  2nd  of  July,  1715,  the 
Corporation  of  Liverpool  conceded  to  Mr.  Gray  the 
lease  of  a  plot  of  land  "  in  the  lane  leading  by 
Mr.  Norris's  mill,  towards  the  gibbet,  to  build  a 
windmill."  This  new  mill  became  noted  through- 
out the  district  as  the  Gallows  Mill ;  and  it  was 
here  that,  shortly  before  its  construction,  the 
Jacobites  were  executed. 

In  close  proximity  to  the  Gallows  Mill,  in  a 
north-easterly  direction,  the  Corporation  ordered, 
on  the  8th  September,  1719  : 

1  History  of  the  Rebellion  in  the  Year  1715. 


36  Three  Local  Windmills 

"  that  Mr.  Thos.  Tyrer,  who  proposes  to  erect  a  windmill, 
have  the  lease  of  a  small  piece  of  ground  att  the  south 
corner  of  Mr.  Houston's  field  on  the  north  side  of  the  high- 
way leading  to  Prescott,  for  three  lives  and  twenty-one 
yeares,  he  building  a  mill  thereon  and  paying  two  shillings 
and  sixpence  per  ann.  rent  from  Mich'as.  next  ;  to  be  sett 
out  so  as  not  to  prejudice  the  highway."1 

In  the  following  year  (1720)  a  scheme  of  great 
importance  to  the  town  had  been  decided  upon. 
As  early  as  1709  the  question  of  the  water  supply 
had  caused  some  considerable  apprehension  to 
the  Corporation,  for  in  that  year  Sir  Cleave  Moore 
obtained  an  Act  of  Parliament  empowering  the 
Liverpool  authorities  to  make  him  a  grant  for 
bringing  water  to  Liverpool  from  the  springs  at 
Bootle.  But  before  advantage  could  be  taken  of 
this  Act,  the  Moore  estates  were  sold  to  the  Earl 
of  Derby  ;  and  as  a  consequence  the  Act  re- 
mained in  abeyance  for  ninety  years. 

In  1720,  however,  a  private  company  was 
formed,  the  shares  being  ten  pounds  each,  and  a 
reservoir  was  constructed  on  the  stream  flowing 
between  the  two  windmills  then  standing. 
Everything  went  well  until,  in  1742,  after  a  pro- 
longed period  of  continuously  heavy  rains,  the 
reservoir  burst  its  banks,  and  the  great  rush  of 
water  did  considerable  damage,  rising  to  the 
second  floor  of  the  dwellings  in  the  low-lying 
parts  of  the  town.  The  scheme  was  then 
abandoned  and  never  revived.2 

The  third  windmill,  a  short  distance  directly 
east  of  Tyrer's  first  mill,  was  built  in  1749,  and 
was  the  second  mill  erected  by  Alderman  Tyrer 
upon  these  fields.  It  was  purchased  by  John 
Dobson,  a  well-known  miller  and  corn  merchant, 

1  Picton,  Municipal  Archives  and  Records,  ii.,  62.  In  1757  this  mill 
had  passed  to  Samuel  Jones  ;  and  in  1774  William  Farrington  was 
the  occupier. 

'Municipal  Archives  and  Records,  ii.,  28. 


Three  Local  Windmills  37 

in  1755.  A  little  more  than  twenty  years  after- 
wards, it  was  offered  for  sale  by  public  auction,  by 
order  of  Dobson's  assignees,  as  the  following 
advertisement  testifies  : 

"  1778.  May  8.  To  be  sold  by  auction  ...  at  the 
Golden  Lyon,  Dale  Street,  all  that  parcel  of  ground  and 
the  windmill,  two  houses  and  other  buildings  thereon 
erected,  and  the  small  garden,  situate  on  the  north  side 
of  the  highway  or  road  leading  from  Liverpool  to  Low 
Hill  :  bounded  on  the  south  side  by  a  stone  delph  and  the 
said  highway,  road,  or  lane ;  containing  by  estimation 
2  roods  12  perches.  All  the  above  premises  are  held  by 
lease  under  the  Corporation  of  Liverpool  for  three  lives  and 
twenty-one  years,  under  a  yearly  ground  rent  of  10s.,  and 
were  lately  let  to  Mr.  Isaac  Smith  at  the  yearly  rent  of 
£80.  They  are  now  in  good  repair,  and  very  well  adapted 
for  a  miller  on  account  of  their  contiguity  to  the  turnpike 
road."1 

In  the  year  1800,  William  Rose,  then  lessee 
of  the  once-named  Farrington  mill,  petitioned  the 
Corporation  to  alter  the  clause  contained  in  his 
lease  concerning  the  lives,  but  was  notified  that 
his  petition  "  cannot  be  granted  until  the  mill 
be  taken  down  to  widen  the  road."  Twelve  years 
later,  Edward  Blackstock,  gentleman,  was,  how- 
ever, granted  a  similar  request,  on  his  own  behalf, 
and  also  as  executor  for  Edward  Newsham, 
"  subject  to  taking  down  in  a  limited  time  the 
said  mill,  as  well  as  the  public-house  called  '  the 
Barleymow/  for  the  widening  of  the  said  road."1 

By  the  year  1788,  the  Gallows  Mill  had  passed 
into  the  tenancy  of  Joseph  Gerard,  but  the  site 
being  required  by  the  Corporation  for  public 
improvements,  on  the  1st  of  October,  1788, 
during  the  mayoralty  of  Mr.  Thomas  Earle,  it 
was  : 

"  Ordered  .  .  .  that  the  mill  called  Gallows  Mill  be  taken 
down,  and  that  the  Trustees  of  the  Prescot  Turnpike  Road 

1  Bennett  and  Elton,  Hist,  of  Corn  Milling,  iv.,  203. 
1  Ibid. 


38  Three  Local  Windmills 

be  applied  to  for  allowing  a  proportionable  part  of  the 
expence,  as  it  will  be  of  great  benefit  to  that  part  of  such 
road." 

The  property  was  purchased  by  the  Corporation 
for  the  sum  of  £700,  as  appears  by  the  following 
entry  in  the  official  Ledger  of  that  year : 

"  1788.  September  10.  Gallows  Mill,  N.  side  Prescot 
Lane.  To  cash  paid  purchase  thereof,  £700." 

'  The  materials  of  the  mill,  known  by  the 
name  of  the  Gallows  Mill,  situate  on  the  Prescot 
Road,  near  Liverpool,"  were  sold  by  auction  at 
the  house  of  Mrs.  Murphy,  in  Whitechapel,  on 
Monday,  the  23rd  of  February,  1789  ;  everything 
was  '"  to  be  taken  down  and  removed  at  the 
expense  of  the  purchaser."  The  advertisement 
referred  enquirers  for  further  particulars  to  "  the 
Treasurer's  office  in  the  Exchange  "  ;  and  the 
sale  realised  seventy-one  pounds,  as  testified  on  the 
credit  side  of  the  ledger  : 

1789.     February  24.     By  Cash  received  on 

account  of  old  materials          £20    0    0 

July  9.     By  do.  do.  do 51     0     0 

The  origin  of  W.  G.  Herdman's  picture  is  stated 
to  be  "a  pencil  drawing  by  Charles  Barber  in 
1825."  This  pencil  drawing  was  first  copied  by 
J.  Innes  Herdman,  and  subsequently  re-drawn  in 
a  much  improved  manner  by  W.  G.  Herdman  ; 
and  included,  as  before  mentioned,  in  his 
Pictorial  Relics. 

It  is  not  out  of  place  to  point  out  that  the 

drawing  is  dated  "  about   1825  "  by  Herdman  ; 

'  1803 "    by    Brown,    Barnes    and    Bell ;     and 

'  1796  "  by  Mr.  James  Touzeau,  in  his  Rise  and 

Progress  of  Liverpool. 

It  appears  singular  that  any  misconception  as  to 
the  positions  and  names  of  these  windmills  should 
have  arisen.  Mr.  James  Stonehouse,  a  valued 

1  Municipal  Archives  and  Records,  ii.,  262. 


Three  Local  Windmills  39 

member  of  our  Society  and  a  careful  local 
antiquary,  described  the  mills  and  their  position 
in  such  detail  that  it  seems  strange  that  Herdman 
and  Picton  could  go  astray  on  the  subject. 
Stonehouse  stated  in  his  Streets  of  Liverpool : l 

"  There  were  three  mills  hereabouts  at  one  period.  One 
stood  in  a  field  near  Audley  Street  [this  was  Dobson's], 
with  a  wheel  outside  to  turn  the  sails  to  windward,  another 
adjacent  to  it  [Farrington's],  and  a  third  on  the  opening  to 
Stafford  Street.  This  latter  was  called  the  Gallows  Mill. 
This  [name]  arose  from  the  circumstance  that  four  Jacobites 
were  hung  in  front  of  it  [really,  however,  on  the  site  occupied 
by  it]  in  1716,  after  the  defeat  at  Preston.  At  the  back  of 
the  Gallows  Mill  was  at  one  time  a  large  quarry,  afterwards 
converted  into  a  mill-dam.  It  was  in  shape  like  a  '  Rupert's 
drop/  the  thin  end  extending  up  London  Road." 

The  picture  reproduced,  hitherto  unrecorded, 
is  an  original  water-colour  drawing,  measuring 
21  by  12J  inches,  and  signed  "  S.  Herdman." 
An  inscription  on  the  back  reads  :  '  View  of 
Gallows  Mill  and  Inn  adjoining,  at  the  corner  of 
Stafford  Street  and  London  Road,  1733."  Its 
origin  is  unknown.  On  the  extreme  left  is  a 
small  portion  of  the  stream  flowing  behind  the 
mill,  next  is  the  yard  or  garden  with  pigeon-cote, 
attached  to  the  miller's  house.  This  building, 
which  appears  at  the  time  the  sketch  was  made 
to  have  been  converted  into  an  inn  or  general 
store,  has  a  flagged  roof.  Then  comes  the  mill, 
on  the  left  of  which  is  a  path  across  the  fields 
coming  out  on  to  the  Prescot  Lane.  Towards 
the  right  are  the  arches  of  the  Fall  Well,  for  a 
great  number  of  years  the  only  water  supply  to  the 
town,  and,  just  showing  among  the  trees  above, 
the  cupola  of  the  Blue-coat  Hospital  and  the 
tower  of  St.  Peter's.  On  the  high  ground  is  seen 
the  spire  of  St.  George's  Church,  and  below  it, 
to  the  right,  the  dome  of  the  Exchange.  In  the 

1 3rd  Ed.,  97 


40  Three  Local  Windmills 

immediate  foreground  is  the  lane  leading  to  the 
mill  (later  Stafford  Street) ,  which,  winding  towards 
the  right,  lower  down  joins  the  road  to  Prescot. 

The  maps  confirm  this  picture.  Yates  and 
Perry's,  of  1768,  shows  the  three  mills  in  their 
respective  positions,  with  the  miller's  house 
belonging  to  the  Gallows  Mill.  By  1785,  a  house 
had  been  built  in  close  proximity  to  Farrington's 
mill,  as  shown  on  the  plan  by  Charles  Eyes, 
published  this  year.  On  the  map  issued  by  John 
Gore  in  1817,  we  still  see  Farrington's  mill,  but 
it  is  now  situated  in  the  middle  of  Finch  Street 
(afterwards  Blandford  Street,  now  Kempston 
Street),  with  the  house  adjoining.  Evidently  the 
Corporation  had  cut  the  street  through  the 
fields  before  this  mill  was  demolished.  Both 
Dobson's  and  Farrington's  mills  stand  back  a 
good  distance  from  the  main  road.  Stafford 
Street  has  been  laid  out,  but  no  building  stands 
on  the  eastern  corner.  Of  the  Gallows  Mill  and 
Inn  there  is,  of  course,  no  trace.  On  "  The  Plan 
of  Liverpool  and  the  Environs,  containing  the 
latest  improvements,  by  J.  and  A.  Walker,  33, 
Pool  Lane,"  dated  1823,  none  of  the  mills  are 
shown,  although  quite  a  number  of  then  existing 
windmills  are  depicted.  The  London  Road  had 
been  made  straight  from  where  the  mile  or 
boundary  stone  stood,  cutting  off  the  Gallows 
Mill,  but  leaving  the  mill-house  a  little  distance 
from  the  corner  of  Stafford  Street.  It  is,  there- 
fore, a  logical  deduction  that  this  house,  at  the 
time  of  the  making  of  Gore's  map,  had  been  taken 
down,  and  that  the  public-house  incorrectly 
named  the  Gallows  Mill  Inn  was  erected  at  a 
later  date. 

The  fact,  however,  must  not  be  overlooked  that 
plans  of  this  description  absorbed  quite  a  number 
of  years  in  the  making.  It  is  stated,  for  instance, 


Three  Local  Windmills  41 

that  Yates  and  Perry's  map  of  1768  was  the  work 
of  ten  years  ;  so  that  every  map  here  referred  to 
must  be  ante-dated  by  a  period  extending  from 
two  to  ten  years. 

II.    TOXTETH  WINDMILL,  HARRINGTON. 

The  next  picture  is  a  small  crayon  drawing, 
measuring  6|  by  4|  inches,  and  signed  "  L. 
Hay  ward."  It  is  one  of  a  collection  of  about 
fifty  similar  drawings  by  the  same  artist,  of  views 
of  Liverpool  and  vicinity,  bought  at  a  sale  by 
auction  of  the  effects  of  an  elderly  Liverpool 
lady,  residing  in  Falkner  Street,  a  few  months 
ago.  It  bears  the  inscription  on  the  back 
'  Toxteth  Windmill,  Warwick  Street,  Harring- 
ton." The  mill  is  clearly  shown  on  Yates  and 
Perry's  map  of  1768,  a  short  distance  south 
from  the  windmill  which  stood,  when  the  roads 
were  laid  out,  at  the  junction  of  Mill  Street  and 
Hill  Street.  The  stream  from  the  small  pool  or 
lake,  where  the  embankment  was  afterwards 
made,  and  known  as  Mather's  Dam,  flows  between 
the  two  structures,  here  forming  another  pool 
and  falling  eventually  into  the  river. 

This  mill  is  casually  referred  to  by  W.  G. 
Herdman  in  his  Ancient  Liverpool,  in  the  following 
terms  : 

"  Further  up,  on  the  same  side,  was  another  mill,  with  a 
row  of  cottages,  built  about  1760,  which  stood  high  up 
from  the  road." 

and  is  almost  beyond  a  doubt  the  edifice  we  are 
now  considering. 

A  further  glimpse  of  it  is  obtained  in  Grifnths's 
History  of  the  Royal  and  Ancient  Park  of  Toxteth, 
where  (after  a  reference  to  the  Mill  Street  mill) 
he  tells  us  : 

"  the  first  object  then  met  with  was  another  mill  and  a 
few  cottages  standing  in  a  field  a  few  yards  back  from  the 


42  Three  Local  Windmills 

road  at  a  point  just  beside  where  Warwick  Street  was 
afterwards  cut  through." 

On  Horwood's  original  large  coloured  map  of 
1803,  mill  sites  are  indicated  in  various  ways,  and 
at  times  the  draughtsman's  inconsistencies  are 
confusing.  The  Mill  Street  mill  is  shown  by  a 
circle  and  named  "  Windmill,"  while  the  mill  by 
Mather's  Dam  is  marked  as  a  large  oblong,  but 
is  also  designated  "  Windmill."  In  the  present 
case,  this  windmill  is  denoted  by  a  small  square. 
Thus  there  does  not  appear  to  have  been  in  the 
mind  of  the  designer  any  idea  of  uniformity. 

Unfortunately  the  artist  has  not  given  us  the 
least  evidence  of  surroundings,  and  we  have  no 
testimony  beyond  that  of  the  inscription  on  the 
back  of  the  drawing  itself.  But,  accompanying, 
and  mounted  and  framed  along  with  this  picture, 
is  another  drawing  of  similar  style  and  dimensions. 
This  is  inscribed  "  Waterfall  on  the  Otterspool 
Stream."  This  view,  which  was  afterwards  re- 
produced by  the  Nicholsons  in  their  Views  of 
Liverpool  and  Vicinity,  in  1821,  is  known  to  be 
correct  in  all  its  details  ;  and,  judging  by  this 
fact,  we  seem  justified  in  assuming  that  the 
drawing  of  the  mill  is  as  authentic  and  reliable. 

Of  its  history  I  am  ignorant,  having  failed  to 
trace  anything  whatever  as  to  its  builder  or 
occupiers ;  and  I  would  be  grateful  for  any 
particulars  regarding  it. 

III.    THE  KING'S  MILL  AT  WEST  DERBY. 

A  comprehensive  history  of  this  mill,  from  the 
year  1297  onwards,  appears  in  The  King's  Mills 
of  Ancient  Liverpool  (Richard  Bennett)  and  The 
History  of  Corn  Milling  (Richard  Bennett  and 
John  Elton). 

The  view  of  it  which  is  here  given  is  an 
unsigned  water-colour  drawing  measuring  9J  by 
6J  inches,  and  named  on  the  back  "  Old  Mill  at 


Three  Local  Windmills  43 

West  Derby."  It  shows  the  mill  standing  by  the 
right-hand  side  of  the  main  thoroughfare  from 
Liverpool  to  West  Derby,  overlooking  the  road 
sloping  down  to  the  village,  the  "  certain  way 
called  Milne  Gate,  juxta  the  chapel  of  West 
Derby "  (now  Mill  Lane)  ;  and,  to  the  left, 
Larkhill  Lane.  It  is  depicted  on  Yates  and 
Perry's  map  of  1768,  the  miller's  dwelling  being 
named  "  Mill-house,"  and  on  the  accompanying 
"  Series  of  Great  Triangles,"  published  in  Enfield's, 
the  mill  is  marked  "  Derby  Wd.  Mill." 

I  have  not  been  able  to  discover  any  record 
of  its  destruction.  In  the  Liverpool  Directory 
for  1796  appears  a  list  of  charges  to  be  paid  by 
persons  hiring  a  hackney  coach,  "  as  ordered  and 
directed  by  the  magistrates,"  on  15th  December, 
1789.  The  fare  is  there  set  down,  from  the 
Exchange  to  "  Larkhill  and  Derby  Mill,  each 
51-." 

One  writer  says,  "  The  date  of  its  disappearance 
does  not  appear  ;  from  the  above  it  seems  to 
have  been  remaining  in  1796  ;  but  in  the  next 
directory  in  which  the  hackney  fares  are  given, 
that  of  1803,  '  Larkhill,  5/- '  occurs,  without 
mention  of  the  mill,  which,  presumably,  had  been 
by  then  pulled  down."  Another  states  that  it 
was  "  taken  down  about  1805." 

As  a  matter  of  fact,  the  mill  appears  among  the 
list  of  fares  in  much  later  directories,  thus  : 
1810  and  1811,  "  Derby  Mill,  4/-." 
1813  to  1821,  "  Lark  Hill  or  Derby  Mill,  4/6." 
1823,  "  Lark  Hill  or  Derby  Mill,  3£  miles,  3/6." 
1825  and  1827,  "  Lark  Hill  or  Derby  Mill,  3£  miles,  4/6." 

In  the  Directory  for  1829,  however,  the  entry 
reads : 

"  Lark  Hill  or  Mill  Hill,  3J  miles,  4/6  " 
so  that,  accepting  the  directories  as  evidence,  the 
mill  ceased  to  exist  between  the  years  1827  and 
1829. 


THE    KIRKBY    FONT 
By  F.  Charles  Larkin,  F.R.C.S. 

Read  27  November.  1919 


"""THE  ancient  fonts  at  Walton  and  its  chapel 
*  of  Kirkby  are  happily  still  preserved  to  us, 
though  the  font  at  the  former  place  was  cast  out 
in  1754  and  adopted  as  a  mounting-block  by  a 
neighbouring  innkeeper,  and  at  Kirkby  the  font 
was  degraded  into  a  water  butt  under  the  school- 
house  spouting,  the  base  serving  as  a  plinth  for  a 
sun-dial  in  the  incumbent's  garden. 

I  have  spent  much  time  in  investigating  the 
history  of  this  latter  font,  and  in  following  up  many 
collateral  lines  that  might  throw  light  on  it  and 
help  to  fix  its  date.  There  is  a  very  good  paper 
on  Kirkby  in  our  Transactions  for  1853-4.  It  is 
by  the  Rev.  Thomas  Moore,  and  much  of  what 
he  says  is  repeated  in  the  3rd  volume  of  the 
Victoria  County  History. 

The  name  Kirkby1  appears  in  Domesday  Book, 
suggesting  that  there  was  there  a  church  of  some 
sort  in  pre-Norman  times,  and  on  the  modern 
cross,  whose  base  is  in  the  form  of  a  recumbent 
St.  Chad's  cross,  erected  on  the  site  of  the  ancient 
chapel  altar,  there  is  an  inscription  asserting  that 
'  the  Danes  found  or  built  a  chapel  on  this  spot 
about  A.D.  870."  The  favourite  local  tradition 
is  that  Chad  himself  founded  a  chapel  here  during 
one  of  his  missions.  If  so,  it  would  be  200  years 
earlier.  There  is  no  evidence  beyond  the  name 
of  the  place,  but  the  dedication  is  certainly 

1  Pronounced  "  Kirby." 


THE    KIRKBY   FONT. 


The  Kirkby  Font  45 

ancient  and  the  name  of  Chad  is  otherwise  con- 
nected with  the  spot,  as  the  chapel  records  con- 
tain a  terrier  of  about  1733  which  mentions 
"  one  piece  of  land  called  Chad  croft  on  the 
north  side  of  the  church  yard."  The  present 
church  was  built  in  1869-71,  north  of  the  chapel. 
The  latter,  of  which  a  picture  is  given  in  the 
above-mentioned  volume  of  our  Transactions,  was 
pulled  down  in  1872.  It  was  a  poor  thing,  built 
in  1766  to  replace  the  ancient  chapel,  all  we  know 
of  which  is  that  it  had  a  rood-loft.  Some 
slight  details  of  its  plate  and  ornaments  in  1552 
are  given  in  Raines'  Chantries  and  in  Church 
Goods  (both  Chetham  Society).  The  Victoria 
County  History  conjectures  that  in  early  times 
Kirkby  was  a  parish  and  became  reduced  to  a 
chapelry  at  some  unknown  but  early  date.  The 
font  shows  it  has  been  a  "  baptismal  church,"  at 
any  rate,  since  the  12th  century.  It  is  often  stated 
that  at  chapels-of-ease  the  priests  were  not 
allowed  to  baptise  and  that  all  children  had  to 
be  taken  to  the  parish  church  for  baptism.  No 
such  rule  can  properly  be  laid  down.  Chapels-of- 
ease  do  not  seem  to  have  had  any  definite  or 
inherent  status.  They  were  merely  allowed  for 
local  convenience  at  local  expense,  without  in  any 
way  lessening  the  obligations,  financial  or  other, 
to  the  parent  church.  But  they  might  have 
almost  any  powers  and  privileges  they  were 
strong  enough  to  obtain  and  keep  ;  if  they  had 
power  enough  behind  them  they  might  shake 
off  obligations.  Mr.  Peet  tells  me  that  Liverpool 
Chapel  had  baptismal  rights  from  quite  early 
times. 

When  the  Kirkby  font  was  turned  out  of  the 
chapel  is  not  known  and  there  seems  to  be  no 
record  of  what  took  its  place  to  help  us.  Probably 
it  was  at  the  time  of  the  rebuilding  in  1766.  The 


46  The  Kirkby  Font 

very  great  thickness  of  lime-wash  that  covered  it 
certainly  suggests  a  long  sojourn  under  Puritan 
churchwarden  guardianship.  To  this  whitewash, 
however,  we  largely  owe  its  preservation,  such  as 
it  is,  for  the  soft  local  sandstone  of  which  it  is 
made  is  easily  weathered  and  worn  away,  and  has 
gone  wherever  it  was  exposed.  But  the  caked 
lime-wash  stood,  not  only  the  weather,  during  all 
the  time  it  acted  as  a  cistern  and  was  consequently 
saturated  with  water,  but  also  resisted  the  in- 
dustrious attention  of  the  scholars  with  slate 
pencils  and  pocket-knives.  For  when  Mr.  Cort, 
the  vicar,  partially  recognised  its  worth  and  pro- 
moted it  from  the  office  of  school-house  butt  and 
hone  to  be  the  receptacle  for  the  ropes  and  hooks 
in  the  bier-house,  it  still  had  a  thick  covering 
over  all  but  the  most  prominent  parts.  Mr. 
Cort  would  not  re-admit  it  to  the  church.  This 
was  done  by  his  successor,  Mr.  Gray,  in  1850,  and 
the  base  was  also  returned  from  the  vicarage 
garden  to  its  proper  place.  The  base  and  bowl 
are  therefore  old  ;  the  shaft  is  modern. 

The  font  has  been  mentioned  by  quite  a  number 
of  writers,  but  their  statements  are  almost  with- 
out exception  inaccurate  and  misleading  and 
show  no  real  acquaintance  with  the  font.  The 
only  notice  of  any  real  value  is  Mr.  Roberts' 
paper  in  our  Transactions  for  1853-4. 

In  order  to  know  anything  of  works  of  this 
sort,  especially  if,  like  this,  they  are  a  good  deal 
defaced,  one  must  spend  abundance  of  time  so 
as  to  become  thoroughly  familiar  with  them. 
One  must  learn  to  know  all  the  figures  so  as  to 
recognise  each  individually  as  an  old  friend. 
The  subject  must  be  visited  again  and  again,  seen 
under  all  conditions  of  lighting,  illuminated  arti- 
ficially from  all  points  and  photographed  in  all 
ways  so  as  to  get  out  all  remaining  detail. 


The  Kirkby  Font  47 

Careful  study  must  be  made  of  how  to  bring  out 
by  very  oblique  illumination  small  shadows  that 
reveal  almost  obliterated  markings — quite  in- 
visible, at  any  rate  at  first,  under  direct  illumina- 
tion. It  is  often  astonishing  how  distinct  these 
become  when  once  one  has  learnt  to  see  them. 
Attempts  should  be  made  to  photograph  all  such 
markings.  One  must  not  be  sparing  of  plates, 
time,  or  magnesium  ribbon.  Small  stops  are 
essential.  The  photographs  must  be  carefully 
studied  with  a  lens  repeatedly.  It  is  of  much 
advantage  to  make  tracings  of  the  negatives, 
showing  the  markings,  and  to  compare  them  with 
one  another  and  with  the  original  at  the  next  visit. 
One  ought  also  to  try  to  sketch  all  the  detail. 
This  can  be  done  while  exposures  are  being 
made. 

The  font  has  now  been  cleaned  of  its  whitewash 
and  stands  on  a  new  circular  plinth  in  the  western 
bay  of  the  nave  of  the  church.  The  ancient  base 
is  a  great  torse  or  coil — sinistrorsal  helix — of  two 
strands.  Save  in  one  spot,  on  the  south  side, 
the  coil  is  quite  uniform.  Here,  probably  from 
a  fault  in  the  stone,  one  of  the  strands  is  split. 
I  think  the  coil  is  very  finely  executed.  Above 
the  coil,  worked  in  the  same  piece  of  stone,  is  a 
simple  round.  It  forms  a  circle  of  about  the  same 
diameter  as  the  font  bowl,  much  smaller  than  the 
basal  coil.  The  bowl  is  a  cylindrical  drum,  lead- 
lined  and  drained.  Between  the  bowl  and 
the  base  is  a  modern  shaft,  shaped  as  a  vertical 
spiral  of  many  pieces.  The  bowl  is  25J  ins. 
vertical;  26  ins.  in  external  and  19  ins.  internal 
diameter  ;  and  3J  ins.  thick.  The  depth  of  the 
lead  lining  is  now  10  ins.,  but  the  vicar — Mr. 
Fenn,  to  whom  I  am  indebted  for  much 
encouragement  and  hospitality  while  making 
this  study — tells  me  the  bowl  is  excavated  to 


48  The  Kirkby  Font 

twice  that  depth.  The  base  is  9  ins.  high  and 
the  shaft  10  J  ins.  Total  height  45  ins.  ;  without 
the  modern  shaft,  34J  ins. 

Round  the  lower  part  of  the  outer  surface 
of  the  bowl  is  a  coil  or  moulding  of  what 
appears  to  be  two,  or  perhaps  in  some  parts 
three,  strands  disposed,  like  the  much  larger  coil 
below,  in  a  left-handed  twist.  On  it  there  are 
three  heads.  They  have  no  ears,  but  are  other- 
wise of  the  wolfish  type  often  seen  on  snakes  and 
dragons  in  early  monuments.  The  Norse  artists 
delighted  in  representing  twisted  and  coiled 
serpents.  They  loved  the  maze  of  interlacing 
convolutions,  in  which  we  either  get  lost,  or 
coming  back  to  the  starting-point  without 
knowing  it,  go  on  and  on  again.  These  symbolised 
for  them  the  infinite,  eternity,  as  also  did  the 
old  serpent,  the  Jormungand  or  midgarthworm  ; 
the  dangerous  monster  that  Odin  attempted  to 
destroy  by  throwing  it  into  the  sea,  but  which 
instead  grew  there  so  fast  that  it  encircled  the 
earth  and  being  on  the  very  edge  of  the  world 
could  only  continue  to  grow  by  swallowing  its 
own  tail,  and  so  had  no  beginning  and  no  end. 
This  monster  the  Norse  sailormen  saw  on  every 
horizon.  To  them  every  distant  coastline  might 
be  the  orm,  and  every  headland  the  orm's  or 
worm's  head.  The  worm  was  also  the  Spirit  of 
Evil — the  enemy  of  the  gods,  whom,  with  the 
other  powers  of  darkness,  the  gods  will  have  to 
fight  in  the  end  "  when  Ragnarok  shall  come." 
Though  his  coils  were  not  so  frequently  repre- 
sented, yet  he  still  lived  on  through  the  middle 
ages  as  "  the  old  serpent  "  of  the  Revelations,  and 
his  head,  with  wide-open  mouth,  was  the  symbolical 
representation  of  the  entrance  to  the  bottomless 
pit-  '  the  Hell-mouth  "  or  "  Jaws  of  Hell  "  we 
see  on  the  Doom  pictures  that  were  painted  above 


The  Kirkby  Font  49 

the  rood  screens — a  few  of  which  have  come  down 
to  us  ;  we  also  meet  with  it  in  carving,  painted 
glass  and  MSS.1  The  worm  is  not  quite  dead 
even  now,  for  he  lingers  yet  in  the  sailor's  mind 
as  the  sea  serpent. 

Though,  as  I  shall  say  later,  the  evidence 
compels  me  to  consider  it  12th  century  Norman, 
I  cannot  but  look  on  the  abundance  of  snake 
coils  on  the  Kirkby  font  as  evidence  of  strong 
Norse  influence.  The  sculptor  seems  to  have  had 
at  the  back  of  his  mind — and  not  very  far  back — 
the  old  Norse  mythology,  believed  in  by  his 
ancestors  till  a  few  generations  ago,  and  likely 
believed  in  by  his  own  generation,  though  as 
professing  Christians  they,  no  doubt,  did  not 
think  they  did.  Old  ideas  and  beliefs,  like 
dialect,  die  hard. 

The  use  of  interlacements  and  zoomorphic  forms 
of  ornament  was,  of  course,  very  widely  spread 
and  not  confined  to  any  one  stock.  They  are 
found  from  Ireland  to  the  Levant  and  from 
Norway  to  Afr  ca.  What  their  source  was,  who 
were  the  originators  and  who  the  copyists  is  a 
subject  of  investigation  and  controversy,  and  in 
this  connection  it  should  not  be  forgotten  that 
Lancashire  was  until  607  part  of  the  Celtic  king- 
dom of  Strathclyde.  In  that  year  yEthelfrith  of 
Northumbria  by  winning  the  battle  near  Chester, 
at  which  the  monks  of  Bangor-is-y-Coed  were 
slaughtered,  separated  it  from  the  rest  of 
Wales  and  initiated  its  conquest.  Here  as 
in  so  much  of  the  rest  of  the  country  we  do 
not  know  how  many  of  the  inhabitants  or  how 
much  of  their  culture  remained  to  influence  the 
conquerors,  nor  to  what  extent  the  later  Danish 

1  That  the  Hell  mouth  has  Norse  associations  is  supported  by  its 
frequent  association  with  the  Hell  cauldron — the  Norse  sacrificial 
ketill. 


50  The  Kirkby  Font 

and  Norman  conquests  affected  it.  Nor  must  we 
forget  the  possibility  of  other  influences,  for  many 
of  these  ideas  were  almost  universal.  The 
symbolising  of  eternity  by  a  circle,  or  a  circular 
coil  or  torse,  or  by  a  serpent  swallowing  his  own 
tail,  is  very  ancient  and  wide-spread.  The  latter 
was  a  favourite  symbol  with  the  early  Christians 
and  is  often  found  on  Gnostic  gems.1  But  be  the 
origin  what  it  may,  the  idea  the  Kirkby  sculptor 
wished  to  convey  to  the  mind  of  the  onlooker  is 
quite  clear.  He  wished  by  the  great  basal  coil  to 
express  symbolically  the  belief  that  the  principles 
for  which  the  font  stood  rested  on  the  eternal 
verities,  or  as  more  modern  people  would  say,  on 
the  "  Rock  of  Ages."  Next,  by  the  coil  above, 
he  wished  to  remind  us  of  the  also  everlasting 
powers  of  evil  for  ever  attacking  mankind,  the 
latter  being  represented  by  the  human  figures 
around  the  bowl. 

A  mere  rope  moulding  is  common  enough  in 
Norman,  as  well  as  in  Saxon,  work.  A  good 
example  is  seen  on  the  old  Wallasey  font,2  now, 
with  no  record,  in  St.  Luke's,  Poulton.  There  it 
is  accompanied  by  the  very  Norman  indented 
moulding.  The  genius  of  the  Kirkby  artist, 
revivified  the  inanimate  rope  into  the  circular 
coiled  snake  of  his  forefathers.  The  modern  shaft 
is  hopelessly  incongruous.  The  Norseman's  snakes 
were  endless.  The  shaft  is  all  ends.  I  believe 
the  font  should  have  no  shaft,  but  should  be  a 
simple  cylindrical  "tub"  or  "drum"  font,  like, 
say,  Brighton  or  Orleton." 


1  See  illustration  in  Twining,  Symbols  and  Emblems  ;    Rees,  Arch. 
Cambrensis,    1898,    "  Norse    Element   in  Celtic  Myth,"    and    Romilly 
Allen,  "  Interfacings, "  ibid.,  1899.     Browne,  "  Scandinavian  and  Danish 
Sculptured  Stones,"  in  Arch.  Jnl.,  1885.     Parker's  Gosforth  Crosses. 

2  Illustrated  in  vol.  liii  of  our  Transactions. 

3  Illustrated  in  Bond's  Fonts. 


The  Kirkby  Font 


51 


Above  the  triple-headed  serpent  is  the  arcade. 
Such  arcades  are  very  common  on  fonts.  They 
are  simple  and  effective,  and  form  a  convenient 
series  of  niches  for  figure  subjects  either  painted 
or  sculptured.  This  arcade  consists  of  eleven 
round-headed  arches,  irregular  both  in  height  and 
width,  separated  from  one  another  by  engaged 
columns.  The  columns  stand  on  a  plinth,  which 
is  very  irregular,  being  cut  away  to  a  very  varying 


THE    ARCADE. 
A.  B. — Holes  for  the  lock  staples. 

degree  beneath  the  figures,  so  allowing  the  feet 
to  descend  to  different  levels.  The  work  is  badly 
spaced  out.  Everything  is  irregular.  The  bases 
of  the  columns  are  stepped  with  members  varying 
from  two  to  six  in  number.  Many  of  the  shafts 
show  a  slight  entasis.  The  capitals  seem  mostly 
to  have  had  a  necking  and  a  square  abacus. 
Between  these  is  what  may  be  a  cushion  capital, 
but  the  top  corners  of  all  that  are  not  too  much 
worn  show  little  rounded  tubercles,  which  are,  I 
think,  remains  of  the  volutes  of  Corinthianesque 
early  Norman  capitals — earlier  than  cushion.  The 
stepped  bases  one  would  consider,  if  they  occurred 
in  architecture,  as  typically  Saxon.  This  is  no 
doubt  one  of  the  reasons  why  so  many  have 
assigned  this  font  to  the  Saxon  period.  But  in 
decorative  work  types  remain  long  after  they 
have  been  discarded  in  construction.  We  find 
stepped  bases  on  undoubtedly  Norman  fonts,  as 
e.g.,  Gillingham  (Kent),  there  accompanied  by 


52  The  Kirkby  Font 

billet  moulding  above  and  chevron  below.  The 
Bayeux  Tapestry  commonly  shows  stepped  bases. 
I  cannot  attach  much  importance  to  the  entasis, 
as  it  is  neither  uniform  nor  symmetrical,  and  looks 
more  as  though  it  had  been  left  to  fill  in  than 
from  design. 

The  capitals,  like  the  bases,  I  consider  decorative 
relics  of  earlier  structural  types.  The  arches  vary 
much  in  span.  The  wider  are  practically  semi- 
circular, -the  narrower  stilted.  Some  are  almost 
of  horse-shoe  form.  The  spandrels  are  filled  with 
unplaited  bands,  usually  two-stranded,  with 
looped  ends.  They  arise  mostly  from  the  top  of 
the  abacus  and  spread  over  the  arches,  forming 
a  sort  of  palmette  or  flower  ornament.  I  do  not 
think  it  is  a  common  kind.  The  pre-Norman 
standing  cross  at  Addingham,  near  Penrith,  has 
spandrels  somewhat  similarly  filled,  but  the 
strands  are  single  and  more  branched.  The 
Kirkby  double  strand  is  more  like  that  intricately 
laced  on  many  Saxon  or  Celtic  crosses,  e.g., 
Nevern  (Pembrokeshire)  Cross.  What  is  most 
characteristic  of  the  earlier  work  is  the  plaiting 
of  the  strand,  which  may  be  double,  as  at  Nevern, 
but  probably  more  commonly  single,  as  at  Winwick 
(Lancashire),  Heysham  (Lancashire),  Leek  (Staf- 
fordshire) and  Eyam  (Derbyshire). 

There  is  nothing  necessarily  Saxon  in  the  Kirkby 
arcade,  nor,  on  the  other  hand,  anything  that 
would  preclude  Saxon  date.  There  is  an  arcade 
very  like  it  in  one  of  the  illustrations  in  Caedmon's 
Paraphrase,  which  is  certainly  Saxon.  But,  as  I 
have  already  said,  Saxon  memories  long  lingered 
in  Norman  work.  Almost  the  only  font  that  is 
universally  admitted  to  be  pre-Norman  is  the  one 
at  Deerhurst  (Gloucester),  and  that  is  almost 
covered  by  double-stranded  spirals — an  ornament 
West  wood  designates  as  characteristically  Celtic. 


Till-:    FALL. 


The  Kirkby  Font  53 

As  far  as  I  know,  no  font  with  an  arcade  of  niches 
has  reasonably  established  its  right  to  be  con- 
sidered pre-Conquest.  The  Curd  worth  (Warwick- 
shire) font,  which  will  be  found  well  illustrated  in 
Bond's  Fonts,  may  be  Saxon,  and  before  mutila- 
tion may  have  had  something  approaching  such 
an  arcade,  but  it  is  doubtful. 

Above  the  Kirkby  arcade  is  a  plain  band  or 
fillet.  In  most  of  the  circumference  it  touches 
the  upper  margin  of  the  font,  but  on  what  is  now 
the  south-east  side  it  drops  about  half  an  inch. 
Slowly  leaving  the  edge  above  the  figure  I  speak 
of  as  P.  7,  it  descends  over  Adam  and  Eve  and 
the  Cherub  and  rapidly  rises  to  regain  the  top 
edge  beyond  the  figure  of  St.  Michael.  It  may 
have  been  intended  for  an  inscription,  but  if  it 
ever  was  a  label  for  such  all  has  now  disappeared. 

The  font  has  two  pairs  of  holes  for  lock-staples 
in  accordance  with  the  well-known  orders  of  the 
Church.  They  are  now  south-east  and  north-west. 

I  shall  commence  the  description  of  the  niches 
with  those  that  are  now  east. 

Two,  with  the  intervening  column,  contain  a 
conventional  representation  of  the  "  Temptation 
of  Adam  and  Eve."  The  column  instead  of  being 
similar  to  the  rest  is  made  to  represent  the  tree 
trunk  with  the  serpent  coiled  around  it  and  the 
branches  spread  over  the  arches.  The  tree  is 
highly  conventionalised  with  interlacing  branches, 
reminding  one  of  those  on  the  Bayeux  Tapestry. 
Among  the  branches  are  rounded  lumps — no 
doubt  the  apples,  and  perched  at  the  top  is  a  bird. 
Somehow  one  cannot  help  being  reminded  of 
Loke,  the  Spirit  of  Evil,  in  the  form  of  a  crow, 
perched  on  the  mistletoe,  planning  the  death  of 
the  pure  and  beautiful  Baldur.  Coiled  in  a  right- 
handed  spiral  round  the  tree  trunk  is  the  serpent, 
with  a  wolf-like  head.  He  looks  at  Eve  and  has 


54  The  Kirkby  Font 

an  apple  in  his  mouth,  lest  the  one  he  has  already 
given  her  should  fail.  On  the  East  Meon  (Hants.) 
font — one  of  the  Tournai  group — Eve  is  seen 
actually  taking  the  apple  out  of  the  serpent's 
mouth.  In  a  mural  painting  at  Hardham  Church, 
(Sussex),  Eve  takes  a  green  apple  from  the  jaws 
of  a  serpent  with  a  wolfish  head  and  a  small  pair 
of  wings  just  behind  his  neck. 

The  Kirkby  serpent  has  around  his  neck  a 
beaded  necklace  of  what  Dr.  Nelson  says  are 
"  characteristic  12th  century  pearls."  His  tail  is 
not  pointed.  The  Mediaevals  did  not,  it  would 
seem,  consider  a  pointed  tail  "  finished."  It  ends 
in  a  split  knob,  which  may  be  another  head,  as 
there  is  something  that  may  be  an  eye.  Such  are 
often  seen — e.g.,  on  the  St.  Michael,  or  St.  George 
and  the  Dragon  lintel  at  St.  Bees,  illustrated  in 
Calverley's  Sculptured  Crosses,  etc.,  of  Diocese  of 
Carlisle* 

On  either  side  are  Adam  and  Eve.  Adam  has 
a  slight  moustache  and  a  long,  pointed  beard.  He 
is  15£  ins.  high.  Eve  is  14J  ins.  high.  Between 
the  tips  of  the  fingers  of  the  left  hand  she  holds 
an  apple  which  she  is  giving  to  Adam  and  he  is 
receiving.  Eve  has  a  high  hair-dress  from  which 
depends  a  long  thick  coil  reaching  down  her  left 
side  nearly  to  the  ground.  The  coil  is  right- 
handed  and  two-stranded.  It  is  similar  to  the 
hair  coil  of  the  two  female  figures  on  the  Gosforth 
Cross,  only  it  is  very  much  thicker  and  longer. 
Eve's  face  is  much  worn  and  her  expression  is  now 
that  of  an  edentulous  old  woman. 


1  The  ancients  believed  in  the  existence  of  a  sort  of  snake,  called 
Amphisbena,  with  a  head  at  each  end,  which  could  travel  and 
otherwise  act  indifferently  both  ways.  Mediaeval  bestiaries  delight 
to  moralise  on  this  animal.  They  used  him  chiefly  as  a  symbol  of 
deceit — "  Mr.  Facing-both-ways."  They  also  carried  the  idea  further 
by  putting  a  head  on  the  tail  of  other  animals  to  indicate  that  they 
were  acting  deceitfully.  Vide  Druce,  Arch.  Jnl.,  1910. 


THE    CHKKUH    WITH    HIS   SWORD. 


The  Kirkby  Font  55 

The  niche  next  to  Adam  contains  a  figure 
14  ins.  high,  standing  on  a  slight  elevation,  with 
his  left  hand  upraised,  using  the  same  sign 
language  as  the  policeman  on  point-duty  does 
to-day.  He  holds  in  his  right  hand  a  sword, 
which  passes  up  obliquely  over  his  right  shoulder. 
Its  blade  is  broad,  with  irregular  edges.  He  is 
bare-headed,  bearded,  and  was  probably  bare- 
footed, but  his  toes  are  too  worn  to  allow  us  to 
be  sure  of  this.  He  wears  a  long-sleeved  ungirded 
tunic  and  on  each  side  of  him  are  long  flattened 
objects  reaching  from  his  shoulders  to  his  ankles. 
They  are  no  doubt  intended  for  folded  wings. 
He  is  always  recognised  as  the  cherub  with 
flaming  sword  expelling  the  erring  couple  from  the 
garden.  The  sculpture  is  very  crude,  especially 
of  the  left  arm.  The  tip  of  the  sword  points  to 
one  of  the  pairs  of  holes  for  the  lock  staples  now 
broken  away. 

The  figure  under  the  next  canopy  is  also  14  ins. 
high,  but  stands  at  a  much  lower  level :  so  much 
so  that  his  feet  come  into  contact  with  the  snake 
below,  which  at  this  point  has  a  head.  The 
figure  holds  in  both  hands  a  spear,  which  he  is 
driving  into  the  serpent's  open  mouth.  He  wears 
a  long,  loose  ungirdled  coat,  or  tunic,  with  very 
wide  sleeves,  so  wide  at  the  wrists  that  they 
would  nearly  touch  the  ground.  He  is,  I  think, 
bearded,  and  has  a  lot  of  hair,  which  seems  to  be 
confined  by  a  sort  of  fillet.  Behind  his  head  is 
something  that  sometimes  looks  like  a  small 
nimbus,  but  it  is  very  doubtful.  His  shape  is 
very  peculiar,  and  it  is  suggested  that  the  idea 
was  to  give  him  a  round  back  to  indicate  the 
force  he  is  using  in  his  spear-thrust.  This  figure 
is  generally  believed  to  be  in  reference  to  the 
passage  of  Genesis  iii.,  15,  translated  in  the 
A.V.  as: "I  will  put  enmity  between  thee  and  the 


56 


The  Kirkby  Font 


woman  and  between  thy  seed  and  her  seed.  It 
shall  bruise  thy  head,  and  thou  shalt  bruise  his 
heel  "  ;  and  Romans  xvi.,  20  :  "And  the  God  of 
Peace  shall  bruise  Satan  under  your  feet  shortly."1 
But,  as  the  serpent  is  being  speared  as  well  as 
trodden  on,  it  has  been  suggested  to  me  that  this 
figure  is  meant  for  St.  Michael,  who  by  over- 
coming the  Devil  reverses  the  office  of  the 
adjacent  cherub. 

This  seems  to  me  to  be  the  better  interpretation. 
The  subject  was  certainly  a  favourite  one.  In 
either  case,  the  idea  is  the  same,  but  the  view 


St.  Michael.     Cherub. 


The  Fall. 


P.  7. 


here  adopted  is,  I  think,  more  in  keeping  with 
the  mentality  of  the  period. 

This  head  of  the  serpent  is  a  good  deal  worn,  but 
suggests  that  the  sculptor  tried  to  make  it  so  as 
not  to  appear  upside  down  whichever  way  it  is 
looked  at. 

The  next  niche  commences  a  series  of  seven 
figures  which  have  certain  points  in  common. 
They  all  wear  an  outer  sleeveless  garment  with  a 
hole  for  the  head  and  which  hangs  in  a  median 

1  At  Parwich  (Derbyshire)  is  an  early  Norman  tympanum  (illustrated 
in  Reliquary,  1880)  in  which  the  Agnus  Dei  (symbolising  Christ)  and 
a  hart  (symbolising  true  believers)  are  shown  treading  serpents  under 
their  feet. 


ST.    MICHAEL    AND   THE    DHAC.OX. 


The  Kirkby  Font 


57 


point  in  front  of  the  legs  and  is  doubtless  a 
chasuble.  As  this  is  a  vestment  usually  indicative 
of  the  priestly  order,  I  have  got  into  the  habit  of 

calling  these  figures  "  Priest  1,"  "  Priest  2  " to 

7,  or  shortly  "  P.I." "  P.7."     All  that  are  not 

too  much  worn  show  toes,  so  probably  all  were 
bare-footed.  The  weathered  and  worn  state  of 
the  surface  has  destroyed  any  tool  markings 
indicative  of  hair  that  may  have  existed,  but  the 
shape  of  the  face,  especially  as  seen  from  the  side, 
can,  I  think,  only  mean  a  short  beard. 


P.  6. 


P.  3. 

PRIESTS." 


P.  2. 


P.  1. 


Given  that  they  have  beards,  it  will  help  us  in 
dating  the  font.  There  seems  to  be  pretty  good 
evidence  that  in  later  Anglo-Saxon  times  priests, 
and  people  of  importance  generally,  were  mostly 
accustomed  to  shave  the  face  ;  but  the  wearing 
of  a  beard  gradually  became  more  and  more 
common  during  the  latter  half  of  the  llth  century 
and  by  the  12th  shaving,  by  ecclesiastics  at  any 
rate,  had  become  exceedingly  rare.  They  did  not 
usually  wear  a  long  flowing  beard,  but  "  a  short 
crisp  beard  and  moustache."  A  good  example  of 
this  type  is  the  beard  of  St.  Nicholas  of  Myra  on 


58  The  Kirkby  Font 

the  Winchester  font.  On  the  slightly  earlier 
Brighton  font  he  is  clean  shaven.1  The  mixture 
of  habit  at  the  end  of  the  llth  century  is  well 
illustrated  by  the  Bayeux  Tapestry  where  Duke 
William  and  Archbishop  Stigand  are  shown  main- 
taining the  old  fashion  of  clean  shaving.  Edward 
the  Confessor  is  new-fashioned  and  bearded, 
while  Harold  adopts  a  middle  course  and  shaves 
the  cheeks  and  chin,  but  wears  a  moustache.  In 
the  representation  of  the  Last  Supper  on  the 
Brighton  font  all  the  figures  are  moustached,  while 
only  every  alternate  one  has  a  beard.  On  the 
Orleton  font8  all  the  figures  are  bearded,  as  I 
believe  they  were  at  Kirkby.  If  I  am  right,  it 
will  suggest  that  the  date  of  the  Kirkby  font  is 
not  earlier  than  the  12th  century. 

Mr.  Roberts,  judging  from  the  illustrations  in 
his  paper,  considered  all  the  figures,  except  Adam, 
beardless,  and  perhaps  it  was  partly  on  that 
ground  that  he  concluded  the  font  was  Saxon. 
In  trying  to  identify  these  seven  figures  he 
evidently  looked  round  for  things  of  which  there 
were  seven  and  chose  "  the  seven  orders  of  the 
Saxon  clergy,  according  to  the  Canons  of  ^Ifric," 
Archbishop  of  Canterbury  (995-1005).  Other 
things  of  which  there  are  seven  have  been  tried, 
e.g.,  the  seven  sacraments,  common  enough  on 
later  fonts.  But  whichever  set  of  seven  is  chosen, 
no  one  dares  to  be  exact.  They  point  out  a  few 
possibilities,  suggesting  that  a  figure  or  two  may 
represent  so-and-so,  and  then  conclude  by  adopting 
some  such  expedient  as  Mr.  Roberts  does  when  he 
says  that  the  rest  may  be  seen  "  each  attending 
to  the  duties  of  their  respective  offices  with 
folded  hands." 

1  Both  are  illustrated  in  Bond's  Fonts  and  Font  Covers.  The  beard 
was  almost  universal  among  priests  till  the  middle  of  the  14th  century, 
when  shaving  again  became  general  and  so  remained  for  300  years. 

1  Illustrated  in  Bond's  Fonts. 


The  Kirkby  Font  59 

Many  points  must  be  studied  in  any  endeavour 
to  identify  such  figures,  and  among  these  a  most 
important  one  is  the  clothing.  In  studying  the 
history  of  clothing  we  have  to  deal  with  two 
entirely  different  things,  that  we  must  be  careful 
not  to  confuse  with  one  another:  (1)  Actual 
ancient  clothing  itself,  for  which  the  materials 
are  relatively  scanty — often  non-existent ;  (2) 
Representations  of  clothing  by  the  various  arts 
and  crafts.  The  latter  afford  us  quite  a  large 
amount  of  material  for  systematic  study,  but  it 
does  not  seem  to  have  been  very  thoroughly 
worked  so  far.  A  good  deal  of  valuable  work  has 
certainly  been  done,  but  unfortunately  much  has 
been  written  that  is  inaccurate  and  even  untrue  ; 
so  one  has  to  go  back  to  the  representations 
themselves  or  to  careful  reproductions  of  them, 
which  are  numerous. 

In  studying  such  materials  of  mediaeval  times 
we  must  always  bear  two  things  in  mind.  First, 
that  the  dress  is  almost  always  of  the  time  the 
representation  was  made  and  not  necessarily  at 
all  like  that  of  the  time  of  the  event  it  is  endeavour- 
ing to  portray.  Secondly,  representation  is  very 
largely  conventional.  Very  few,  if  any,  local 
masons  or  others,  and  indeed  probably  very  few 
of  the  greater  designers,  where  they  existed,  ever 
had  posed  before  them  carefully  dressed  living 
models.  They  constructed  their  figures,  etc.,  in 
a  conventional  manner,  as  they  had  been  taught 
to  do.  Further,  these  conventional  representa- 
tions were  not  attempts  to  depict  the  real  in 
detail,  but  rather  to  emphasise  some  phase  or 
aspect.  Moreover,  the  artist  always  considered 
the  design  and  altered  nature  to  suit  it  ;  e.g.,  he 
knew  well  enough  in  which  hand  the  bishop 
should  hold  his  crosier,  but  he  would  not  hesitate 
to  put  it  in  the  other  if  it  so  better  fitted  into  the 


60  The  Kirkby  Font 

composition.  We  continually  see  in  representa- 
tions in  which  two  bishops  appear,  one  on  each 
side  of  the  centre,  that  the  artist  puts  the  crosier 
in  the  right  hand  of  one  and  the  left  of  the  other 
to  make  the  design  balance  better.  We  must 
therefore  be  careful  not  to  argue  back  to  real  life 
from  the  artistic  licence  of  the  sculptor.  More- 
over, we  must  not  expect  to  have  detail  always 
correct.  We  have  seen  much  incorrect  military 
detail  in  modern  war  pictures,  and  we  have 
doubtless  missed  much  more.  The  eye  only  sees 
what  the  mind  is  trained  to  see  and  the  hand 
only  imperfectly  portrays  what  the  eye  sees. 
For  such  reasons  some  consider  all  attempts  to 
date  from  detail  are  necessarily  futile.  But 
unless  we  consider  the  artist  as  the  product  of  his 
day  and  location  all  such  archaeological  research 
comes  to  an  end. 

The  first  of  the  seven  priests  (P.I)  is  a  little 
man — the  smallest  figure  on  the  font.  He  is  only 
13  ins.  high,  and  like  the  angel  stands  on  an 
elevated  plinth.  He  is  tonsured  on  the  top  with 
a  circlet  of  hair  all  round  :  in  modum  corona,  as 
it  was  called — the  characteristic  tonsure  of  the 
Roman  Church.  As  regards  vestments,  all  that 
show  are  an  alb,  from  neck  to  ankle  and  with 
sleeve  to  wrist,  covered  in  part  by  a  chasuble 
which  ends  in  a  point  in  front  of  his  knees.  This 
should  be  contrasted  with  the  next  figure  (P.2), 
the  point  of  whose  chasuble  is  level  with  the 
lower  edge  of  his  alb.  The  left  arm  does  not 
show.  He  may  have  lost  it,  but  more  likely  it 
is  beneath  his  chasuble.  In  his  right  hand  he 
holds  a  book. 

The  form  of  the  chasuble  gives  us  some  help 
in  dating  the  font.  The  chasuble  is  descended 
from  the  poenula  or  travelling  cloak  of  the  Romans 
— popularly  or  provincially  called  casula — which 


The  Kirkby  Font 


61 


was  very  similar  to  the  South  American  poncho, 
consisting  of  a  single  piece  of  material,  with  a 
hole  in  the  centre,  through  which  the  head  was 
put,  and  the  material  fell  over  the  shoulders  to 
the  ground  if  long  enough. (Figs.  2  and  4.)  The 
poenula  was  worn  by  all — lay  and  cleric.  In  its 
earliest  form  as  a  vestment,  as  far  as  we  know 
it  from  the  6th  century  Ravenna  mosaics,  etc., 


THE  ANCIENT  CHASUBLE. 


it  was  perfectly  circular  and  fell  in  folds  from  the 
neck  and  shoulders  to  the  ankles.  It  was  called 
planeta.  There  were  no  holes  for  the  hands, 
which  had  to  catch  hold  of  things  through  it,1  or 
pull  it  up  over  the  wrists.  (Fig.  6.)  When  such 
was  done,  and  a  fortiori  when  the  hands  were 
raised  above  the  head  (Fig.  7),  it  lay  in  folds  and 
creases  over  the  arms  at  the  sides,  while  in  front 

1  Some  of  the  very  archaic  figures  on  the  Curdworth  font  show  a 
book  being  held  through  a  vestment,  the  folds  of  which  are  very 
highly  conventionalised. 


62  The  Kirkby  Font 

and  behind  it  fell  to  a  rounded  point.  It  can  be 
easily  seen  that  it  must  have  been  heavy  and 
inconvenient,  and  it  became  the  custom  for  the 
deacon  to  assist  the  priest  to  hold  it  up.  As  time 
progressed  it  became  less  and  less  a  garment  of 
protection  and  more  and  more  an  ornamental 
vestment,  and  thus,  especially  after  the  intro- 
duction of  the  practice  of  elevation,  it  evolved 
into  a  shape  more  suitable  for  that  use.  While 
remaining  much  the  same  length  in  front  and 
behind,  the  sides  were  shortened  so  that  the  hands 
might  emerge  more  easily  and  the  arms  when 
raised  would  not  have  to  carry  so  much  weight. 
(Fig.  1.)  The  early  form  was  4  ft.  to  4  ft.  6  ins. 
all  round.  With  the  change  of  shape  it  got  to  be 
3  ft.,  2  ft.,  and  even  less  at  the  sides,  and  so  the 
oval  or  Gothic  chasuble — the  vesica  piscis  chasuble 
as  it  is  often  called — was  evolved.  It  was  still 
one  flat  piece,  but  when  worn  fell  in  a  long  point 
in  front  and  behind,  but  had  a  deep  notch  at  the 
sides  between  the  front  and  back  pieces  in  which 
the  hand  or  even  the  arm  appeared.  Another 
method  of  lessening  the  weight  of  the  chasuble 
was  tried.  Instead  of  using  a  full  circle  of  material 
in  one  flat  piece,  part  of  the  circle  was  used  and 
folded  to  form  a  sort  of  cone  like  an  extinguisher, 
lamp-shade,  or  bicycle  cape.  Usually  half  the 
circle  (Fig.  3)  of  stuff  was  taken  as  in  making  a 
cope  (but  shorter),  and  instead  of  leaving  it  open 
in  front  like  that  vestment  the  straight  edges  of 
the  diameter  were  united  up  the  front  from  the 
circumference  to  near  the  centre  where  a  space 
was  left  for  the  head  to  pass  through,  its  sides 
being  shaped  to  the  neck.  An  ancient  chasuble 
of  this  shape  is  preserved  at  Sens  and  has  long 
been  said  to  be  the  one  worn  by  Thomas  Becket 
while  in  exile  there  (1166-1170).  Dr.  Rock  says 
that  this  was  the  type  of  chasuble  worn  by  the 


The  Kirkby  Font  63 

Anglo-Saxon  priests.  I  find  it  not  possible  to 
accept  this  statement  entirely  even  from  so 
learned  an  authority.  The  lower  edge  in  front  of 
Becket's  chasuble  is  pared  away  to  make  it  two 
inches  shorter  than  the  back,  while  an  Anglo- 
Saxon  10th  century  pontifical  quoted  by  Bloxam 
(Ecclesiastical  Vestments,  etc.]  orders  the  chasuble 
to  extend  "  half-way  down  in  front  of  the  body, 
but  much  longer  behind."  This  description 
closely  corresponds  with  the  shape  of  the  chasuble 
Stigand  is  shown,  on  the  Bayeux  Tapestry,  wearing 
at  Harold's  coronation. 

Now  the  point  to  be  observed  is  that  the 
chasubles  of  the  figures  on  the  Kirkby  font  are 
not  old-form  circular  chasubles,  nor  are  they 
"  Anglo-Saxon "  chasubles,  like  Becket's  or 
Stigand's,  but  are  vesica  piscis  chasubles,  short 
at  the  sides  and  pointed  in  front  and  no  doubt 
behind  also.  This  is  particularly  well  seen  in  the 
case  of  the  little  P.I  figure,  for  though  the  left 
arm  is  not  outside  his  chasuble,  the  notch  remains 
and  the  front  point  is  present.  The  diagrams 
show  that  in  a  circular  or  Anglo-Saxon  chasuble 
there  is  no  point  unless  both  arms  are  out.  The 
Kirkby  font  chasubles  then  have  shaped  front 
points,  not  merely  adventitious  ones.  The  new 
shape  of  chasuble  did  not  come  in  till,  at  the 
earliest,  late  in  the  llth  century,  and  probably 
not  till  the  12th,  and  the  old  form  remained  in 
use  for  some  time  after,  as  we  still  find  it  on  later 
monuments,  e.g.,  on  the  figures  of  the  Orleton 
font,  which  in  other  respects  is  later  than  the 
Kirkby  one.  No  doubt  many  beautiful  vestments 
bequeathed  to  churches  were  prized  and  carefully 
kept  even  for  centuries  ;  though  I  regret  to  say 
that  most  that  have  come  down  to  us  are  dread- 
fully hacked  and  mutilated  to  make  them  into 
more  fashionable  shapes  without  the  least  regard 


64  The  Kirkby  Font 

to  their  design  and  ornament.  As  the  12th  century 
progressed  the  front  of  the  chasuble  is  said  to 
have  got  shorter  and  shorter.  This  seems,  gener- 
ally speaking,  to  be  correct ;  but  as  far  as  Kirkby 
is  concerned  it  is  no  help,  as  the  length  varies  a 
good  deal  on  the  different  figures.  (Compare  P.I 
and  P.2.)  From  the  shape  of  the  chasubles  on  the 
Kirkby  font  I  think  we  are  certainly  entitled  to 
say  that  it  is  not  earlier  than  very  late  in  the 
llth  century,  and  probably  later.  The  chasubles 
and  beards  confirm  one  another  in  saying  it  is 
not  Anglo-Saxon. 

One  other  word  before  leaving  the  chasuble.  It 
has  been  said  that  Mr.  Roberts  was  necessarily 
wrong  in  supposing  the  figures  could  represent 
"  the  seven  orders  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Church," 
for  inasmuch  as  they  all  wear  chasubles  none 
could  be  in  lower  than  priests'  orders.  It  is  true 
that  the  chasuble  is  the  eucharistic  vestment  of 
the  priest,  but  it  has  only  gradually  become  so 
restricted  in  its  use.  Pugin  in  his  Ecclesiastical 
Ornaments  quotes  the  Sacrament  ary  of  St. 
Gregory  to  show  that  all  orders  of  churchmen  in 
those  days  wore  the  planeta.  He  also  transcribes 
Ordo  viii.  of  the  most  ancient  Roman  ordines, 
which,  dealing  with  the  acolyte,  says  "  induunt 
clericum  ilium  planetam."  It  is  also  laid  down 
that  the  subdeacon  should  hold  the  maniple  of 
the  bishop  in  his  left  hand  on  his  chasuble  doubled 
back — "  super  planetam  revolutam."  "  As  late 
as  the  9th  century  Amalarius  tells  us  that  the 
chasuble  was  worn  by  all  clerics."  The  Oxford 
Dictionary  says  '  by  the  Council  of  Ratisbon 
(742  A.D.)  it  was  decreed  as  the  proper  dress  for 
the  clergy  out  of  doors."  Also  that  "  as  the  most 
ordinary  of  garments,  it  was  worn  by  monks." 
Dominicus  Georgius  (Giorgi)  the  Italian  eccle- 
siastic and  antiquary  (born  1690,  died  1747), 


The  Kirkby  Font  65 

says  that  the  habit  of  both  acolytes  and  lectors 
"  during  the  first  12  centuries  "  was  a  girded  alb 
and  plain  chasuble,  but  that  the  chasuble  was 
put  off  in  the  presbytery  when  they  performed 
their  normal  duties.  On  the  other  hand,  Honorius 
of  Autun  is  quoted  as  saying  that  before  the  12th 
century  the  four  minor  orders  of  the  clergy  wore 
a  superhumeral,  alb  and  girdle  only.  If  so,  he 
must  have  been  referring  to  what  they  wore  when 
actually  officiating,  and  even  then  he  forgot  the 
stole  and  maniple  worn  by  deacons.  I  read  that 
even  to-day  some  of  the  lower  orders  of  the 
clergy  sometimes  officiate  with  a  folded  chasuble 
over  the  shoulder  instead  of  a  stole.  It  would 
seem,  therefore,  that  the  mere  fact  of  wearing  a 
chasuble  does  not  prove  an  early  figure  to  be  a 
priest.  So  vested  he  may  still  be  intended  for 
one  of  the  minor  clergy. 

There  is  on  no  figure  any  sign  of  amice  or 
maniple,  and  probably  none  of  stole  either.  The 
amice,  though  introduced  as  a  vestment  in  the 
9th  century,  was  long  only  wrapped  round  the 
shoulders  under  the  alb  and  did  not  show.  Later 
it  had  a  parure  or  apparel  which  was  very  con- 
spicuously turned  down  over  the  alb  to  meet  the 
chasuble.  But  I  do  not  think  it  ever  shows  in 
monuments  till  well  in  the  llth  century,  and  by 
no  means  usually  then.  It  does  not  show  even 
in  the  12th  century  sepulchral  effigy  in  Salisbury 
Cathedral  usually  assigned  to  Bishop  Roger  (ob. 
1139)  but  which  Bloxam  thinks  is  Bishop  Jocelin's 
(ob.  1184).  So  it  may  well  be  absent  in  an  out- 
of-the-way  corner  like  Kirkby  about  the  same 
time.  The  stole  and  maniple  are  very  early 
vestments — 8th  century  or  before.  It  might 
quite  fairly  be  argued  from  their  absence  that  the 
figures  are  not  vested  for  any  service  but  are 
wearing  the  chasuble  as  an  ordinary  garment, 


66  The  Kirkby  Font 

like  Abbot  Elfnoth,  in  the  well-known  picture1 
wears  it — without  stole  or  maniple — when  pre- 
senting his  book  to  St.  Augustine  (representing 
the  monastery),  who  has  a  stole  but  no  maniple. 
One  must  not,  however,  rely  too  much  on  the 
sculpture  alone,  as  these  works  were  afterwards 
coloured  and  further  detail  was  added  by  the 
painter.  It  would  be  interesting  to  know  whether 
when  the  whitewash  was  removed  from  the 
Kirkby  font  any  traces  were  found  of  gold  or 
colouring.  As  far  as  I  can  learn,  no  record  was 
kept. 

The  next  priest  (P. 2)  is  15|  ins.  high.  His  feet 
reach  down  nearly  to  the  lower  edge  of  the  plinth, 
and  his  chasuble  nearly  to  the  lower  edge  of  his  alb. 
On  the  latter  are  some  slight  vertical  markings, 
plainer  on  the  left  side.  They  are  probably 
pleats,  but  may  indicate  a  stole.  The  left  arm 
is  seen  very  clearly  to  come  out  of  the  gap  or 
notch  between  the  front  and  back  portions  of 
the  chasuble.  He  has  a  book  in  his  left  hand, 
which  he  holds  with  his  thumb  on  the  open  page 
and  his  fingers  on  the  back.  With  his  right  hand 
he  grasps,  a  little  above  the  middle,  a  long  staff, 
which  reaches  from  his  shoulder  to  his  ankle.  It 
is  rounded  at  the  upper  end  and  gradually  tapers 
downwards.  The  lower  end  is  sharply  pointed 
and  separated  from  the  rest  by  a  sort  of  neck  or 
ferrule.  I  consider  him  pretty  clearly  bearded. 
His  forehead  is  smooth  and  rounded,  and  appears 
to  have  no  hair.  It  certainly  does  not  show  the 
corona  of  hair  and  bare  top  like  his  little 
neighbour.1  This  may  have  no  meaning.  Bald- 
headed  men  lived  then  as  now,  But  it  is  possible, 
though  perhaps  not  probable,  that  it  may  have  a 

IHarleian  MS.  2908  (probably  llth  century). 

*  Low  down  on  his  forehead  there  is  a  sort  of  inverted  V.  This 
is  due  to  wear  and  weathering  of  the  part  below,  which  I  expect  was 
denuded  of  whitewash  and  so  became  exposed. 


The  Kirkby  Font  67 

meaning,  especially  if  (as  I  suspect)  the  figures 
are  connected  with  St.  Chad's  history.  It  is 
possible  that  this  bare  forehead  may  be  tonsured 
in  front,  as  was  the  habit  of  the  ancient  British 
and  Irish  priests — what  was  called  the  Scots' 
tonsure. 

It  will  be  remembered  that  from  the  time  of 
St.  Augustine  to  that  of  St.  Chad  a  great  con- 
troversy existed  between  the  British  and  Roman 
churches  concerning  inter  alia  the  time  of  keeping 
Easter  and  the  shape  of  the  tonsure.  The  Latin 
ecclesiastics  prevailed  at  the  Synod  of  Whitby, 
so  graphically  described  by  Bede,  and  most  of 
the  English  clergy,  including  Chad,  accepted  the 
decision  and  conformed. 

The  figure,  P.2,  might  have  been  intended 
to  represent  Chad  as  a  monk  of  Lastingham, 
wearing  the  Scots'  tonsure  of  his  youth.  On  the 
top  of  his  head  is  a  sort  of  cap.  The  Anglo-Saxon 
and  Norman  monks  wore  hooded  cowls  and 
chasubles  with  hoods  were  also  worn  ;  e.g.,  the 
chasuble  of  Abbot  Elfnoth  in  the  above-mentioned 
illustration.  Such  hoods  usually  cover  the  ears, 
as  in  the  representation  of  the  Last  Supper  on 
Brighton  font,1  but  some  did  not,  as  in  Chaucer's 
picture  in  Shaw's  Dresses  and  Decorations.  This 
P.2  cap  reminds  one  more  of  Archbishop 
Wulfstan's  (ob.  1023)  in  a  contemporary  drawing 
reproduced  by  Strutt.2  In  some  photographs 
there  is  a  suspicion  of  a  similar  knob  on  the  top. 

The  next  figure  (P.3)  is  very  definitely  bare- 
footed, all  his  toes  showing  clearly.  His  right 
hand  is  raised  in  the  act  of  giving  the  benediction 
in  the  Latin  manner,  while  in  his  left  he  holds 
something,  the  nature  of  which  I  shall  have  to 
discuss  at  some  length.  The  sleeves  of  the  alb 

1  Bond's  Fonts,   162. 

2  Dresses  and  Habits  of  England. 


68  The  Kirkby  Font 

show  well  at  the  wrist,  and  the  point  of  the 
chasuble  reaches  its  lower  edge.  On  the  right 
side  of  the  front  lamella  of  the  chasuble  are  two 
marks — the  upper  crescentic,  the  lower  a  full 
circle.  These  may  not  be  original.  Over  the 
upper  edge  of  the  chasuble  two  other  garments 
show  very  clearly,  but  only  one  shows  below,  and 
on  this  there  are  wavy  markings,  as  if  it  was 
made  of  hair.  The  Anglo-Saxon  and  Norman 
priests  did  wear  a  skin  and  hair  garment — the 
pelisse,  but  normally  it  would  not  show,  as  it  was 
worn  under  the  alb  or  surplice.  The  latter  was 
indeed  an  alb  made  sufficiently  roomy  to  cover 
the  pelisse  and  was  called  the  superpellicium.  He 
is  15  ins.  high,  and  wears  a  mitre.  The  elevated 
arm,  like  the  angel's,  is  crudely  done.  It  is  more 
like  the  joint  of  a  crab  than  an  arm.  But  the 
chasuble  is  managed  quite  well.  The  blessing 
hand  is  enormous.  This  was  the  conventional 
way  of  drawing  attention  to  a  part.  Compare  it 
with  the  still  more  enormous  bound  hands  of  St. 
Peter  on  the  above-mentioned  Curd  worth  font. 
The  Norman  sculptor  never  worked  to  scale,  but 
enlarged  and  brought  out  prominently  what  he 
wanted  seen.  In  this  case  he  wished  to 
emphasise  the  fact  that  this  figure  was  giving  the 
blessing. 

The  next  in  order  (P. 4)  is  the  same  height  as 
P.3,  and  like  him  is  bearded,  mitred  and  bare- 
footed. He  also  shows  two  vestments  above  the 
chasuble  head-opening.  This  is  not  so  clear  as 
in  P.3,  but  the  top  of  the  second  shows  clearly 
as  a  definite  notch  on  the  right  side  of  the  neck. 
All  the  figures  but  P.3  and  P.4  show  only  one 
vestment  about  the  neck  above  the  chasuble 
opening.  The  front  of  the  chasuble  does  not 
reach  quite  to  the  lower  edge  of  the  alb  and  the 
latter  has  the  same  sort  of  woolly  markings  as  that 


ST.    PETER   WITH   HIS   KEY. 


The  Kirkby  Font  69 

of  P. 3.  In  his  left  hand  he  holds  a  book  and  in 
his  right  is  a  long  object  which  ends  below  in  a 
volute.  This  has  usually  been  considered  to  be 
a  crosier  and  I  took  it  to  be  such,  but  was  surprised 
to  find  it  being  carried  upside  down.  I  could  find 
no  example  of  a  crosier  so  carried,  though  I  found 
several  ancient  representations  of  weapons  being 
inverted  at  funerals  as  to-day.1  Looking  carefully 
one  day  at  the  Kirkby  font,  I  noticed  that  while 
the  edge  of  the  so-called  crosier  that  is  furthest 
from  the  figure  can  be  traced  clearly  right  up 
almost  to  the  upper  margin  of  the  font  over- 
lapping the  fillet,  the  nearer  edge  is  only  clear  to 
the  arch  of  the  niche.  Above  that  it  has  attached 
to  it  three  strips,  separated  by  two  hollows,  which 
pass  over  the  top  of  the  arch  and  cover  the  fillet 
or  label.  I  came  to  the  conclusion  it  was 
not  a  crosier,  but  a  key,  and  made  tracings  of  it 
and  diagrams  of  what  I  thought  its  wards  had 
been  before  being  altered  by  wear  and  weathering. 
Some  with  whom  I  discussed  the  matter  said 
it  was  too  big  for  a  key  ;  others  that  a  key  would 
never  have  such  a  crook-like  handle.  There  is, 
however,  the  centre  panel  of  a  13th  century  ivory 
triptych  in  the  Mayer  Museum,  Liverpool,  which 
has  in  the  lower  division,  in  the  centre,  a  carving 
of  the  Virgin  and  Child  with,  on  her  left  St.  Paul 
with  a  huge  sword,  and  on  her  right  St.  Peter  with 
a  key  quite  as  large  in  proportion  as  the  object 
on  the  Kirkby  font.  So  size  does  not  rule  a  key 
out.  It  only  emphasises  it.  As  regards  the 
handle,  I  believe  I  have  seen  similar  handles  in 
museums,  but  cannot  recollect  where.  There 
appears  to  be  little  literature  of  key  history. 
Primitive  Locks  and  Keys,  by  Pitt  Rivers,  gives 

1  The  right-hand  figure  in  the  view  of  the  Orleton  font  in  Bond's 
Fonts  and  Font  Covers,  appears  to  hold  a  short  staff  with  a  volute  at 
the  lower  end,  but  what  looks  like  a  volute  is  really  the  folds  of  a 
chasuble  of  the  old  form. 


70  The  Kirkby  Font 

little  help  as  regards  handles.  I  have  wandered 
in  all  directions  which  might  prove  fruitful,  as  far 
as  time  and  opportunity  allowed,  and  have 
sketched  all  the  interesting  keys  noticed.  Keys 
have  varied  a  good  deal  in  shape,  but  perhaps  less 
than  one  would  have  thought.  Keys  were  not 
always  turned  in  locks,  and  probably  the  usual 
Anglo-Saxon  key  with  wards  on  both  sides  was 
not.  But  Anglo-Saxon  keys  were  not  all  of  this 
shape.  We  meet  with  keys  much  like  those  of 
to-day  in  Anglo-Saxon  and  Roman  times.  The 
handles  are  usually  very  much  like  modern  ones, 
but  may  be  quite  straight  with  or  without  a  hole 
through  them,  or  they  may  end  in  a  ring,  loop 
or  knob  or  some  highly  decorative  termination. 
They  were  very  commonly  carried  attached  to  a 
sort  of  chatelaine  called  clavandier,1  suspended 
from  the  girdle.  The  ring  of  attachment  assisted 
in  making  the  turn  and  some  large  keys  had  a 
hinged  lever  attached  for  the  same  purpose.2 
But  after  all  the  actual  form  of  the  key  itself  is 
one  thing  and  its  representation  in  art  another. 
It  is  certainly  quite  common  to  see  in  illustrations, 
e.g.,  in  the  hand  of  St.  Peter,  keys  one  could 
hardly  consider  to  be  any  use  in  real  life.  Stowe 
MS.  944,  British  Museum,  is  a  register  of 
Martyrology  written  about  1016-20.  It  shows 
St.  Peter  letting  the  blessed  into  heaven,  and  St. 
Michael  keeping  the  door  of  hell.  Peter's  keys 
are  a  pair  suspended  from  a  ring.  Michael's  have 
perfectly  straight  handles  with  no  ring,  loop,  or 
knob  to  help  in  the  turn  ;  with  one  of  these  he 
is  locking  the  door.  In  St.  Ethelwold's  Bene- 
dictional  several  keys  are  shown.  Most  have 
straight  handles.  One,  a  very  large  one,  has  a 
ring  suspended  from  the  end  of  the  stem  and  the 

1  The  person  who  carried  the  keys  was  called  Claver.     For  illustra- 
tion see  Arch.  Jnl..  1876. 

2  Coptic  type  ;    Archceologia,  vol.  48. 


The  Kirkby  Font  71 

wards  are  bi-lateral  with  the  addition  of  a  large 
cross  pate  at  the  end.  The  wards  of  St.  Peter's 
keys  are  very  commonly  in  the  form  of  a  cross — 
the  symbolism  being  :  The  Cross,  the  Key  of 
Heaven.  There  is  a  very  good  example  of  this 
in  15th  century  painted  glass  at  Wodmansterne, 
in  Surrey.  Both  the  handle  and  wards  are  in 
cross  form.1  At  the  Church  of  St.  Peter  ad 
Vincula,  Rome,  are  kept  some  iron  chains  said  to 
have  been  brought  from  Jerusalem  by  the 
Empress  Eudocia2  and  to  be  those  with  which  St. 
Peter  was  bound.  Small  fragments  or  filings  of 
these  were  considered  most  holy  relics,  and  the 
reliquary  containing  them  was  usually  in  the 
form  of  a  golden  key,  called  a  St.  Peter's  key. 
Photographs  of  some  of  these  then  surviving  are 
reproduced  in  the  Archaeological  Journal  for  1890. 
They  show  the  wards  always  in  the  form  of  a 
cross.  Westwood,  Anglo-Saxon  MSS.,  illustrates 
a  key  with  a  round  ball  at  the  end  of  the  shank. 
Pitt-Rivers  gives  an  Anglo-Saxon  key  with  the 
shank  ending  in  a  simple  three-quarter  circle  loop 
and  keys  with  similar  loops  found  at  Sleaford  are 
illustrated  in  Archaologia,  vol.  50.  In  a  Cotton 
MS.  of  the  time  of  Henry  I.  (1135),  illustrated 
and  described  in  Archczologia,  is  a  key  with  the 
handle  ending  in  a  twist  towards  the  ward  side 
and  a  curve  in  the  opposite  direction  is  to  be 
seen  on  a  sculptured  Norman  capital  from  Lewes 
Priory  (Archceologia,  vol.  31).  In  Ferret's 
Catacombes  St.  Peter  is  shown  with  keys  having 
somewhat  similar  handles.3 

On  the  reliquary  of  St.  Moedoc — an  Irish  shrine 
to  be  mentioned  later — there  is  a  series  of  figures 
which  probably  represent  the  Apostles.  Three 

1  Illustrated  in  Archaol.  Jnl..  1847. 

2  Or  Eudoxia,  wife  of  the  Roman  Emperor  Theodosius  II,  A.D.  440. 

3  See  also  Fox-Da  vies,  Art  of  Heraldry  ;    keys  on  "  arms  "  of  Emir 
Arkatay. 


72  The  Kirkby  Font 

on  one  plate  I  take  to  be  :  in  the  centre  St.  John 
with  his  cup  or  flask,  on  his  right  St.  Paul  with 
his  sword,  and  on  his  left  St.  Peter  with  his  key. 
Everything  is  very  decoratively  treated  and  the 
emblem  which  seems  to  be  a  key  has  its  handle 
ending  in  a  volute  exactly  like  that  on  the  Kirkby 
font.  The  other  end  is  partly  covered  by  the 
Apostle's  flowing  hair.  It  ends  in  a  cross  pomme. 
If  there  were  wards  where  the  hair  covers  it,  it 
would  be  quite  similar  to  the  big  key  in  St. 
Ethelwold's  Benedictional,  but  with  a  cross 
pomme  at  the  ward-end  instead  of  a  cross  pate, 
and  a  volute  instead  of  a  ring  at  the  end  of  the 
handle.  I  most  certainly  think  it  is  meant 
to  be  a  St.  Peter's  key  with  the  cross-the- 
key-of-heaven  symbol.  In  very  early  representa- 
tions of  St.  Peter  he  is  said  to  carry  a  cross  and 
not  a  key. 

I  have  not  been  able  to  find  an  unequivocal 
example  of  a  key  with  a  handle  exactly  like 
that  on  the  Kirkby  font,  but,  I  submit,  I 
have  come  very  near  to  it.  In  the  absence  of 
actual  proof,  appeal  to  authority  is  not  unjustifi- 
able, and  I  wrote  to  ask  the  opinion  of  the  British 
Museum  authorities.  Sir  Hercules  Read  very 
kindly  replied  as  follows  :  ".  .  .  .  There  can  be 
no  doubt  that  the  figure  you  give  represents  a 
key  and  it  is  by  no  means  unknown  for  the 
handle  to  be  a  mere  curl  of  iron  as  seen  there." 

Mr.  Roberts  considered  the  head  covering  of 
P.3  and  P.4  to  be  the  amice  drawn  over  the  head 
in  the  way  it  was  worn  in  early  times1  and  still  is 
by  certain  orders  ;  but  I  do  not  think  it  is  so 
intended.  If  it  were  so,  the  lower  edge  would  not 
be  horizontal  and  the  ears  would  not  show.  It 
is  very  commonly  stated,  but  I  cannot  find  on 
what  authority,  that  before  the  10th  century 

1  See  illustrations  in  Smith's  Dictionary  of  Christian  Antiquities. 


The  Kirkby  Font  73 

bishops  wore ' '  head-linen  " — fine  flaxen  cloth  bound 
flat  to  the  head  and  confined  by  a  strip  of  the 
same  material  encircling  the  head  and  fastened 
at  the  back  with  long  ends  hanging  down,  and 
that  out  of  this  the  mitre  was  developed.  It  is 
further  stated  that  over  this  they  wore  gold  and 
jewelled  crowns — like  the  confessors  and  others 
in  St.  Ethelwold's  Benedictional  (10th  century), 
or  a  circlet  of  gold  like  that  shown  on  the  figure 
of  the  Trinity  and  on  St.  Benedict  in  the  same 
work.  For  my  part  I  do  not  think  that  these 
illustrations  are  meant  to  represent  terrestrial 
life,  but  celestial  crowns.  Moreover,  they  are 
not  shown  worn  over  head  linen,  but  on  the  scalp 
direct.  The  Rev.  Percy  Dearmer,  in  his  Orna- 
ments of  the  Ministers,  states  that  the  earliest 
known  representation  of  a  mitre  of  any  kind  is 
on  a  coin  of  Bede's  friend  Egbert,  Archbishop  of 
York,  734-766.  He  says  it  was  a  white  linen  cap 
very  similar  to  the  Phrygian  cap  or  Frigium  worn 
by  the  Roman  freedmen  when  they  shaved  their 
head.  Neither  the  head-linen  nor  cap  seems  to 
have  been  an  official  dress.  They  may  have  been 
worn  as  a  protection,  especially  out  of  doors. 
For  St.  Augustine,  quoting  St.  Paul  as  his 
authority,  forbade  the  clergy,  as  well  as  the  laity, 
to  wear  any  head  covering  during  divine  service 
(Planche).  Bishops  in  Anglo-Saxon  times  are 
certainly  usually  represented  bare-headed,  like 
St.  Sextus  on  the  early  10th  century  maniple  of 
St.  Cuthbert  found  at  Durham1  or  Archbishop 
Stigand2  already  mentioned. 

There  are  no  early  orders  or  regulations  con- 
cerning the  mitre.  Dr.  Rock  says  :  "No  writers 
on  ecclesiastical  dress  before  the  llth  century 
mention  it."  Ivo  of  Chartres,  who  died  in  1115, 

1  Illustrated  in  Raine's  St.  Cuthbert,  p.  33. 
a  Bayeux  Tapestry. 


74  The  Kirkby  Font 

writing  on  Jewish  and  Christian  priestly  dress, 
mentions  no  Christian  equivalent  of  the  Jewish 
mitre.  The  mitre  seems  at  first  to  have  been  a 
special  and  personal  distinction  conferred  by  the 
Roman  Pontiff  and  was  not  confined  to  the 
clergy.  Pope  Alexander  II.  in  1163  conferred 
the  mitre  as  well  as  the  pallium  on  Burchard, 
Bishop  of  Halberstadt,1  as  a  special  honour  on 
account  of  his  great  services  to  the  Holy  See,  and 
he  also,  as  a  special  mark  of  esteem  gave 
Wratislas,  Duke  of  Bohemia,  permission  to  wear 
the  mitre.  Pope  Innocent  II.  gave  the  same 
honour  to  Roger,  Count  of  Sicily.2  Early  in  the 
llth  century  we  begin  to  come  across  episcopal 
head  covering  worn  apparently  as  official  dress. 
It  was  then  in  the  form  of  a  skull  cap,  and  some- 
times had  a  sort  of  bob  on  the  top  of  it,  as  in 
the  picture  of  Archbishop  Wulfstan,  already 
mentioned.3  Generally  it  had  streamers,  infulae 
or  vittae — fringed  at  the  ends,  and  sometimes  so 
broad  as  to  make  it  almost  a  hood.  The  earliest 
representation  of  the  skull  cap  with  vittae  that  I 
have  seen  is  on  two  figures  on  the  well-known 
British  Museum  MS.,  Claudius,  A.3 — the  centre 
figure,  usually  called  St.  Dunstan,  and  one  of  the 
kneeling  figures.4  A  12th  century  Roman  Pontiff 
is  shown  in  a  similar  round-topped  mitre  in  an 
early  MS.  reproduced  in  the  supplement  to 
Jaquemin's  Iconographie  du  Costume.  This  form 
by  gradual  increase  in  height  developed  into  the 
recognised  mitre  of  the  Russian  bishops.  In 
Western  Europe  the  round  top  soon  received  a 
front  to  back  indentation,  exactly  like  that  of 
the  soft  felt  hat  of  to-day.  A  mitre  of  this  form, 

1  Larousse,  Grand  Dictionnaire  Universel. 

2  See  Planch^,  Cyc.  of  Costume. 

3  Vide  description  of  P.  3. 

4  Dearmer  points  out  that  the  centre  figure  is  shown  by  the  emblem 
of  the  whispering  dove  to  be  St.  Gregory  the  Great.     The  kneeling 
figure  is  St.  Dunstan. 


The  Kirkby  Font 


75 


dated  about  1180,  is  illustrated  in  Hefner- 
Alteneck's  Trachten  Kunstwerke.  In  the  middle 
of  the  llth  century  we  often  find  the  side 
elevations  as  high  points.  There  is  a  good 


example  of  this  shape  in  the  early  Norman 
sculptured  tympanum  of  the  south  door  of 
Tetsworth  Church,  near  Oxford.  The  early  coffin 
lid  of  Bishop  Ralph  (ob.  1123)  in  Chichester 
Cathedral  has  on  it  a  mitre  of  this  form  along 


76 


The  Kirkby  Font 


with  an  early  type  of  crosier.1  A  very  similar 
head-dress  is  illustrated  in  Ferret's  Catacombes  de 
Rome.  Its  date  I  will  not  guess.  In  some  places 
these  side  peaks  developed  into  rounded  horns 
or  volutes,  as  is  well  seen  in  the  beautiful  repro- 
duction of  the  effigy  of  Ulger,  Bishop  of  Angers, 
1149,  in  Planche's  Cyclopaedia  of  Costume.  But 
they  seem  usually  to  have  tended  to  get  smaller 
and  at  the  same  time  an  elevation  began  to 
appear  in  the  centre  of  the  hollow  on  the  top  of 
the  head.  This  is  well  seen  in  the  illustration 
from  the  Vision  of  Henry  I.  (ob.  1135)  reproduced 
in  Knight's  Old  England.  This  central  elevation 
grew  into  a  front  to  back  ridge,  and  this  is  the 
shape  worn  by  the  two  mitred  figures  (P.3  and 
P.4)  on  the  Kirkby  font.  The  next  stage  in 
development  was  the  growth  of  the  front  and 
back  ends  of  this  fore  and  aft  ridge  into  elevated 
points.  This  type  is  well  seen  on  the  font  at  St. 
Nicholas'  Church,  Brighton  {Sussex),  and  if  we 
ornament  each  point  of  this  mitre  with  a  ball  we 
get  the  mitre  of  St.  Nicholas  on  the  Winchester 
font.  The  next  change  was  for  the  side  eleva- 
tions to  disappear  altogether,  and  so  is  produced 
the  early  form  of  the  present  type  of  mitre.  It 
is  well  illustrated  with  ornamental  band  and 
titulus  by  the  bishop  of  the  Lewis  chessmen  in 
the  British  Museum.  The  chief  subsequent  change 
was  the  gradual  growth  in  the  height  of  the  front 
and  back  elevations.  In  the  13th  century  they 
were  6  ins.  high.  The  beautiful  Limerick  mitre  of 
the  early  15th  century  is  13  ins.  Ultimately,  in 
the  16th  century  and  later,  they  got  grotesquely 
elevated  and  ogeed. 

The  mitre  that  is  kept  as  Becket's  at  Sens,  if 
the  one  he  really  wore,  would  show  that  Sens  was 
nearly  half  a  century  ahead  of  the  rest  of  the 

1  See  illustration  under  Coffin,  Parker's  Glossary  of  Architecture. 


The  Kirkby  Font  77 

world  in  this  matter.  Shaw,  who  carefully  illus- 
trated it  in  his  Dresses  and  Decorations,  evidently 
had  his  doubts.  It  is  7J  ins.  high,  and  therefore 
higher  than  13th  century  mitres  usually  are.  The 
point  is  exactly  a  right-angle.  Harley  Roll, 
Y.6,  Brit.  Mus.,  is  a  late  12th  century  vellum 
roll,  giving  the  life  of  St.  Guthlac,  the  hermit  of 
Crowland.  In  one  of  the  illustrations  he  is 
shown  being  ordained  priest  by  Bishop  Hedda, 
of  Winchester,1  who  wears  a  mitre  like  the  one 
at  Sens,  with  a  right-angle  point,  but  not  quite 
so  high.  This  strongly  confirms  the  view  that 
the  Sens  mitre  is  at  least  13th  century,  and  the 
change  from  side  to  front  and  back  elevations 
took  place  shortly  before  the  end  of  the  12th 
century.2 

The  Winchester  font  is  fairly  accurately  datable. 
It  is  one  of  the  Tournai  fonts,  "  shop-made  "  and 
imported  into  England,  it  is  believed,  by  Bishop 
Henry  of  Blois  (bishop  1129-1171)  and  given  to 
the  cathedral.  It  has  cushion  capitals  on  the 
"  cathedral,"  which  shows  it  is  later  than  the 
Kirkby  font  with  its  Corinthianesque  capitals. 
It  has  plantain  leaf  capitals  on  the  corner  shafts 
of  the  support  and  these  are  later  still.  We  shall 
not  be  far  wrong  in  dating  the  Winchester  font 
about  or  soon  after  the  martyrdom  of  Becket 

1  The   words   on   the   roll  are  :    "  Guthl'    Sac'dotiu'     [sacerdotium] 
suscipit  a  Hedda  ep'o  [episcopo]  Wintoniensi." 

At  the  time  of  Guthlac  (663-714)  there  were  two  bishops  with  similar 
and  variously  spelt  names.  They  have  been  much  confused  with  each 
other.  One  usually  called  Hedda  was  Bishop  of  Winchester  from  676 
to  705.  The  other,  usually  spelt  Headda,  was  Bishop  of  Lichfield, 
691-720.  (See  Searle,  Anglo-Saxon  Bishops,  etc.,  1899,  pp.  64  and  128.) 
As  has  been  seen,  the  Harley  Roll  ascribes  Guthlac's  ordination  to  the 
former.  The  A  eta  Sanctorum,  April  11,  prints  the  Felix  Life  of 
Guthlac,  in  which,  while  the  name  of  the  ordaining  bishop  is  given 
as  Hedda,  his  diocese  is  not  mentioned.  The  Editors,  however,  agree 
with  the  roll  in  identifying  him  with  the  Winchester  prelate.  On  the 
other  hand,  the  D.N.B.  suggests  he  was  the  Bishop  of  Lichfield. 

2  The  bishops  on  the  stone  with  Ogham  inscription  at  Bressay, 
Shetlands,  usually  attributed  to  a  much  earlier  date,  have  low  mitres, 
pointed  in  front  and  behind.     Vide  Reliquary,   1884-5. 


78 


The  Kirkby  Font 


(1170).  The  detail  of  the  Brighton  font  is 
distinctly  a  little  earlier  and  Kirkby  in  develop- 
ment is  earlier  still.  In  actual  date,  however,  it 
is  highly  probable  that  it  would  be  a  little  later, 
for  when  dates  can  be  actually  fixed  by  written 
records  or  otherwise  it  is  usually  found  that  local 
work  in  out-of-the-way  places  is  a  good  deal 
behind  in  development.  It  is,  of  course,  impossible 
to  be  exact,  but  taking  all  the  evidence  into 
consideration  I  do  not  think  we  can  reasonably 
fix  the  date  of  Kirkby  font  earlier  than  the  last 
quarter  of  the  12th  century,  and  to  that  time  I 
attribute  it. 

I  am  now  going  to  claim  that  I  have  reasonably 
established  that  the  two  figures  P.3  and  P.4  are 
mitred,  and  therefore  intended  for  bishops  ;  that 
P.4  has  a  key  in  his  hand,  and  is  therefore  in- 
tended for  St.  Peter.  Who  is  the  other  bishop 
meant  to  be  ?  The  only  distinctive  thing  about 
him  is  the  object  he  carries  in  his  left  hand. 
The  carrying  of  some  sort  of  staff  was  very 
usual  in  ancient  times.  The  traveller  or  pilgrim 
used  one  to  help  him  along,  to  sling  his  pack  or 
wallet,  and,  if  needs  be,  for  defence.  Before  seats 
were  so  frequent  people  rested  a  good  deal  on 
sticks  and  staves.  In  the  middle  ages  there 
were  no  seats  in  churches,  and  people,  especially 
the  aged,  leaned  on  staves  or  sat  on  crutch  sticks 
during  long  services.  St.  Aldhelm  leaned  on  his 
staff  through  so  long  a  sermon  that  it  took  root 
in  the  ground  where  it  rested,  and  actually 
blossomed  in  his  hand  before  the  preacher  had 
finished  his  discourse,  and  ever  since  the  blossom- 
ing staff  has  been  St.  Aldhelm 's  emblem.  The 
staff  was  naturally  the  sign  of  the  elderly  more 
than  of  the  young,  and  in  the  Church  quite  early 
got  to  be  a  recognised  characteristic  of  a  bishop. 
Further,  the  carrying  of  a  staff  as  an  emblem  of 


The  Kirkby  Font  79 

authority  is  a  very  widespread  custom  from  the 
sceptre   of   the   sovereign   to   the   wand   of   the 
conjurer.     By    the    6th    century    the    staff   had 
become  a  recognised  episcopal  ornament,  being 
mentioned  as  such  in  the  Sacramentary  of  St. 
Gregory,  but  it  had  no  definite  form  fixed  by 
custom  or  authority.     The  Rev.  F.   G.   Lee,  in 
Archaologia,  vol.  51,  says  :    "  The  earliest  repre- 
sentations of  an  official  staff  in  the  hands  of  an 
apostle,  pope,  patriarch,  or  prelate  appear  to  be 
quite  plain  ;    sometimes  without  knob  or  ball  on 
the  top  or  any  kind  of  addition  or  ornament." 
He   gives   no   illustrations,    but   says   that   such 
staves  are  represented  in  mosaics,  paintings  or 
sculpture    at    Rome,    Venice,    Torcello,    Padua, 
Milan,   Pavia,   Perugia,  Zara  and  Pola.     It  was 
customary  to  represent   the   Deity  in  papal  or 
episcopal  robes,  and  in  Caedmon's  Paraphrase  the 
Creator  is  always  so  robed  and  carries  a  short 
straight  baculum.     The  ancient  wooden  staff  at 
Treves,  reputed  to  be  that  of  St.  Peter,  is  also 
quite  straight.     It  is  now  cased  in  silver  with 
peep-holes  of  crystal. 

The  staff  was  often  ornamented.  An  early 
form  was  a  globe  at  the  end,  or  two  globes,  or  a 
globe  surmounted  by  a  cross.  The  latter  became 
the  official  form  of  the  Maronite  bishops,  and  we 
still  meet  with  it  on  official  staffs  in  this  country, 
as  on  the  royal  sceptre  and  on  many  maces  and 
wands  of  office.  Another  much  used  form  was 
the  Tau-staff  or  crutch  stick.  It  seems  to  have 
been  official  at  one  time,  and  appears  on  the  well- 
known  seal  of  Odo,  Bishop  of  Bayeux,  and  in 
vol.  21  of  Archczologia  a  seal  of  Geoffrey,1  Bishop 
of  Lincoln,  dated  1174,  is  illustrated,  showing 
him  carrying  over  his  right  shoulder  a  pastoral 
crutch.  The  "  crutch  stick  of  St.  Thomas  of 

1  Son  of  Henry  II.  and  Fair  Rosamond. 


80  The  Kirkby  Font 

Canterbury  "  was  one  of  the  most  prized  relics 
of  old  St.  Paul's,  London.  Many  such  Tau-staves 
— some  beautifully  carved — are  to  be  seen  in  the 
museums  of  this  country  and  the  Continent.  It 
was  adopted  as  the  official  form  by  the  Oriental 
prelates. 

The  short  curved  divining  rod,  Lituus,1  of  the 
Roman  augurs  is  said  never  to  have  disappeared 
as  an  emblem  of  office  and  out  of  it  grew  the 
crook  of  the  western  bishops,  influenced  probably 
by  the  frequent  representation  in  the  catacombs 
and  elsewhere  of  the  Good  Shepherd,  crook  in 
hand,  surrounded  by  His  sheep.  In  early  times 
the  crooked  staff  was  usually  much  shorter  than 
it  was  later.  St.  Nicholas'  crosier  on  the  Brighton 
font  is  quite  short.  Not  infrequently  they  were 
as  short  as  an  ordinary  walking  stick  (about  a 
yard).2  The  favourite  wood  seems  to  have  been 
yew.  The  crosier  of  St.  Melis  (Irish,  12th  cen- 
tury) is  3  ft.  OJ  in.  The  beautiful  Clonmacnoise 
crosier  (9th  or  llth  century)  is  3ft.  2  ins.  The 
quigrich  of  St.  Fillan  of  Aberdeenshire  was  the 
old  saint's  plain  straight  staff.  All  that  now 
remains  is  the  beautiful  metal  crook  that  was 
fitted  to  it.  The  opposite  is  the  case  with  the 
Bachul  of  Moloc.  All  its  ornaments  have  been 
stolen  off  it  and  the  staff  would  also  have  probably 
disappeared  only  for  the  fact  that  its  possessor, 
through  it,  holds  certain  property  (Arch.  JnL, 
1859).  Giraldus  Cambrensis  (1185)  tells  us 
how  highly  venerated  were  the  staves  of  the 
old  missionary  fathers  and  many  of  the  gilt  and 
jewelled  crosiers  of  mediaeval  times  were  really 
but  the  cases  in  which  these  venerable,  perhaps 

1  Vide  Smith's  Diet.  G.    &  R.  Antiqs. 

2  Early    sculptured    representations  of    bishops    with    such     short 
crosiers  may  be  seen  on  St.  Gobnet's  Stone,  Ballyvourney,  Co.  Cork 
(Archaol.  Jnl.,   1855)  and  Bressay  (Shetlands)  Ogham  Stone,  Reliq., 
1884-5. 


The  Kirkby  Font  81 

miracle-working,  relics  were  enshrined.  West- 
wood1  says  that  the  worn  parts  of  these  short 
staves  show  that  they  were  carried  crook  up  over 
the  shoulder.  But  that  they  were  sometimes 
carried  like  a  walking  stick  is  shown  by  the 
picture  of  St.  Luke  in  the  Gospels  of  MacDurnan, 
an  early  9th  century  MS.  in  the  Archiepiscopal 
Library  at  Lambeth  Palace.  St.  Matthew's 
picture  in  the  same  work  tells  us  that  the  long 
crosier  was  also  in  use  at  the  same  time.  It  was 
this  latter  that  developed  into  the  beautiful 
carved,  tabernacled  and  enamelled  crosier  of  later 
date.  It  gradually  replaced  all  others  in  the 
Western  church,  from  the  llth  century  onwards, 
but  apparently  had  not  entirely  superseded  the 
straight  baculum  even  in  the  14th  century,  if  we 
may  judge  from  the  slab,  of  that  date,  on  the 
tomb  of  the  founder,  St.  Yestin,  in  Llaniestin 
church,  Anglesey.2 

Among  all  these  varied  forms  of  episcopal 
crosier,  baculum,  or  cambutta,  there  is  nothing  at 
all  like  the  object  P. 3  carries  in  his  hand.  It  is 
flat,  with  squared  edges.  It  is  just  short  of  7  ins. 
long.  Its  upper  end  is  rounded.  Half  an  inch 
from  the  very  top  it  is  f  in.  wide,  and  gradually 
broadens  to  the  lower  end,  which  is  1J  ins.  across. 
The  lower  border  is  nearly  straight  and  squared. 
These  dimensions  mean  that  proportionately  to 
life-size  it  would  be  a  flat  wedge-shaped  object 
nearly  a  yard  long,  with  a  base  6  ins.  across  and 
gradually  narrowing  to  between  3  or  4  ins.  before 
it  was  rounded  off  at  the  top.  Some  of  the  photo- 
graphs of  this  object  show  slight  notching  on  each 
side,  near  the  lower  end.  This  made  me  think  it 
might  be  an  asperge,  but  careful  examination 
convinces  me  that  the  notches  are  due  to  injury. 

1  Anglo-Saxon  and  Irish  MSS. 

2  Illustrated  in  Arch.  Cambrensis  (1847). 


82  The  Kirkby  Font 

A  club  or  mace  has  been  suggested,  as  an  object 
that  widens  from  the  handle  to  the  other  end,  and 
a  club  is  the  symbol  of  two  Apostles,  St.  Simon 
and  St.  James,  and  of  at  least  eleven  other 
saints,  but  a  club  would  not  be  represented  flat, 
with  square  edges  and  would  not  be  carried  in 
this  manner.1  Mr.  Roberts  has  suggested  that 
some  of  the  figures,  he  does  not  say  which,  carry 
candles.  I  cannot  agree.  The  characteristic  part 
of  a  candle  is  its  flame,  and  there  is  nothing  to 
suggest  it,  and  candles  are  always  circular  in 
section,  not  flat.  They  are  frequently  represented 
as  gradually  narrowing — tapering — to  the  burning 
end.  A  good  example  is  seen  in  the  14th  century 
representation  of  the  Mass  in  plate  32,  vol.  I.  of 
Mercuri  and  Bonnard's  Costumes  Historiques. 
The  only  thing  I  can  think  of  that  is  the  shape 
of  the  object  under  discussion  is  the  opening  of 
some  Saxon  or  Early  Norman  windows,  e.g., 
those  of  Hardham  Church,  Sussex. 

Finding  no  explanation  in  real  life,  I  turned 
my  thoughts  to  symbolism  and  sought  for  some- 
thing as  being  symbolised  of  this  shape.  In 
representations  of  the  Baptism  of  Christ,  diverging 
lines  are  often  shown  passing  from  the  beak  of 
a  dove  towards  the  head  of  the  Baptised  and  are 
intended  to  signify  radiations  of  Divine  influence 
passing  from  the  Holy  Spirit  to  the  Saviour.2 
Such  radiations  are  shown  in  other  baptisms,  as 
for  example,  the  "  Baptism  of  a  Goth"  in 

1  For  a  man  carrying  a  club  see  Kirkburn  font  in   Bond's   Fonts, 
p.  161. 

2  Bond,  in  Fonts  and  Font  Covers,  gives  several  excellent  illustra- 
tions,  but  considers  these  lines  to  represent  streams  of  water  (vide 
p.    14  passim).       The  incorrectness  of  such  an   explanation  will  at 
once  be  seen  on  applying  it  to  examples  other  than  baptisms.     That 
the  ancients  had  the  idea  of  radiations  is  shown,  for  example,  by  the 
following:   "...  the  mutual  gaze  of  persons,  and  that  which  emanates 
from  their  eyes,  whether  we  call  it  light  or  something  else  ..."  and 
''  there  is  so  great  a  penetration  into  the  inward  parts  by  a  look  .  .  ." 
— Plutarch's  Symposium,  Book  v.,  prob.  7. 


The  Kirkby  Font  83 

Hunter's  Sinnbilder,  or  the  tombstone  at 
Aquileia,  in  Bond.1  They  also  occur  in  representa- 
tions of  the  Annunciation2  and  in  blessings  gener- 
ally. Moreover,  the  radiations  do  not  always 
come  from  the  Dove.  They  often  proceed  from 
the  Divine  hand  (Dexter a  Dei)  or  from  a  cloud 
or  crescent  or  other  symbolic  representation  of 
heaven.3 

The  beautiful  enamelled  14th  century  Sienese 
morse  in  the  British  Museum  has  on  it  a  representa- 
tion of  the  birth  of  John  the  Baptist.  Here  a 
single  gradually  diverging  ray  descends  from 
Heaven  on  to  the  infant.  The  6th  century 
Italian  ivory  in  the  same  museum,  illustration  of 
which  forms  plate  iii.  of  the  Guide  to  Early 
Christian  Antiquities,  shows  excellent  carved 
examples  of  wedge-shaped  rays  proceeding  from 
a  cloud. 

But  it  was  not  only  spiritual  influences  that 
were  so  represented.  The  symbolists  indicated 
all  emanations,  radiations  or  influences  in  this 
way.  As  for  instance,  light  from  a  star.4  Sun- 
beams are  figured  in  the  same  way.  Indeed, 
there  can  be  little  doubt  that  from  them,  as  seen 
when  the  sun  is  behind  a  cloud  or  his  light  comes 
through  a  chink  into  a  dark  room,  the  idea 
originated  of  representing  beams  of  radiation  by 
long,  slightly  widening  wedges.  Radiations  were 
not  always  shown  diverging  from  their  source. 
They  were  frequently  represented  as  converging 
to  their  recipient.  This  method  is  very  ancient, 
and  is  found  in  hieroglyphics.5  It  was  commonly 

1  Op.  cit.,  p.  8. 

*  Bock,  Geschichte  der  liturgischen  Gewaender  des  Mittelalters.     Plate 
xiii. 

3  See  Twining,  Symbols  and  Emblems.  Blessing  of  Isaiah  from  10th 
century  German  MS.  and  Blessing  of  Charles  the  Bald  from  his  9th 
century  illustrated  Bible. 

*  Illustration  from  painted  glass  in  Lyons  Cathedral.  Twining  op.  cit. 
8  See  Clodd,  History  of  Alphabet,  p.   170. 


84  The  Kirkby  Font 

used  in  classical  times  as,  for  example,  in  the 
rays  of  the  corona  radiata.1  It  was  the  method 
usually  adopted  by  the  heralds  and  in  decorative 
designs  and  fabrics  to  which  it  better  lent  itself.2 

The  Dove  in  the  baptism  of  Christ  on  the  font 
in  Shorne  church  (Kent)  has  such  rays,  and  they 
are  usual  in  representations  of  the  Holy 
Eucharist.  In  the  heraldic  badge  of  the  "  Rising 
Sun  "  they  come  from  behind  a  cloud.  In  "  the 
Sun-in-splendour  "  they  are  still  more  decoratively 
treated,  each  alternate  ray  being  given  the  wavy 
outline  of  a  flame.  The  heralds  did  not,  however, 
always  use  this  method.  Occasionally  they  used 
the  more  naturalistic  diverging  beam,  as,  for 
example,  in  the  Yorkist  sun3  and  around  the  star 
of  the  garter  and  other  orders.4 

To  summarise  :  The  ancients  and  mediaevals, 
the  heralds,  decorative  artists  and  symbolists 
generally,  though  differing  slightly  in  detail,  all 
agree  in  representing  rays  of  light  or  of  spiritual 
influence  by  long  narrow  wedges.  Such,  then, 
was  the  single  symbolic  ray,  and  such  is  the  shape 
of  the  object  P.3  carries  in  his  left  hand. 

There  is  a  story  of  St.  Chad,  which,  though  it 
does  not  appear  in  any  extant  life  of  the  saint,  is 
said  to  have  been  very  popular  in  the  middle 
ages.5  It  made  him  the  chief  instrument  in 

1  See  coin  of  Ptolemy  V.,  illustrated  in  Arch.  Jnl.,  1897. 
*  For  good  reproductions  of  such  fabrics,  see  Bock  op.  cit. 

3  Illustrated  in  Planch6,  Cycl.  of  Costume. 

4  Similar  to,  but  immensely  older  than  the  examples  I  have  cited  is 
the  obelisk,  with  its  gradually  diverging  sides.     Obelisks  were  dedicated 
to  the  sun-god — the  fertiliser  of  the  earth.     Pliny  tells  us  that  each 
was  a  sun's-ray  in  stone — "  effigies  radiorum  solis."     The  pyramids 
are  but  very  obtuse  obelisks,  and  the  word  is  said  to  mean  "  sun's 
ray  "  (vide  Dodd's  paper  on  the  Rudsione  in  Reliquary,  vol.  14). 

5  The  story  occurs  in  the  life  of   SS  Wulfad  and  Ruffin,  which  was 
printed  in  Dugdale's  Monasticon  (1846  ed.,  vol.  vi.,  pp.  226-30)   and 
subsequently  in  the  ActaSS  .(July,  vol.  v.,  pp.  575-81).    For  the  MSS. 
see  Hardy,  Descrpt.  Catal.  (Rolls  Ser.),  I.,  pp.  269-72. 


Bpm.  of  Christ  :  7th  c.  Catacombs. 

Annunc'n.  :    Bock's  Geschichte. 
Bpm.  of  Christ  :    Bamberg    Ivory. 


Blessing  of  Isaiah  :    10th  c.  Gr.  MS.    Ifg; 

(Twining,     S.   &  E.).  ~ 


Star's  Rays.     Painted  Glass. 
Lyons  Cath.      (Twining,     S.    &  E.)    =g 


Birth  John   the  B.     Sienese  Morse  : 
14th  c.  Brit.  Mus. 


Bpm.  of  Christ :       Ivory.     6th    c. 
Brit.  Mus. 


Ray  of  Sun,  Stars,    &c. 


Ray  of  "  Rising  Sun  "  : 
Royal  Badge. 


Ray  of  "  Yorkist  Sun  "  : 
Planche,     Cyc.     of     Costume. 


Ray  of  Garter  Star,   &c. 


St.  Chad's  Emblem  : 
Clog  Almanacks. 


Kirkby  Font  Emblem. 


Obelisk. 


86  The  Kirkby  Font 

the  conversion  of  Mercia.  It  is  told  with  the 
usual  abundance  of  picturesque  and  contradictory 
detail.  The  King  of  Mercia,  Wulphere,  who,  by 
the  way  was  father  of  St.  Werburgh  of  Chester, 
had  been  christened  in  his  youth,  but  had  reverted 
to  heathenism,  and  had  murdered  two  of  his 
sons,  Wulfad  and  Ruffin,1  on  learning  they  had 
become  Christians.  But  becoming  dangerously 
ill,  and  fearing  death,  he  was  smitten  with 
remorse,  and  repaired  to  Chad  for  conso- 
lation. When  the  king  arrived  Chad  was 
saying  mass  in  his  little  oratory,  and  as  soon 
as  the  office  was  ended,  he  hurriedly  removed  his 
vestments  to  go  and  meet  the  king,  and  in  his 
haste  inadvertently  hung  them  on  a  sunbeam 
that  was  crossing  the  room  instead  of  hanging 
them  in  the  proper  place.  The  king,  entering  the 
small  dark  oratory,  for  in  those  days  windows 
were  small,  as  there  was  no  glass  to  keep  out  the 
weather,  saw  the  sun  streaming  through  the  little 
window  and  hanging  on  the  bright  beam  were 
Chad's  vestments.  He  could  not  believe  his  eyes, 
so  drawing  near  he  placed  his  gloves  and  baldrick 
on  the  sunbeam,  but  they  fell  straight  through  it 
to  the  ground.  The  king  at  once  understood  that 
Chad  was  a  holy  man,  whom  the  sun  obeyed,  and 
whose  beams  were  subservient  to  his  commands. 
So  the  king  was  converted  and  all  Mercia  with 
him,  and  in  the  12th  century,  at  the  time  the 
font  was  made,  the  people  of  Kirkby  would 
associate  St.  Chad  and  his  sunbeam  with  the 
conversion  of  their  district  to  Christianity. 

Chad  is  one  of  those  saints  who  are  said  to  have 
no  emblem  ;  but  I  suggest  that  he  had,  and  that 
here  on  the  Kirkby  font  is  St.  Chad  carrying  his 
sunbeam. 

1  Both  afterwards  canonised. 


The  Kirkby  Font  87 

A  beam  of  light  is  the  symbol  of  several  other 
saints.  In  the  cases  of  the  Venerable  Bede  and 
of  St.  Ewald  it  shines  on  them  from  heaven. 
St.  Odo  of  Ghent  is  very  similar.  St.  Posidonius's 
shines  on  him  while  praying  in  a  dark  cave. 
Our  pagan  ancestors  materialised  the  rainbow — 
Bifrost,  and  made  it  a  bridge  from  earth  to  heaven, 
guarded  by  Heimdall.  The  mediae vals  adopted 
the  idea,  but  changed  Heimdall  into  Christ,  so 
that  none  could  pass  from  earth  to  heaven  except 
through  Him.  Thus  we  see  it  on  the  "  Dooms," 
as  at  Wenhaston  (Suffolk)  and  elsewhere.1  In 
the  same  way  the  sunbeam  was  materialised  in 
connection  with  St.  Chad,  who  had  used  it 
as  a  clothes-peg.  Baring-Gould  and  other 
modern  writers  tell  us  that  St.  Chad's  emblem 
in  the  clog  almanacks  is  "  a  branch."2  I  believe 
they  all  get  this  from  that  curious  and  interesting 
mass  of  obiter  dicta,  Plot's  Natural  History  of 
Staffordshire  (Oxford,  1686).  Plot  gives  a  very 
full  description  of  the  Staffordshire  clogs.  These 
are  staves  carved  as  perpetual  calendars  with 
hieroglyphic-like  signs  for  important  events. 
In  giving  the  meaning  of  the  different  signs,  he 
says :  "a  bough  against  2  of  March  for  St. 
Ceadda,  who  lived  a  hermit's  life  in  the  woods 
near  Lichfield."  "  The  bough  "  is  a  straight  line 
with  other  lines  diverging  from  it  on  either  side, 
always  in  opposite  pairs  like  the  mid-rib  and 
opposite  secondary  ribs  of  a  pennate  leaf.  What 
the  origin  of  this  sign  is  is  not  known,  but  it  is 
significant  that  it  consists  so  largely  of  divergent 
lines. 

In  relation  to  the  two  mitred  figures  the 
snake  coil  has  two  heads.  The  head  beneath  the 
giver  of  the  benediction  is  looking  upwards  and 

1  Illustrated  in  Clinch,  Old  English  Churches,  Fig.  93. 

2  Bond  calls  St.  Chad's  emblem  a  "  vine  branch." 


88  The  Kirkby  Font 

with  open  mouth  biting  furiously  at  him.  While 
the  head  beneath  the  key-bearer  is  directed 
downwards,  with  closed  mouth,  in  obvious  defeat. 
Mr.  Roberts  expresses  this  as  follows :  '  The 
snake  heads  are  symbolical  of  the  power  given  to 
the  Church  to  contend  with  and  overcpme  the 
Spirit  of  Evil."  It  may  possibly  refer  also  to  the 
above-mentioned  contention  between  the  Celtic 
churches  of  the  British  Isles  and  the  Church  of 
Rome  and  the  victory  of  the  latter  as  symbolised 
by  St.  Peter. 

Figure  P. 5,  one  of  the  tallest  of  the  series, 
16 \  ins.,  gives  us  another  of  the  many  puzzles  of 
the  font.  It  is  a  good  deal  worn  and  the  stone 
has  several  faults — soft  patches  which  have 
yielded  holes.  He  is  bare-headed,  and,  I  think, 
tonsured  and  bearded.  He  has  on  a  chasuble, 
and  one  other  vestment  is  visible  beneath  it. 
The  point  of  the  front  lamina  of  the  chasuble  falls 
well  short  of  the  edge  of  the  alb.  He  carries  in 
his  right  hand  a  staff,  which  is  very  similar  to 
the  one  carried  by  P. 2,  only  there  is  no  sign  of 
ferrule  near  the  lower  end.  The  end  of  the 
thumb  shows  as  a  lump  just  above  his  fingers 
which  grasp  the  staff,  and  opposite  it  on  the 
outer  side  of  the  staff  is  something  that  may  be 
the  hook  of  a  palmer's  staff.  Some  have  con- 
sidered this  and  what  I  think  is  his  thumb  to  be 
the  cross  guard  of  a  sword. 

In  front  of  his  body  is  a  rectangular  oblong 
object,  suspended  from  his  shoulders  by  two 
straps,  and  under  this  his  left  hand  rests  flat  on 
his  breast,  palm  down.  The  two  straps  may  be 
intended  to  be  continuous  with  one  another 
behind  his  neck  and  so  form  a  single  handle  or 
suspender.  On  the  right  side  the  strap  is  attached 
to  the  extreme  right  of  the  upper  margin,  but  on 
the  left  it  appears  to  be  split  into  three  pieces, 


THE   FIGURES   P  6  and  5. 


The  Kirkby  Font  89 

which  are  attached  to  the  corner  and  upper  part 
of  the  left  lateral  edge.  The  front  surface  of  the 
quadrilateral  has  clearly  an  upper  and  a  lower 
part,  separated  by  a  depression,  the  upper  part 
overhanging.  When  viewed  from  the  left  side 
this  object  gives  an  appearance  very  strongly 
suggestive  o  a  chalice  in  a  bag,  but  careful 
examination  has  convinced  me  that  the  appear- 
ance is  fictitious  and  due  to  the  large  hole  in 
the  stone.  Mr.  Roberts  evidently  thought  the 
quadrilateral  was  a  satchel  for  the  sacred  vessels 
or  something  of  the  sort  as  he  vaguely  speaks  of 
the  subdeacon  with  the  sacred  vessels,  and  of 
course  one  of  the  duties  of  that  official  is  to  carry 
them  in  the  offertory  veil.  Mr.  Roberts  may  have 
thought  this  an  early  representation  of  that 
vestment.  But  if  such  were  the  case  he  would 
hardly  have  a  stick  in  one  hand  and  the  other 
hand  flat  on  his  breast  ;  he  would  be  holding  the 
vessels  wrapped  in  the  veil.  He  is  not  holding 
it.  It  hangs  from  his  neck,  and  his  hands  are 
free.1  I  do  not  deny  the  possibility  of  this  being 
some  sort  of  case  for  chalice  and  paten,  for  Bede, 
speaking  of  missionary  times,  says  :  ".  .  Oratories 
.  .  .  could  not  be  made  in  the  early  infancy  of 
the  Church."  And  in  the  life  of  St.  Willibald 
(c.  700)  we  are  told  that  in  the  7th  century  it  was 
customary  to  erect  crosses  at  which  the  services 
of  the  Church  were  held.  So  the  itinerant  clergy 
must  have  carried  the  sacred  vessels  with  them, 
which  almost  necessitates  a  bag  of  some  kind. 
Cuir  bouilli  cases  of  much  later  date  for  sacra- 
mental plate  may  be  seen  in  the  British  Museum 
and  elsewhere.2  If  his  staff  is  a  palmer's  bourdon 

1  The  suggestion  that  it  is  a  burse  may,  I  think,  be  similarly  dis- 
missed.    Large  rationals  were  sometimes  worn,   but  would  not  be 
suspended  from  the  neck. 

2  e.g.,  from  Little  Weltham  Church  (Suffolk),  illustrated  in  British 
Museum  Guide  to  Medieval  Room,  fig.  28. 


90  The  Kirkby  Font 

the  oblong  object  would  be  his  scrip,  and  such  it 
may  be,  for  it  was  often  suspended  from  the 
shoulders  and  carried  either  in  front,  behind,  or 
at  the  side.1  Another  suggestion  is  that  it  is  a 
breast-plate.  And  he  may  be  intended  for  a 
Jewish  high  priest  representing  "  the  old  order." 
If  such  were  the  intention,  the  dress  would 
obviously  be  unsuitable,  but  suitability  of  vest- 
ment did  not  always  trouble  the  mediaeval  artist, 
as  it  has  not  troubled  many  since.  But  breast- 
plates were  sometimes  worn  by  Christian  priests, 
for  in  Marriott's  Vestiarium  Christianum  there  is 
a  drawing  of  a  breast-plate  found  on  a  skeleton 
in  a  stone  coffin  in  the  Church  of  the  Passion, 
Moscow.  It  was  of  leather,  and  hung  by  a 
thong  round  the  neck,  and  was  also  fastened 
round  the  waist  by  a  girdle.  The  breast-plate 
and  girdle  both  had  affixed  to  them  numerous 
metal  plates,  arranged  in  bands,  and  having  on 
them  Greek  texts  and  icons,  the  crucifixion 
appearing  twice. 

Many  years  ago  in  Dublin  I  saw  some  interesting 
relics  of  early  Irish  art,  and  learnt  that  the  early 
missionary  bishops  were  believed  always  to  have 
carried  about  with  them  a  bell,  a  book,  and  a 
reliquary,  as  well  as  then-  staff.  For  these  things 
beautiful  cases  were  made,  a  few  of  which  are 
preserved.  Among  these  is  the  Menistir  or 
travelling  reliquary  of  St.  Moedoc  of  Ferns,  in  its 
cuir  bouilli  case.  It  is  called  the  Breac  Moedog 
(pr.  Brack  Mogue).  They  are  described  and  illus- 
trated in  Archceologia,  vol.  43.2  These  reliquaries 
were  usually  house-shaped  with  vertical  walls  and 

1  For  an  excellent  contemporary  picture  of  a  pilgrim  with  a  branch 
of  holy  palm  tied  to  his  staff  and  scrip  suspended  from  his  shoulders, 
see  illustration  in  Clinch's  Old  English  Churches  of  a  mural  painting 
in  Faversham  Church. 

*  They,  however,  must  be  renewals,  as  they  cannot  be  anything 
like  as  old  as  the  6th  century. 


The  Kirkby  Font  91 

pointed  roofs,  like  oratories.  There  is  a  late 
(Limoges,  enamelled)  metal  example  in  the  Mayer 
Collection,  Liverpool  Museum.  The  shrine  of 
St.  Boniface  in  Brixworth  Church  is  similarly 
shaped  in  stone.  And  other  examples  will  come 
to  mind,  as,  for  instance,  the  one  on  the  Bayeux 
Tapestry  on  which  Harold  takes  the  oath  to 
William. 

That  reliquaries  were  carried  about  is  shown 
by  a  passage  in  Bede.  He  tells  us  that  the 
Gaulish  Bishops,  Germanus  of  Auxerre  and  Lupus 
of  Troyes1,  came  to  Britain2  to  refute  the  Pelagian 
heresy,  and  after  meeting  and  confounding 
Pelagius  himself,  Germanus  performed  a  miracle 
in  making  a  blind  girl  see.  He  says  :  "  Germanus 
full  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  invoking  the  Trinity,  took 
into  his  hands  a  casket,  containing  the  relics  of 
the  saints,  which  hung  about  his  neck,  and  applied 
it,  in  the  sight  of  all,  to  the  girl's  eyes,  which 
were  immediately  delivered  from  the  darkness 
.  .  .  '  The  portable  reliquary  of  St.  Moedoc  is 
8J  by  3|  by  1\  ins.  high,  and  contained  relics 
brought  from  Rome  by  St.  Molaise  of  Devenish 
and  presented  to  St.  Moedoc.  The  case  of  beauti- 
fully figured  cuir  bouilli8  has  a  strap  handle 
forming  a  loop  and  attached  to  each  side. 

My  suggestion  is  that  P. 5  has,  suspended  by 
its  strap  handle  from  his  neck,  a  satchel  contain- 
ing a  house-shaped  travelling  reliquary ;  that 
the  upper  part  corresponds  to  the  roof,  with  over- 
hanging eaves,  and  the  lower  part  is  vertical, 
covering  the  upright  walls.  The  measurements 
confirm  this  view.  The  ratio  of  width  to  height 
is  as  10  :  8  and  of  the  Breac  Moedog  is  as  8J  :  7J 

1  Both  afterwards  canonised.  Germanus  is  Saint  Germain 
1'Auxerrois  of  Paris,  St.  German  of  Peel,  and  St.  Garmon  of  Capel 
Garmon  and  Llanarmon. 

2A.D.  429. 

*  Chaucer's  "  coorbuly." 


92  The  Kirkby  Font 

(10  :  8=8f :  7J).  I  tried  also  comparisons  with 
the  dimensions  of  the  figure,  but  they  could  not 
be  made,  as  the  proportions  are  all  wrong.  His 
head,  for  instance,  is  25  per  cent,  of  his  height, 
instead  of  15  per  cent.,  as  in  nature.  The  width 
of  his  chest  is  nearly  twice  what  it  should  be  for 
his  height.  As  I  have  said,  mediaeval  artists  did 
not  trouble  about  exact  proportions.  They  made 
large  the  parts  to  which  they  wished  to  draw 
attention,  and  here  they  have  somewhat 
emphasised  the  reliquary.  The  large  hole  in  the 
side  of  the  reliquary  I  have  attributed  to  a  fault 
in  the  stone,  made  larger  probably  by  the  school 
children.  It  is  very  tempting,  though,  to  suggest 
that  the  hole  was  first  made  by  the  sculptor  in 
imitation  of  St.  Chad's  original  shrine  as  described 
by  Bede  :  '  The  place  of  the  sepulchre  is  ... 
made  like  a  little  house  ....  having  a  hole1  in 
the  wall,  through  which  those  that  go  thither  for 
devotion  usually  put  their  hand  and  take  out 
some  dust,  which  they  put  into  water  and  give 
to  sick  cattle  or  men  to  drink,  upon  which  they 
are  presently  eased  of  their  infirmity  and  restored 
to  health." 

P. 6  is  bearded  and,  I  think,  tonsured,  but  a 
large  part  of  the  top  of  his  head  has  gone,  either 
broken  off  when  the  lock  staples  were  wrenched 
out  or  split  off  by  natural  processes.  He  has  a 
short  chasuble,  very  like  the  little  P.I  figure, 
but  he  is  as  tall  as  P. 5,  i.e.,  16 J  ins.  Only  one 
vestment  is  visible  worn  beneath  his  chasuble, 
but  there  is  a  suspicion  of  something  pointed 
hanging  over  his  left  leg.  It  might  indicate  the 
hanging  pocket  we  are  told  Anglo-Saxon  and 
early  Norman  priests  wore.  It  was  later 
restricted  to  bishops  as  the  subcingulum,  and  is 

1  Such    holes    in    shrine    walls   may   still   be   seen    at    St.    Davids 
(Pembrokeshire) . 


THE   FIGURES   P  7  and  6. 


THE   FIGURE   P7. 


The  Kirkby  Font  93 

now,  I  understand,  only  worn  by  the  Pope  on 
certain  solemn  occasions.  P. 6  has  his  fingers 
interlocked,  and  he  presses  a  book  against  his 
breast.  The  fingers  are  not  placed  alternately, 
as  is  usual,  but  the  middle  and  ring  fingers  of 
the  left  hand  appear  between  the  index  and  little 
fingers  of  the  right. 

The  next  to  him  is  P.7.  I  think  he  also  is 
bearded  and  tonsured,  but  his  face  is  much  worn. 
He  has  a  chasuble  over  his  alb  and  the  point  of 
the  former  nearly  touches  the  lower  edge  of  the 
latter.  A  line  of  fissure  in  the  stone  runs  obliquely 
from  the  arch  near  the  right  side  of  his  head  down 
through  his  right  shoulder  to  his  left  knee.  He 
is  16  ins.  high.  His  left  arm  is  bent  at  the  elbow 
and  the  hand  is  brought  to  his  side  in  front,  with 
the  palm  turned  up,  the  fingers  bent  sharply 
upwards,  and  the  thumb  widely  separated  from 
them.  On  the  hand  rests  an  oval  lump,  and  on 
the  top  of  it  the  right  hand  lies,  palm  downwards, 
with  the  tips  of  the  fingers  only  slightly  bent. 
The  left  end  of  the  oval  lump  which  he  carries  is 
rounded  and  divided  off  from  the  rest  by  a  con- 
striction. The  right  end  is  irregular  and  ter- 
minates in  two  small  oval  pieces,  while  in  front 
of  the  middle  a  V-shaped  piece,  pointing  to  the 
right,  is  to  be  distinguished,  and  the  priest's 
right  hand  seems  to  catch  hold  of  its  upper  end. 
A  tracing  of  the  parts  gives  the  outline  seen  in 
the  diagram,  and  I  have  not  the  least  doubt  that 
what  P. 7  holds  in  his  hands  is  an  infant.  Mr. 
Roberts  takes  the  "  lump  "  to  be  the  priest's  left 
hand  crossed  over  his  right,  and  what  are  clearly 
fingers  of  the  left  hand  he  takes  to  be  the  right 
hand,  and  so  speaks  of  "  folded  arms." 

Attention  may  be  called  to  the  excessive 
breadth  of  this  figure  in  proportion  to  its  height. 
Indeed,  all  the  figures  are  disproportionately 


94  The  Kirkby  Font 

broad,  but  P. 7  most  of  all.  It  is  most  likely  due 
to  bad  spacing,  which  left  the  niche  too  wide,  and 
it  had  to  be  filled.  Still  we  must  remember,  when 
considering  breadth,  that  in  those  days  there 
were  no  fireplaces  and  no  warming  of  buildings 
and  it  is  on  record  that  sometimes  enormous 
quantities  of  clothes  were  worn.  It  was  said 
that  in  life  Becket  looked  stout,  but  when  un- 
dressed1 for  burial  he  was  found  to  be  very 
emaciated. 

We  have  now  completed  the  circuit  of  the  font 
and  have  come  back  to  Adam  and  Eve.  If  we 
count  the  serpent  round  the  tree  as  one,  the  font 
has  twelve  figures.  I  divide  these  into  two 
groups  of  six.  One  group,  now  east,  but  I  should 
think  originally  south,  facing  the  south  door, 
has  in  the  centre  the  Fall  and  Expulsion  from 
Eden,  represented  by  four  figures — Eve,  the 
Serpent,  Adam,  and  the  Angel.  This  group  is 
flanked  by  a  figure  on  the  one  side  representing 
the  promise  of  redemption  and  defeat  of  Satan, 
and  on  the  other  the  way  to  redemption, 
through  baptism. 

While  Christianity  was  gradually  replacing 
paganism,  adult  baptism  was  much  more  usual 
than  that  of  infants.  Children  were  mostly 
allowed  to  grow  old  enough  to  answer  for  them- 
selves. In  those  early  times,  too,  baptism  was 
performed  by  the  bishop  ;  and  except  in  times  of 
great  conversions  baptisms  were  normally  done 
only  at  fixed  times — on  Easter  Eve  and  Whitsun 
Eve.  Baptism  by  parish  priests  (or  their  equiva- 
lent) in  parish  churches  was  legalised  only  in  the 
middle  of  the  8th  century.  Cuthbert  arch- 
bishop of  Canterbury  in  the  year  747  ordered  all 
priests  to  baptise.  But  churches  and  priests  were 

1  He  had  on  eight  garments,  one  over  the  other  :    vide  Spence's 
History  of  the  Church  of  England,  ii.,  204. 


The  Kirkby  Font  95 

still  few  and  far  between,  and  it  was  not  till  the 
time  of  Bishop  ^Ethelwald  (818-828)  that  the 
itinerant  clergy,  working  the  diocese  from  the 
cathedral  of  the  see,  were  abolished  in  Mercia 
and  local  arrangements  made  for  the  cure  of 
souls.  Charlemagne  (768)  ordered  fonts  to  be 
set  up  in  all  churches  having  the  cure  of  souls, 
and  all  children  to  be  baptised  before  they  were 
a  year  old.  The  English  King  Edgar,  in  960, 
decreed  that  baptism  must  not  be  delayed  beyond 
37  days  from  birth.  From  the  llth  century 
onwards  children  were  expected  to  be  baptised 
within  a  few  days  of  their  birth.  But  it  often 
meant  a  serious  journey.  The  parish  church 
might  be  a  long  way  off.  The  Kirkby  baby 
would  have  to  be  carried  6  to  12  miles  or  more, 
first  by  difficult  paths  through  bog  and  moss, 
then  over  the  low  swampland  of  the  River  Alt, 
often  flooded  and  impassable  for  weeks  together, 
Next  came  the  bleak  and  exposed  Longmoor,  then 
more  clay  and  mud  beside  the  Tue  brook,  till 
finally  they  climbed  the  steep  hill  to  Walton. 
And  the  ceremony  over,  all  the  steps  had  to  be 
retraced.  One  can  quite  understand  that  parents 
often  did  not  get  their  children  baptised  quite  as 
soon  as  the  priest  thought  they  ought.  To 
relieve  the  people  from  this  trouble,  and  even 
danger,  the  Kirkby  font  was  made,  and  one 
half  of  the  bowl  was  carved  with  sculpture  setting 
forth  the  doctrine  of  infant  baptism,  the  possi- 
bility of  which  it  now  brought  almost  to  their 
doors. 

It  may  be  argued  that  baptism  cannot  be 
intended  as  the  priest  wears  a  chasuble.  Indeed, 
in  all  the  representations  of  baptism  I  can  recall 
the  priest  is  vested  in  alb  or  surplice  and  stole 
only,  but  they  are  all  late  examples,  and  I  have 


96  The  Kirkby  Font 

already  pointed  out   that  the  restricted  use  of 
the  chasuble  was  comparatively  late. 

If  we  accept  this  interpretation  of  this  half,  the 
other  half  becomes,  at  any  rate,  symmetrical, 
consisting  of  six  figures,  as  follows  : — At  each 
wing  is  a  tonsured  priest  with  short  chasuble  and 
book  in  hand  (P.I  and  P.6).  Next  to  these,  on 
either  side,  is  a  figure  carrying  a  long  staff,  while 
in  the  centre  stand  the  two  mitred  saints  with 
their  emblems  and  the  serpents'  heads  beneath 
their  feet. 

The  imagery  on  the  walls,  windows,  screens  and 
elsewhere  in  the  churches  were  the  lantern  slides 
and  picture  palaces,  and  more,  the  very  books  of 
the  middle  ages.  By  them  the  doctrines  of  the 
Church  and  the  lives  of  the  saints  and  moral 
homilies  were  taught.  The  people  could  not  read 
books,  but  they  read  into  all  these  symbols  what 
they  had  been  taught  from  infancy.  Winchester 
font  illustrates  symbolically  the  Eucharist  and 
scenes  from  the  life  of  St.  Nicholas  of  Myra. 
The  Brighton  font  tells  of  baptism  and  the  Last 
Supper,  with  scenes  from  the  life  of  the  patron 
saint  of  the  church.  The  Curdworth  font,  too, 
has  incidents  connected  with  the  dedication. 
Kirkby  font  illustrates  a  subject  of  Christian 
doctrine — the  reason  for  and  necessity  of  infant 
baptism,  and,  if  I  am  right,  the  other  side  is 
connected  with  the  life  of  the  saint  whose  name 
was  given  to  the  chapel  in  which  it  was  placed 
— St.  Chad,  the  patron  also  of  the  diocese  in 
which  Kirkby  was  until  1541.  St.  Chad,  or  more 
correctly  Ceadda,  was  a  very  popular  saint, 
especially  in  Mercia.  To  him  its  conversion  to 
Christianity  was  attributed.  His  life  of  simple 
piety  and  humility  seems  to  have  appealed  to 
all.  Over  30  churches  are  dedicated  to  him,  chiefly 


The  Kirkby  Font  97 

in  Mercia.1  The  cathedral  of  the  then  great 
Mercian  diocese,  at  Lichfield,  contained  his  shrine, 
and  was  dedicated  to  him,  and  what  is  more 
"  the  glorious  Prince  of  the  Apostles,"  Peter,  had 
been  replaced  in  the  dedication  by  the  simple, 
meek  and  lowly  Chad,  who,  when  removed  from 
being  bishop  of  York  by  that  masterful  Greek, 
Theodore  of  Tarsus,  archbishop  of  Canterbury, 
simply  replied  that  he  gladly  relinquished  it,  as 
he  had  never  felt  himself  worthy  of  so  high  an 
office,  and  had  only  accepted  it  from  obedience. 
Another  evidence  of  the  respect  in  which  Chad 
was  held  is  that  his  cross  is  the  chief  charge  on 
the  arms  of  the  see. 

Travellers  on  the  London  and  North-Western 
Railway  all  know  that  a  view  of  the  cathedral  of 
Lichfield,  with  its  three  spires,  a  mile  away  to  the 
west,  is  obtained  both  before  and  after  passing 
through  the  cutting  in  which  the  Trent  Valley 
station  lies.  But  perhaps  some  are  not  aware  that 
just  half-way  between  them  and  the  cathedral  is 
the  square  tower  with  corner  turret  of  Stowe 
church,  and  beside  it  in  a  garden  is  St.  Chad's 
Well,  the  water  of  which  flows  into  one  of  the 
pools  which  add  so  much  to  the  picturesqueness 
of  the  cathedral  and  its  surroundings.  St.  Chad's 
Pool  (or  Stowe  Pool),  in  which,  before  there  was 
any  church  or  font,  he  was  wont  to  baptise,  has 
now  been  enlarged  into  a  reservoir,  and  the 
sacred  water  that  used  to  work  miracles  is  now, 
I  am  told,  conveyed  in  pipes  to  Burton-on-Trent 
for  beer-making. 

By  the  church  was  Chad's  cell,  where  he  hung 
his  clothes  on  the  sunbeam.  There  he  meditated 
and  prayed,  there  the  angels  visited  him, 

1  When  Offa  conquered  Powys  (Shropshire)  and  took  its  capital, 
Pengwern  (now  Shrewsbury),  he  gave  the  site  of  the  palace  of  the 
Princes  of  Powys  for  a  new  church  to  be  built  in  honour  of  St.  Chad. 


98  The  Kirkby  Font 

and  the  plague  seized  him,  and  he  died 
in  672,  and  beside  it  he  was  buried.  Bede 
says :  "  Chad  died  on  March  2nd,  and  was 
first  buried  by  St.  Mary's  church,  but  afterwards 
when  the  church  of  the  most  holy  Prince  of  the 
Apostles,  Peter,  was  built,  his  bones  were  trans- 
lated to  it."  This  St.  Peter's  church  is  supposed 
to  have  been  the  first  on  the  site  of  the  present 
cathedral,  and  to  have  been  built  by  Bishop 
Headda  (691-720),  but  really  nothing  is  known  of 
it.  History  is  quite  a  blank  for  hundreds  of 
years.  We  do  know  from  recent  excavations 
that  whatever  it  was,  it  was  succeeded  by  a 
Norman  church,  around  the  foundations  of  which 
the  present  Early  English  and  Decorated  cathedral 
is  built.  Who  built  the  Norman  church  is  not 
known,  but  there  is  a  tradition,  or  little 
more,  that  it  was  Roger  de  Clinton  (bishop  1129- 
1148)  who  "  '  built  it  new  '  in  honour  of  St.  Mary 
and  St.  Chad."  So,  as  I  have  already  said,  St. 
Chad  replaced  St.  Peter  as  patron  saint  of  the 
diocese  in  the  12th  century,  apparently  a  few 
years  before  the  Kirkby  font  was  made.  It  may 
be  that  among  other  things  the  sculpture  was 
intended  to  record  this  fact,  showing  as  it  does 
St.  Peter  standing  aside  (may  I  say,  approvingly  ?) 
while  St.  Chad  gives  the  blessing.  Another 
possibility  has  been  suggested.  It  might  have 
reference  to  the  fact  that  Chad  was  twice  a 
bishop,  once  of  St.  Peter's  see  of  York,  and 
secondly  of  Lichfield. 

I  think,  however,  it  is  more  likely  that  it  refers 
to  the  great  controversy  of  Chad's  time — the 
struggle  for  uniformity  in  the  Christian  Church 
— the  throwing  over  of  the  rule  of  St.  Columba 
and  the  acknowledgment  of  St.  Peter  as  prince 
of  the  Apostles,  as  Wilfrid  put  it,  or  as  King 
Oswy  said  in  a  cruder,  personal  and  more  interested 


The  Kirkby  Font  99 

way,  when  as  chairman  at  Whitby  he  summed 
up  the  proceedings  of  the  council:  ".  .  .  he  is  the 
door-keeper,  whom  I  will  not  contradict,  but  will 
as  far  as  I  know  and  am  able,  in  all  ways  obey 
his  decrees,  lest,  when  I  come  to  the  gates  of  the 
Kingdom  of  Heaven,  there  should  be  none  to 
open  them,  he  being  my  adversary  who  is  proved 
to  have  the  keys." 

When  our  font  was  in  the  making  the  great 
struggle  between  Henry  II.  and  Becket  had  not 
long  resulted  in  the  archbishop's  murder. 
Possibly  the  mason's  hand  was  actually  applying 
his  tool  to  the  font  while  Henry  Plantagenet  was 
kneeling  in  penance  at  Becket's  tomb  (1173). 
When  looking  at  these  figures,  I  fancy  I  hear  the 
priest  discoursing  to  his  flock  on  the  life  and 
example  of  St.  Chad  ;  of  what  he  had  done  for 
them  in  his  life  and  how  willing  he  was  always 
to  submit  to  the  authority  of  mother  Church  as 
typified  by  St.  Peter.  The  figures  on  either  side 
may  have  been  used  to  illustrate  his  missionary 
tours  and  monastic  life,  as  attendants  with  book 
and  reliquary  and  the  staff  to  indicate  they  were 
travellers.  At  each  wing  is  a  shorn  priest,  shorn 
as  all  have  been  since  Bishop  Colman  and  the 
discomfited  Scots  retired  from  the  field  as  what 
Bede  calls  a  despised  sect.  These  suggestions  as 
to  the  interpretation  I  make  with  much  diffidence. 
They  rest  on  evidence  of  varied  value  Some,  I 
hope,  will  be  considered  strong  ;  some  is  slight. 
I  trust,  however,  that  the  paper  may  call  atten- 
tion to  this  valuable  and  interesting  relic,  and 
that  others  better  versed  in  mediaeval  archaeology 
will  be  induced  to  study  it  and  help  to  solve  its 
many  problems  and  interpret  its  meaning. 


CARVINGS  OF  MEDIEVAL  MUSICAL 

INSTRUMENTS  IN  MANCHESTER 

CATHEDRAL. 

By  Rev.  H.  A.  Hudson,  M.A.,  F.S.A. 

Read  10th  March,  1921. 


/CONSPICUOUS  among  the  many  interesting 
^  features  of  the  nave  roof  of  Manchester 
Cathedral  is  the  noteworthy  assemblage  of 
minstrel  angels  forming  the  ornamental  supporters 
of  the  wall-posts  beneath  the  beams.  These 
carvings,  both  on  account  of  their  number  and  by 
reason  of  their  artistic  merit,  are  of  such  import- 
ance that  we  might  even  go  so  far  as  to  say  that 
were  the  cathedral  devoid  of  any  other  excellences 
of  mediaeval  woodcraft  this  feature  alone  would 
suffice  to  give  it  distinction  in  this  particular 
department  of  sculpture.  An  integral  part  of  a 
roof  which  in  general  design  and  ornamental 
detail  is  no  whit  inferior  to  the  best  work  of  the 
northern  craftsmen  of  the  late  fifteenth  century, 
these  musical  angels  are  valuable  also  for  other 
reasons.  In  the  first  place  the  series  is  one  of  the 
most  complete  of  its  kind  in  existence,  and  may 
be  said  to  mark  an  epoch.  In  point  of  numbers 
also,  and  in  the  variety  of  the  instruments 
represented,  it  exceeds  most  others  that  have 
come  down  to  us ;  and,  by  no  means  least 


Carvings  of  Medieval  Musical  Instruments     101 

important,  the  condition  of  the  carvings  (with  the 
exception  of  the  angels'  wings,  which  have  been 
renewed)  may  be  regarded  as  being  practically 
intact. 

It  should  be  observed  in  passing  that  a  special 
value  attaches  to  such  sculptures  in  general,  on 
account  of  the  light  which  they  throw  upon  the 
actual  forms  of  early  instruments,  many  of  which 
are  now  obsolete,  as  well  as  upon  the  mode  in 
which  they  were  played.  From  the  nature  of  the 
case  this  light  is  fuller  and  often  more  reliable 
than  that  derived  from  other  sources  of  informa- 
tion, among  which  may  be  mentioned  the  repre- 
sentations found  in  stained  glass,  illuminated 
manuscripts  and  monumental  brasses. 

The  carvings  under  review  are  fourteen  in 
number,  each  portraying  a  half-length  figure  of 
an  angel  clad  in  alb  and  amice  and  engaged  in 
playing  a  musical  instrument.  The  figures 
average  2  ft.  10  in.  in  length,  the  total  measure- 
ment, including  wings  and  instruments,  ranging 
from  4  ft.  to  5  ft.  1  in.  The  conventional  clouds 
from  which  the  demi-angel  usually  issues  in  such 
situations  are  absent,  the  figures  being  set  directly 
upon  the  capitals  of  the  bay  shafts  with  an  out- 
ward tilt  of  55  degrees.  All  the  instruments  are 
different,  no  two  being  exactly  alike,  although  in 
one  case,  namely  the  bagpipe,  two  varieties  of 
the  same  instrument  are  shown. 

It  need  scarcely  be  pointed  out  that  musical 
instruments  of  all  ages,  whether  ancient  or  modern, 
are  essentially  of  three  kinds  only,  namely  :  those 
of  percussion,  those  for  wind,  and  those  for 
strings.  All  three  categories  are  represented  here 
as  may  be  seen  from  the  following  table,  which 
gives  the  Manchester  instruments  as  they  now 
appear  : 


102  Carvings  of  Medieval  Musical 

NORTH  SIDE  SOUTH  SIDE 

(from  West  to  East).  (from  East  to  West). 

1.  Tabor,  or  Drum.  8.  Portative  Organ. 

2.  Recorder.  9.  Harp. 

3.  Irish  Bagpipe.  10.  Psaltery. 

4.  Scottish  Bagpipe.  11.  Dulcimer. 

5.  Shawm,  or  Oboe.  12.  Lute. 

6.  Trumpet,  or  Clarion.  13.  Fithele. 

7.  Clavicymbal.  14.  Symphony,  or 

Hurdy-gurdy. 

In  describing  the  instruments  it  will  be  con- 
venient to  take  them  in  the  above  order,  which, 
however,  differs  slightly  from  the  order  given  in 
plate  xxii.  of  Mr.  Crowther's  Architectural  History 
of  the  Cathedral,  where  numbers  2  and  5  are 
transposed.  It  differs  also  in  another  respect  from 
the  order  in  which  they  stood  prior  to  the  last 
restoration  of  the  roof.  As  now  arranged,  the 
clavicymbal  is  the  only  stringed-instrument  on 
the  north  side,  and  the  portative  organ  the  only 
wind-instrument  on  the  south.  An  early  photo- 
graph of  the  nave,  dating  from  about  1870  or 
earlier,  in  the  writer's  possession,  shows  that 
these  also  have  been  transposed.  It  may  thus 
be  inferred  that  originally  the  series  on  the  south 
side  consisted  entirely  of  stringed-instruments, 
the  wind  series  being  all  together  on  the  north 
side. 

It  is  a  matter  of  regret  that  we  are  unable  to 
give  photographic  illustrations  of  all  these 
subjects,  and  it  is  therefore  well  to  make  two 
observations  of  a  general  nature  by  way  of 
preface  to  the  detailed  description  that  follows. 
In  the  first  place,  with  regard  to  the  players  : 
there  is  a  good  deal  more  variety  of  expression 
and  grace  of  form,  pose,  and  dress  in  the  carving 
of  the  angels  themselves  than  is  apparent  in  the 
outline  drawings  which  we  are  enabled  to 
reproduce.  This  we  can  vouch  for  from  personal 


Instruments  in  Manchester  Cathedral      103 

examination  at  close  quarters  in  one  instance, 
whilst  confirmatory  testimony  is  provided  by 
one  or  two  photographs  which  have  been  secured. 
Excellent  as  these  drawings  are  so  far  as  they  go, 
they  necessarily  fall  short  in  certain  matters  of 
detail  which,  were  it  possible  to  employ  it  in 
each  case,  a  camera  might  elucidate.  Unfor- 
tunately the  great  height  of  the  subjects,  and 
their  peculiar  situation,  as  well  as  the  bad 
lighting,  especially  of  those  on  the  south  side, 
seem  to  preclude  the  taking  of  successful  photo- 
graphs. 

Then,  secondly,  as  regards  the  instruments  : 
it  should  be  remembered,  as  the  late  Dr.  Henry 
Watson  once  pointed  out,1  that  the  sculptor's 
limitations  in  carving  musical  instruments  in 
relief,  with  the  performers  engaged  in  playing 
them,  are  very  severe,  especially  considering  the 
particular  purpose  and  position  for  which  they 
were  destined  here,  as  in  many  other  places  ; 
and  this  being  the  case,  neither  the  shape  and 
proportions  of  some  of  the  instruments,  nor  the 

1  The  observation  was  made  in  a  discourse  on  these  instruments 
at  a  meeting  of  the  Lancashire  and  Cheshire  Antiquarian  Society, 
on  March  llth,  1910. 

It  was  Dr.  Watson's  expressed  intention  on  this  occasion  to  amplify 
his  remarks  in  a  future  address,  and  afterwards  to  commit  them  to 
writing  with  a  view  to  publication.  Among  local  musicians  few 
were  better  qualified  to  deal  with  the  subject  than  Dr.  Watson,  and 
his  lamented  death  at  the  beginning  of  1911  deprived  both  the 
members  and  the  public  of  a  contribution  to  musical  archaeology 
which  would  have  been  greatly  prized.  Through  the  kindness  of 
a  friend,  we  have  had  an  opportunity  of  examining  Dr.  Watson's 
notes,  and  it  is  mainly  with  their  help  and  that  of  the  splendid 
collections  comprised  in  the  "Henry  Watson  Library"  belonging  to 
the  city,  and  the  "  Henry  Watson  Collection  of  Musical  Instruments  " 
belonging  to  the  Royal  Manchester  College  of  Music,  that  we  have 
been  enabled  to  offer  the  description  of  the  instruments  which  is  here 
presented. 

The  general  subject  may  be  pursued  in  the  delightful  and  informing 
volume  on  Old  English  Instruments  of  Music  by  the  Rev.  F.  W. 
Galpin,  F.S.A.,  to  which  we  have  freely  made  reference  ;  and  for  the 
carved  treatment  the  excellent  publications  on  the  sculptures  at 
Exeter  Cathedral  by  Miss  E.  K.  Prideaux  may  be  consulted  profitably. 


104 


Carvings  of  Mediaeval  Musical 


method  in  which  they  were  held  and  played,  are 
strictly  to  be  determined  by  such  representations 
alone  as  are  supplied  by  series  of  carvings  like 
that  under  consideration. 

1 . — TABOR. 

Our  first  instrument  is  a  Tabor,  which  was  a 
little  drum  slung  by  a  short  string  from  the 
waist,  shoulder,  or  left  arm,  and  tapped  with  a 
small  stick  or  pair  of  sticks. 
The  tabor  is  the  sole  represen- 
tative here  of  the  instruments 
of  percussion,  which  in  early 
times  formed  a  numerous  class, 
and  included  the  cymbals, 
crotula  or  castanets,  triangulum, 
sistrum,  tintinnabula,  and 
others. 

The  members  of  the  old 
drum  family  may  be  grouped 
under  three  headings :  first, 
the  Timbrel,  or  tambourine  ; 
secondly,  the  Nakers,  or  kettle- 
drums ;  and  thirdly  the  Tabor,  or  drum  proper. 

The  timbrel  is  of  very  ancient  lineage  and  was 
used  in  processions  and  on  occasions  of  solemn 
rejoicing,  the  performers  frequently  being  females. 
Thus,  after  the  Egyptian  overthrow,  Miriam 
"  took  a  timbrel  in  her  hand  and  all  the  women 
went  out  after  her  with  timbrels  and  with  dances."1 
So  Jephthah's  daughter  went  forth  to  meet  her 
father  "  with  timbrels  and  with  dances."'  In  his 
poem  David  and  Goliath  the  victor's  return  is  thus 
described  by  Drayton  : 

"  Field,  town  and  city  with  his  fame  do  ring, 
The  tender  Virgins  on  their  timbrels  sing 
Ditties  of  him."* 

1  Ex.,  xv..  20.  •  Judg..  xi..  34. 

*  Galpin,   Old  English   Instruments  of  Music,   p.   241. 


PLATE  I. 


1 .     Pipe  and  Tabor  on  a  misericord  at  Exeter  Cathedral 
(XIII.  Cent.). 


2.     Nakers  and  Clarion  on  a  misericord  at  Worcester  Cathedral 
(XIV.  Cent.). 


Instruments  in  Manchester  Cathedral       105 

And  it  may  be  remembered  that  the  religious 
procession  in  Edwin  Long's  picture,  "  The  Flight 
into  Egypt  "  is  headed  by  a  band  of  female 
musicians,  several  of  whom  play  timbrels.  A 
good  example  of  the  mediaeval  timbrel,  having  a 
double  row  of  jingles,  appears  in  the  Minstrel 
Gallery  at  Exeter. 

The  nakers,  often  found  in  mediaeval  carvings 
(PI.  1.2)  and  illuminations,  derive  their  name  and 
use,  like  many  other  instruments,  from  the 
Arabs.  From  this  source,  perhaps  by  way  of 
Spain,  whence  also  we  adopted  the  Moorish  or 
Morris-dance,  they  came  to  England  ;  or  it  may 
be  that  their  actual  introduction  here  was  due  to 
the  Crusaders.  Engel  remarks  that  "  names  of 
musical  instruments  derived  from  the  Moors  in 
Spain  occur  in  almost  every  European  language."1 
The  nakers  are  to  be  regarded  as  the  progenitors 
of  the  modern  timpani,  or  kettle-drums. 

Of  the  tabor,  or  drum  proper,  there  were  both 
large  and  small  kinds  ;  the  smaller,  to  which  our 
example  belongs,  being  called  the  tabourell  in 
Queen  Elizabeth's  time.  As  a  solo  instrument  it 
is  properly  played  with  two  drum-sticks  ;  and 
although  the  specimen  represented  here  appears 
to  be  quite  plain,  it  should  be  pointed  out  that  a 
vibrating  cord  of  catgut,  called  a  "  snare,"  was 
commonly  stretched  across  the  parchment  of  all 
the  drum  family  :  also,  that  the  side-cords  or* 
'  braces  "  used  for  tightening  the  skins  of  the 
double-headed  drum  were  known  both  to  the 
Egyptians  and  the  Romans. 

The  tabor-player  was  often  provided  with  a 
pipe  which  he  held  in  his  left  hand  and  blew  like 
a  whistle,  whilst  he  thumped  his  tabor  with  the 
drum-stick  in  his  right  hand  (PI.  I.I).  The  pipe 
had  only  three  holes,  but  by  means  of  harmonics 

1  Musical  Instruments,  p.  56. 


106 


Carvings  of  Medieval  Musical 


a  scale  of  nearly  two  octaves  was  possible.  So 
for  the  dance  the  whistle-pipe  gave  the  melody 
while  the  tabor  marked  the  rhythm. 

The  drum  and  fife  band  is  the  lineal  descendant 
of  the  mediaeval  pipe  and  tabor,  which  thus 
become  the  ancestors  of  the  modern  military 
band. 

2. — RECORDER. 

A  varied  succession  of  pipers  accompanies  our 
taborist  here ;  indeed,  with  one  exception,  all 
the  rest  of  the  instruments  on  the  north  side 

belong  to  the  wind  series. 
The  Recorder  now  to 
be  considered  is  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Flute  family, 
and  although  now  obso- 
lete it  was  once  held  in 
great  esteem.  A  species 
of  flageolet,  it  is  thus 
described  by  Bacon : 
"The  figures  of  recorders, 
flutes,  and  pipes  are 
straight ;  but  the  re- 
corder hath  a  less  bore, 
and  a  greater  above  and  below/'1  We  find  it  men- 
tioned by  Shakespeare,  Pepys,  and  Milton,  the 
references  in  Hamlet  being  well-known  ;  to  play 
it,  according  to  the  Danish  prince,  was 

"  As  easy  as  lying  :  govern  these  ventages  with  your 
fingers  and  thumb,  give  it  breath  with  your  mouth,  and  it 
will  discourse  most  eloquent  music."  (Act  iii.,  Sc.  2.) 

Owing  to  its  popularity  in  England  the  French 
called  the  recorder,  or  beaked-flute  (flute  a  bee), 
"  la  flute  d'Angleterre."  The  thumb-hole  at  the 
back,  referred  to  in  the  above  passage,  was  one 
of  its  distinguishing  marks.  It  had  commonly 
seven  finger-holes  and  was  played,  as  represented 

1  See  En  gel,  p.   125. 


PLATE    II. 


MANXHESTER    CATHEDRAL 
Angel  playing  a  Recorder  (late  XV.  Cent.). 


Instruments  in  Manchester  Cathedral       107 

here,  like  a  clarinet,  and  not  transversely  as  the 
German  flute  which  has  taken  its  place. 

Like  the  viols,  the  recorders  were  made  in 
sets,  and  a  unique  English  set  of  four,  belonging  to 
the  Chester  Archaeological  Society,  was  exhibited 
and  described  by  Dr.  J.  C.  Bridge  at  the  Society 
of  Antiquaries  in  1912.1  On  this  occasion  Dr. 
Bridge  quoted  a  highly  interesting  incident 
narrated  in  the  "  Metrical  records  of  the  House 
of  Stanley,"  which  should  appeal  specially  to 
the  patriotic  and  musical  instincts  of  Lancastrians. 
It  describes  the  entertainment  of  the  king  and 
queen  of  Castile,  who,  seeking  shelter  from  a 
storm  on  their  way  home  from  the  Netherlands, 
landed  at  Falmouth  and  were  invited  to  Court 
by  Henry  VII. 

"  When  the  King  of  Castell  was  driven  hether 
By  force  and  violence  of  wyndie  wether, 
He  brought  with  him  that  were  thought  good  musitions, 
There  was  none  better  in  their  opinions  ; 
The  King  of  Castell  saide  their  actes  were  so  able  ; 
They  were  gentlemen  of  howses  notable. 
'  I  have,'  quothe  Henerie  the  Seventh,  '  a  Knyght  my 

servant, 

One  of  the  greatest  earles  sonnes  in  all  my  land, 
He  playeth  on  all  instruments  none  comes  amisse 
Called  Sir  Edward  Stanley  ;    Lo  !    there  he  is  .  .  .' 
This  second  sonne  Edward  (Stanley)  was  married  to  an 

heire 

Of  a  thousand  markes  a  yeare,  of  good  land  and  faire. 
His  playing  on  instruments  was  a  good  noyse,2 
His  singing  as  excellent  with  a  sweete  voice. 
His  countenance  comelie,  with  visage  demure, 
Not  moving,  ne  streininge,  but  stedfast  and  sure. 
He  would  showe  in  a  single  recorder  pype 
As  many  partes  as  any  in  a  bagpype. 

1  See  Proceedings,  xxiv.,   117. 

"  Noise,"  an  old  musical  expression  indicating  the  effect  pro- 
duced by  several  instruments  playing  together.  The  Biblical  use 
of  the  word  is  familiar  :  e.g.,  "  the  noise  of  thy  viols  "  (Ps.  xiv.,  ii)  ; 
"  When  He  saw  the  minstrels  and  the  people  making  a  noise  "  (Matt., 
i.x.,  23). 


108 


Carvings  of  Medieval  Musical 


He  showed  much  conning  those  two  Kings  before 
That  the  others  had  no  luste  to  play  any  more. 
He  played  on  all  instruments  notable  well  : 
But  of  all  things  mused  the  King  of  Castell 
To  heare  two  partes  in  a  single  recorder, 
That  was  beyond  their  estimations  f ar  !  " 

"It  is  evident,"  says  Dr.  Bridge,  commenting 
upon  this  remarkable  episode,  "  that  Sir  Edward 
Stanley  was  able  to  imitate  the  chanter  and  drone 
of  a  bagpipe,  but  I  cannot  explain  how  he  did  it." 
We  suspect,  however,  that,  like  many  another 
entertainer,  he  had  "  something  up  his  sleeve." 
Possibly  his  instrument  was  a  cunningly  contrived 
double  recorder  (PI.  III.l). 

3. — BAGPIPE  (IRISH). 

The  bagpipe,  according  to  William  Lynd,1  is  one 
of  the  most  ancient  instruments  in  the  world. 
Hipkins  describes  it  as  the  organ  reduced  to  its 

most  simple  expression. 
A  syrinx,  or  panpipe, 
with  bag  or  bellows,  is 
represented  on  an  ancient 
terra-cotta  excavated  at 
Tarsus  and  believed  to 
be  two  thousand  years 
old.  The  instrument  was 
known  to  the  Romans  as 
the  tibia  utricularis,  and 
a  bronze  figure  of  a  bag- 
piper was  found  during 
the  excavations  at  Rich- 
borough.2  The  Emperor 

Nero,  whose  musical  proclivities  are  generally 
associated  with  the  fiddle,  is  said  to  have  regarded 
the  bagpipe  with  special  favour. 

There  were  various  kinds  of  bagpipe.  Shake- 
speare puts  an  allusion  to  the  "drone  of  a 

1  Ancient  Musical  Instruments,  p.  28. 
1  Galpin,  p.  174. 


Instruments  in  Manchester  Cathedral      109 


Lincolnshire  bagpipe  "'  into  the  mouth  of  Falstaff. 
Lancashire  and  Northumbrian  pipes  are  also  met 
with.  The  two  main  classes,  however,  are  those 
known  to  us  as  the  Irish  and  Scotch,  the  essential 
difference  between  these  two  varieties  being  that 
in  the  old  Irish  form  the  wind  is  supplied  by  a 
small  bellows  under  the  arm  of  the  player,  whence 
the  instrument  is  known  in  Erse  as  uilleann, 
or  the  elbow-pipes  ;  whereas  in  the  Scottish  the 
performer  fills  his  wind-bag  by  blowing  through 
a  short  pipe  held  in  the  mouth.2 

It  will  be  noticed  that  the  example  before  us 
has  neither  mouthpiece  nor  drone,  but  simply  the 
windbag  and  "  chanter  "  pipe.  Hence  we  assume 
that  it  belongs  to  the  Irish  class.  It  may  be 
added  that  an  illustration  of  a  bagpipe  with 
bellows  attached  to  the  windbag  occurs  in  the 
Syntagma  Musicum  by  Michael  Praetorius  (1619).8 

4. — BAGPIPE  (SCOTTISH). 

The  differences  between  this  and  the  preceding 
example  are  evident.  Here  the  windbag  is  held 

under  the  right  arm,  and 
its  blow-pipe  fixed  in 
the  player's  mouth  ;  also 
in  addition  to  the 
"  chanter,"  a  single 
drone-pipe  appears. 

Often  in  later  instru- 
ments three  or  more 
drones  are  found,  and 
Lynd  describes  a  North- 
umbrian bagpipe  with  as 
many  as  four  drones 
made  of  ivory. 

1  Henry  IV.,  pt.  I,  act  1,  sc.  2. 

2  See    The    Carvings    of  Musical   Instruments    in    Exeter    Cathedral 
Church,  by  Edith  K.  Prideaux,  p.  14. 

3  111.  in   The  History  of  Music,    by    Emil  Naumann,  ed.  Ousclev, 
i.,  263. 


110 


Carvings  of  Mediceval  Musical 


There  exists  a  curious  carving  of  a  bagpiper  on 
one  of  the  brackets  adorning  the  Eleanor 
Percy  tomb  at  Beverley  minster,  where  the  wind- 
bag of  the  instrument  consists  of  a  small  entire 
pig-skin,  with  fore-legs  and  feet  intact,  the  blow- 
pipe being  inserted  in  the  pig's  mouth  (PI.  III.  2). 
That  this  is  no  mere  fancy  of  the  artist  may  be 
inferred  from  a  parallel  custom  related  by  Engel, 
who  remarks  that  in  Poland  and  the  Ukraine  the 
bagpipe  used  to  be  made  of  the  whole  skin  of  the 
goat,  so  that  whenever  the  windbag  was  distended 
the  shape  of  the  animal  was  fully  retained 
exhibiting  even  the  head  with  the  horns  ;  hence 
they  called  the  bagpipe  rosa,  signifying  a  goat.1 

Bagpipes,  although  regarded  as  special  favourites 
of  the  Celtic  races,  were  popular  with  all  classes, 
being  associated  with  folk  and  dance  music  and 
also  freely  found  in  ecclesiastical  sculptures. 
There  is  evidence,  moreover,  of  their  employment 
in  the  homes  of  royalty,  and  it  is  on  record  that 
Henry  VIII.,  who  was  no  mean  musician,  had 
four  bagpipes  in  his  collection  "'  with  pipes  of 
ivorie."2 

5. — SHAWM. 

The  instrument 
depicted  here  is  the 
Shawm,  or  Schalmey,  a 
name  which  was  derived 
through  the  Fr.  chalumeau 
from  "calamus,"  a  reed. 
It  is  perhaps  the  oldest 
of  all  instruments,  and 
therefore  the  parent  of 
all  the  reed  instruments 
of  the  modern  orchestra. 
Schalmey  is  a  term  still 
applied  to  the  lower 


1  Op.  cit..  p.  130. 


1  See  Galpin,  p.  175. 


PLATE  III. 


•• 


1.     Double   Recorder   (or  Shawm)   on  a  boss  of  the  reredos  at 
Beverley  Minster  (XIV.  Cent.). 


2.     Bagpiper    from    the    Percy    tomb   at    Beverley    Minster 
(XIV.  Cent.). 


Instruments  in  Manchester  Cathedral      111 

register  of  the  clarinet.1  The  shawm  appears  to 
have  been  introduced  into  the  West  by  the 
Romans. 

Directly  descended  from  the  schalmey  is  the 
hautbois,  or  waight,  so-called  from  being  used 
by  the  London  watchmen,  or  "  waights,"2  to 
proclaim  the  time  of  the  night.  After  a  toot  or 
short  solo  on  his  instrument  the  watchman  would 
cry  the  hour  in  quaint  fashion,  such  as  :  "  Past 
three  o'clock  and  a  cold  frosty  morning  ;  past 
three  o'clock  :  good  morrow,  masters  all."  The 
name  "  howeboie,"  derived  from  the  Fr.  haut-bois, 
dates  from  Queen  Elizabeth's  time,  and  probably 
indicates  the  shrill  tone  of  the  treble  shawm.8 

The  modern  oboe  family,  including  the  bassoon 
and  fagotto,  is  thus  the  offspring  of  the  shawm, 
its  essential  characteristic  being  the  double  reed  ; 
that  is,  two  thin  slips  of  cane  which  vibrate 
against  each  other.  In  the  single  reed  family,  to 
which  the  clarinet  belongs,  a  single  reed  vibrates 
against  the  natural  tube  or  the  mouthpiece. 
Bagpipes,  it  has  been  pointed  out,  frequently 
exhibit  both  ;  the  chanter-pipe  having  a  double 

1  Naumann,  i.,  261,  n. 

2  We  first  hear  of  the  Manchester  "  waights,"  who  were  the  town 
minstrels  rather  than  watchmen,  in  the  Court  Leet  records  of   1563. 
They  were  at  first  two  in  number,  but  were  later  increased  to  four. 
Among  their  specified  duties  were  "  playing  mornying  and  euening 
to  gether  according  as  others  haue  bene  accustomed  to  doe  "  ;    they 
played  also  at  other  times,  as  for  example  on  civic  occasions  and  at 
weddings.     They   were  appointed,   though   apparently  not   paid,   by 
the  court,  and  had  the  assistance  of  the  constables  of  the  town  in 
"  gathering  "    their   wages.     Very   likely   they   would   wear,    as   was 
customary    elsewhere,  a  badge  of    office.      A  fine  set    of    four  such 
badges,  with  silver  collars,  dating  from  the  time  of  Queen  Mary,  is 
preserved  at  Bristol.     (See   Society  of   Antiquaries  Proceedings,  xiii., 
262.) 

A  quaint  survival  of  a  similar  official  personage  is  the  horn-blower 
of  the  "  Wakeman,"  now  Mayor,  of  Ripon,  who  still  blows  his  horn 
on  the  Town  Hall  steps  at  nightfall,  the  citizens  being  thereby 
reminded  that  "  Except  the  Lord  keep  the  city  the  wakeman  (i.e., 
watchman)  waketh  but  in  vain." — Ps.  cxxvii.  2. 

3  Galpin,  p.  165. 


112  Carvings  of  Medieval  Musical 

reed  and  the  drones  a  single/  Along  with  the 
bagpipes  the  shawm  was  the  intimate  companion 
of  the  wandering  minstrels  of  Central  Europe. 

6. — TRUMPET,  OR  CLARION. 
"  With  trumpets  also  and  shawms "  is  a 
familiar  invitation  to  praise.  The  conjunction  of 
the  instruments  here  is  therefore  appropriate. 
But  trumpets,  with  their  big  and  little  brothers, 
the  Buzine  (Lat.  buccina)  and  the  Clarion,  had 
other  functions  ;  sometimes  it  was  the  pageantry 
of  courts  that  called  them  ;  at  others,  as  at 
Crecy  and  Agincourt,  they  are  found  in  martial 
array  among  the 

"  Pypes,  trompes,  nakers,  and  clariounes, 
That  in  the  bataille  bio  wen  blody  sounes."  * 

The  earlier  mediaeval  "  trompes  "  had  a  long 
straight  cylindrical  tube  which  varied  in  length 
from  three  or  four  feet  to  six  or  seven  feet,  and 

terminated  in  a  spreading 
bell.  Gradually  and  for 
the  sake  of  convenience 
the  long  straight  form 
gave  way  to  the  bent 
tube,  sometimes  shaped 
in  zigzag  fashion  (PI.  1.2), 
but  afterwards,  as  in  the 
case  before  us,  with  a 
double  bend  folded  over 
upon  itself,  which  gives 
a  better  construction. 
Thus  Herman,  an  early 
sixteenth  century  writer, 
tells  us  that  "  a  Trom- 

pette  is  straight,  but  a  Clarion  is  wounde  in  and 
out  with  a  hope."3 

1  Lynd,  p.  22. 

1  Chaucer,  The  Knight's  Tale,  1.  1653  (ed.  Skeat). 

•  Galpin,  p.  203. 


PLATE  IV. 


MAXCHKSTKK    CATHKI  iKAI.. 
Angel  playing  a  Clavicymbal  (late  XV.  Cent.). 


Instruments  in  Manchester  Cathedral      113 


Both  the  clarion  and  the  buzine,  as  the  shorter 
and  longer  forms  of  the  mediaeval  trumpet  were 
denominated,  have  disappeared,  the  former  giving 
place  to  the  clarinet,  whose  high  notes  made  an 
effective  substitute  for  those  of  the  clarion  ;  and 
the  latter  to  the  sackbut,  a  slide  instrument  which, 
judging  from  the  Bible  and  Book  of  Common 
Prayer,  had  become  well-known  in  the  seventeenth 
century,  and  is  found  in  the  modern  orchestra 
under  the  name  of  trombone. 

7. — CLAVICYMBAL. 

Our  next  two  instruments  are  of  exceptional 
interest  as  introducing  us  to  the  forerunners  of 
the  keyed  instruments  which  issued  in  the  piano- 
forte and  organ  of  modern  days.  Although  the 
Clavicymbal  here  represented  resembles  in  shape 
the  grand-piano,  its  fellow  the  clavichord,  a 
unique  example  of  which  is  figured  in  the  fine  roof 
sculpture  of  St.  Mary's,  Shrewsbury,  is  actually 
the  real  ancestor  of  the  piano. 

The  essential  difference 
between  these  two  keyed  string 
instruments  of  mediaeval  times 
subsists  in  the  mode  of  oper- 
ating the  strings.  Both  were 
derived  from  earlier  forms, 
and  may  be  regarded  as  the 
application  of  the  mechanical 
principle  to  pre-existing  in- 
struments played  by  hand, 
such  as  the  psaltery  and  citole, 
which  were  played  with  a 
plectrum  or  plucked  by  the 
fingers ;  and  the  dulcimer, 
whose  wire  strings  were  struck 
by  hammers.  The  clavicymbal 
embodied  the  former  of  these  two  principles. 


114  Carvings  of  Mediceval  Musical 

The  earlier  keyed-psaltery  from  which  it  was 
derived  was  introduced  by  the  Italians  about 
1400,  and  was  called  the  clavicytherium,  or  keyed- 
harp.  The  English  clavicymbal  (Ital.  clavicembalo) 
developing  the  same  principle  of  plucking  the 
strings  mechanically,  became  in  turn  the 
virginal,  harpischord,  and  spinet;1  the  strings  in 
each  case  being  twanged  by  means  of  small 
portions  of  crowquill,  whalebone,  or  leather 
attached  to  slips  of  wood  called  "  jacks,"  which 
were  provided  with  springs  and  connected  with 
the  keys. 

Early  representations  of  this  instrument,  which 
assumed  its  form  about  the  beginning  of  the 
fifteenth  century,  are  extremely  rare,  and 
accordingly  the  value  of  the  specimen  here  is 
enhanced.  From  its  peculiar  shape,  resembling 
somewhat  the  wing  of  a  bird,  the  clavicymbal  was 
called  the  "  flugel  "  by  the  Germans.  A  beautiful 
Venetian  example2  of  the  instrument  itself,  adorned 
with  painting,  is  now  in  the  Victoria  and  Albert 
Museum.  It  is  dated  1574,  and  measures  7  ft. 
4  in.  by  3  ft.  by  9J  in. 

8. — PORTATIVE  ORGAN. 

It  requires  some  effort  of  imagination  to  realize 
that  the  winsome  little  model  so  charmingly 
portrayed  here  is  not  a  mere  concept  of  artistic 
fancy,  but,  on  the  contrary,  that  it  represents  an 
actual  and  important  adjunct  of  processional  and 
other  uses  in  the  mediaeval  services  of  the  church 
and  elsewhere,  and  is  withal  in  essentials  the 
prototype  of  the  "  king  of  instruments "  of 
to-day. 

This  popular  little  instrument  called  the 
"  Portative  "  was  so  named  because  it  could  be 

1  The  spinet  (Ital.  spinetta  or  spinetto)  is  said  to  derive  its  name 
from  the  little  quill  (spina,  a  thorn)  belonging  to  its  mechanism. 

*  111.  by  Engel,  op.  cit..  fig.  66. 


Instruments  in  Manchester  Cathedral      115 


carried  about  during  performance,  in  contra- 
distinction to  the  "  positive,"  or  standing  organ, 
which  was  placed  on  a  table  or  rested  on  the 
ground  (PL  V.  2).  Both  are  alluded  to  in  the  will  of 
Richard  Fitz- James,  bishop  of  London,  1522,  who 


bequeathed  his  "  payre  of  portatyves  "x  and  his 
"  organs  being  and  standing  in  my  chapels  "  to 
his  successor.2  The  fact,  which  is  here  implied, 
that  both  these  little  organs  could  be  moved  about 
explains  a  custom  which  obtained  in  the  sixteenth 
century  and  is  illustrated  in  the  churchwardens' 
accounts  of  the  period,  namely,  the  lending  of 
organs  from  one  church  to  another ;  as,  for 
example,  at  St.  Margaret's,  Westminster  : 

1508.  "  For  bringing  the  organs  of  the  Abbey  into  the 
Church,  and  bering  them  home  agayne,  i\d.  "  ; 

and  at  St.  Mary  at  Hill,  London  : 

1519.     "  For    bringing    the    organs    from    St.    Andrews' 

1  It  is  hardly  necessary  to  explain  that  the  old  English  "payre" 
means  a  complete  set,  and  is  irrespective  of  the  number  of  parts  com- 
posing the  set :  e.g.,  a  "  pair  of  beads,"  or  "  a  pair  of  scissors." 

1  Hopkins  and  Rimbault's  History  of  the  Organ,  ed.  1865,  p.  38. 


116  Carvings  of  Medieval  Musical 

church  against  St.  Barnabas  eve  and  carrying  them  back 
again  vd."i 

In  later  days  the  movable  "  positive "  was 
attached  permanently  to  the  "  great  "  organ  of 
a  church,  and  as  the  organist  was  placed  at  first 
between  them  with  his  back  to  the  "  positive", 
the  name  "  chair  "  organ  was  at  one  time  applied 
to  this  portion  of  the  united  instrument. 

A  popular  development  of  the  portative  was 
the  instrument  called  the  regal,  which  some  derive 
from  the  Ital.  rigabello,  and  others  from  the 
Lat.  regula,  indicating  its  employment  for  ruling 
the  plain-chant  of  the  services.  Its  characteristic 
as  distinct  from  the  portative  was  its  possession 
of  one  or  more  sets  of  reeds  ;  hence  the  terms 
"  single  "  and  "  double  "  regals.  So  convenient 
were  these  instruments  that  they  were  used  by 
the  travelling  minstrels  and  by  performers  at 
pageants  ;  and  that  they  were  also  acceptable  at 
Court  is  shown  by  the  inclusion  of  several  "  paire  " 
of  them  among  the  musical  instruments  mentioned 
in  the  inventory  of  Henry  VIII.'s  "  Household 
stuff e  and  other  implements."* 

When  being  played  the  portative  was  either 
suspended  from  the  shoulder  by  a  strap,  or  rested 
upon  the  performer's  knee.  Usually  it  was  played 
with  the  right  hand,  the  bellows,  single  or  double, 
being  worked  by  the  left,  as  shown  here.  Some- 
times, as  in  a  delightful  little  group  on  the  Percy 
tomb  at  Beverley  (PI.  V.I),  the  order  is  reversed, 
but  it  must  surely  have  required  a  lusty  courage 
to  sing,  play,  and  blow  the  organ  at  the  same 
time,  as  there  portrayed. 

The  number  of  pipes  varied  greatly  :  in  the 
early  examples  they  were  comparatively  few. 

1  Ibid.,  p.  46  ;    see  also  Dr.  Cox's  Churchwardens'  Accounts. 

2  The  inventory  is  printed  at  length  in  Galpin's  History,   App.   4, 
p.  292. 


PLATE    V. 


1.      Psaltery,   Portative  Organ  and   Harp  (broken)  ;    a  group  in 
the  vaulting  of  the  Percy  tomb,  Beverley  Minster  (XIV.  Cent.). 


2.     Positive   Organ   on   a   misericord   at   Boston   Church,    Lines. 
(XIV.  Cent.). 


Instruments  in  Manchester  Cathedral       117 


Here  it  is  calculated  that  there  may  be  as  many 
as  sixty-five  ;  four  or  five  in  a  rank  in  the  upper 
register  dwindling  to  two  in  the  lower. 

9.— HARP. 

Although  the  instrument  represented  here  has 
a  certain  resemblance  to  the  Irish  harp,  or  clarsech, 
due  to  the  slight  curve  of  the  front-piece,  there 
is  reason  for  supposing*  that  the  carving  was 
more  probably  intended  to  depict  the  English 


Harp  of  the  period  used  by  the  minstrels.  The 
curved  front-piece  is  one  of  the  characteristic 
differences  between  the  Irish  and  Welsh  harps, 
the  latter  possessing,  like  the  modern  French 
harp,  a  straight  front-pillar.  But  in  the  Irish 
the  bend  is  very  pronounced,  whereas  the  old 
English  form  from  the  eleventh  century  onwards 
persists  in  the  slightly  curved  front. 

The  same  form  is  given  to  the  pig's  harp  in  the 
carving  of  one  of  the  misericords  here.1  This 
carving  (PL  V.2),  it  should  be  noted,  is  an  example 

1  No.  13  on  the  South  side. 


118 


Carvings  of  Mediceval  Musical 


of  the  satire  commonly  directed  against  the 
minstrel  class  in  mediaeval  sculpture.  We  are 
inclined,  therefore,  to  regard  the  specimen  before 
us  as  an  example  of  the  English  minstrel's  harp. 

In  the  early  harps  the  number  of  strings  was 
very  variable,  and  need  not  be  taken  as  an  index 
of  development.  Usually  there  were  eleven  or 
thirteen;1  but  harps  with  five  strings  are  found 
on  the  early  "  Prior's  doorway  "  at  Ely,  and  also 
among  the  much  later  sculptures  in  the  nave  at 
Beverley  Minster  ;  whereas  one  of  the  harpists 
in  the  "  angel  quire  "  at  Lincoln  holds  an  instru- 
ment with  sixteen  strings,  which  is  only  one  less 
than  the  example  here,  although  well  over  two 
hundred  years  older. 

10. — PSALTERY. 

The  next  two  instruments,  although  of  different 
shape,  are  very  similar  in  character,  their  chief 

if  not  their  only  essential 
difference  consisting  in 
the  mode  in  which  they 
were  played.  And  as  the 
plectra  that  plucked  the 
strings  of  the  psaltery 
could  be  used  as  hammers 
for  striking  those  of  the 
dulcimer  there  appears 
a  probability  that  the 
earlier  dulcimers  were 
included  under  the 
general  term  Psaltery.2 

The    psaltery,    as    we 
have  seen,  was  the  proto- 
type   of   the   virginal,   spinet,   and   harpischord. 
Its  shape,  like  that  of  its  successors,  varied.    At 
one    time    it    was    rectangular ;    at    another,   it 

1  Galpin,  p.  16. 
1  Galpin,  p.  57. 


PLATE    VI. 


1.     Viol  at  the  back  of  the  reredos,  Beverley  Minster  (XIV.  Cent.) 


2.      Harp  and   Bagpipe  on  a  misericord  at  Manchester  Cathedral   (late  XV.  Cent). 


Instruments  in  Manchester  Cathedral       119 

appears  like  a  right-angled  triangle  held  point 
upwards  ;  and  then,  all  the  angle  points  being 
flattened,  it  gradually  assumed  the  trapezoid 
form  with  fantastic  outline  which  suggested  to 
the  Italians  the  name  "  strumente  di  porco," 
from  its  supposed  likeness  to  a  pig's  head.  This 
is  the  form  exemplified  here,  and  if  the  instrument 
were  inverted  and  held  as  shown  in  some  illustra- 
tions of  it  the  likeness  would  be  still  more  apparent. 
Chaucer  mentions  the  psaltery  in  the  Miller's 
Tale  (27-30)  : 

"  And  al  above  ther  lay  a  gay  sautrye 
On  which  he  made,  a-nighte's,  melodic 
So  swetely,  that  al  the  chambre  rong, 
And  Angelus  ad  Virginem  he  song." 

When  played  by  a  skilled  hand  the  psaltery 
stood  second  to  no  other  instrument,  and  writers 
praise  its  silvery  tone  in  preference  to  that  of 
any  other.  Some  psalteries  are  shown  played 
with  the  plectrum  ;  here  it  is  twanged  by  the 
fingers,  the  strings  being  apparently  twenty  in 
number. 

11. — DULCIMER. 

In  our  remarks  upon  the  Clavicymbal  we  noted 
that  the  Dulcimer  and  not  the  Psaltery  was  the 
true  parent  of  the  pianoforte.  For  some  centuries 
the  descendants  of  the  keyed-psalteries  held  sway, 
and  the  eighteenth  century  was  well  on  its  way 
before  the  principle  of  the  mediaeval  clavichord, 
derived  as  we  have  seen  from  the  dulcimer,  was 
so  developed  as  to  become  a  serious  competitor 
with  the  harpsichord.  In  the  end,  however,  it 
completely  vanquished  its  rival ;  and  it  is  owing 
chiefly  to  the  inventiveness  and  skill  of  English 
makers  that  the  foreign  instruments  introduced 
into  this  country  about  1760  have  attained  the 
wonderful  degree  of  perfection  that  characterises 


120 


Carvings  of  Mediczval  Musical 


the   modern   piano.     Our   modest   dulcimer   has 
good  reason  to^be  proud  of  its  offspring. 

The  name  of  this  in- 
strument seems  to  be 
derived  from  dolce,  sweet, 
through  the  intermediate 
dolcemela  (Fr.  douce- 
melle)  ;  "an  appella- 
tion," says  Mr.  Galpin, 
"  given  to  a  '  sweet- 
toned  '  stringed  instru- 
ment used  in  France  in 
the  fourteenth  and 
fifteenth  centuries,  and 
which  possessed  in  the 
succeeding  century  a  key- 
board variety  of  the 
clavichord  type. ' '» 

In  its  earliest  and  simplest  form  this  very 
ancient  instrument  consisted  of  a  flat  piece  of 
wood,  on  which  were  fastened  two  converging 
wooden  strips,  across  which  strings  were  stretched 
tuned  to  the  national  scale.  Later  improvements 
were  the  addition  of  pegs  to  regulate  the  tension 
of  the  strings,  and  the  employment  of  two  flat 
pieces  for  the  body  so  as  to  make  it  a  resonance- 
box.2  The  converging  side  strips  seem  to  have 
determined  the  shape  of  the  dulcimer,  which  here 
possesses  thirteen  strings  and  apparently  rests 
upon  the  lap  of  the  performer. 

A  high  authority  warns  us  that  the  tail-end  of 
king  Nebuchadnezzar's  famous  band  was  not  a 
dulcimer  at  all ;  and  it  is  with  regret  that  we 
take  leave  of  our  sweet-sounding  instrument,  and 
the  familiar  cadence  which  it  rounds  off  so  well, 
and  receive  in  exchange  for  it  in  the  passage  of 

1  Op.  cit..  p.  62. 

*  See  Stainer  and  Barrett's  Dictionary  of  Musical  Terms,  p.  192. 


Instruments  in  Manchester  Cathedral      121 

the  Book  of  Daniel  the  more  "  correct  "  —but 
who  shall  say  euphonious  ? — bagpipe. 

12. — LUTE. 

There  is  little  apparent  connection  between  the 
Lute  of  Shakespeare's  time  and  the  magical 
instrument  that  under  the  cunning  hand  of 
Orpheus 

"  made  trees, 

And  the  mountain-tops  that  freeze, 
Bow  themselves,  when  he  did  sing  :  " 

but  "  references  to  musical  instruments  by  the 
poets  of  several  ages,"  as  a  writer1  reminds  us, 
"  often  tend  to  mislead."  Nevertheless  one 
shrinks  from  the  idea  that  the  mighty  intellect 
that  testified,  as  we  have  seen,  to  the  incon- 
spicuous thumb-hole  at  the  back  of  the  recorder 
should  be  found  stumbling  on  the  slopes  of 
Olympus.  The  Orphean  "  lute,"  however,  seems 
strictly  to  have  been  a  lyre,  or  cithara,  which  was 
a  member  of  the  harp  family,  and  which,  whatever 
its  form — and  it  had  many  forms — was  an  instru- 
ment devoid  both  of  sound-box  and  finger-board. 

The  traditional  form  of 
the  lyre  embodies  the 
legendary  exploits  of 
Hermes  with  the  oxen 
and  the  tortoise,  to  the 
body  of  the  latter  being 
attached  the  horns  of  the 
former,  from  the  con- 
necting jugum,  or  yoke, 
of  which,  the  strings  were 
stretched.  There  seems 
little  doubt  that  the 
Greeks  derived  their  lyre 
from  Egypt  ;  and,  that  it  was  originally  one  of 
the  many  forms  of  their  most  important 

1  In  Stainer  and  Barrett's  Dictionary. 


122  Carvings  of  Medieval  Musical 

instrument  the  harp  is  probable  from  representa- 
tions in  tablets  and  paintings  discovered  in  the 
regions  of  the  Nile.  Very  likely  all  these  various 
early  stringed-instruments  had  at  first  a 
common  starting  point. 

The  main  characteristics  of  the  lute,  like  its 
modern  derivative  the  mandoline,  are  a  deep 
pear-shaped  resonance-box,  and  a  finger-board 
with  frets.  These  relate  it  to  the  guitar  family 
as  represented  by  the  ancient  Egyptian  nefer,  the 
modern  Berber  gytarah,  the  Hindoo  sitar,  which 
had  a  body  made  of  a  gourd,  the  moon-guitar  of 
the  Chinese,  as  well  as  the  mediaeval  cittern  and 
gittern.  The  lute  comes  to  us  from  Spain,  where 
it  was  introduced  by  the  Moors,  and  where  it  is 
still  known  as  the  laud,  a  name  derived  from  the 
Arabic  el'ood,  the  instrument  of  wood. 

Until  the  tenth  century  the  lute  only  possessed 
four  strings,  but  after  this  the  number  was  in- 
creased, and  sometimes,  as  perhaps  is  intended  to 
be  the  case  here,  the  four  strings  were  duplicated. 
The  frets1  of  the  finger-board  divided  the  several 
strings  into  semitones,  and  were  distinguished  by 
letters  of  the  alphabet,"  one  for  each  fret  as  many 
as  there  may  be."  The  upper  end  of  the  neck  was 
usually  bent  back  at  a  sharp  angle,  a  device  taken 
over  from  its  Arab  predecessor  for  increasing  the 
bearing  of  the  strings.  The  sound-hole  is  called 
in  an  old  dictionary  the  "  rose  "  ;  and  from  the 
same  source  we  learn  that  the  lutes  of  Bologna 
were  esteemed  the  best  on  account  of  the  wood 
of  which  they  were  made,  which  it  is  quaintly 
said  "'  hath  an  uncommon  disposition  for  pro- 
ducing a  sweet  sound." 

Popular  with  the  jongleurs  in  its  earlier  and 
smaller  forms  known  as  the  mandore  and  the 

1  Derived  from  the  French  ferrette,"  banded  with  iron  or  other 
metal."  (Galpin.) 


Instruments  in  Manchester  Cathedral      123 


pandurine,  the  lute  developed  later  into  the 
formidable  and  complex  theorbo  and  chittarone, 
or  arch-lute.  "  Of  all  stringed  instruments  of 
the  sixteenth  and  seventeenth  centuries,"  says 
Mr.  Galpin,  the  lute  was  also  "  the  most  attrac- 
tive. To  it  the  hero  sang  his  tale  of  chivalry,  the 
mother  hummed  her  lullaby,  the  lover  urged  his 
pleading,  and  the  maiden  gave  her  answer.  By 
such  associations  as  these  the  lute  was  endeared 
to  old  and  young  alike."1 

13. — FITHELE. 

The  name  is  the  old-English  form  of  fidula,  a 
contraction  of  the  Latin  fidicula,  literally  a  small 
stringed  instrument. 

In  ancient  days  there  were  many  stringed 
instruments  played  with  a  bow,  and  their  names, 

shape,  and  variety  are 
almost  legion.  Large  and 
small,  single-stringed  and 
many  -  stringed,  they 
range  from  the  rebab  of 
the  East  and  mighty 
monochord  or  trum- 
scheit  of  the  South,  and 
from  the  ancient  British 
crwth  and  mediaeval 
rebec,  to  the  viols  of 
later  days,  which  in  their 
turn  have  been  sup- 
planted by  the  various 
members  of  the  modern  violin  family. 

A  characteristic  of  the  viol  as  distinct  from  the 
present-day  violin  was  its  flat  back.  This  was  a 
survival  of  earlier  forms,  front  as  well  as  back 
often  appearing  flat  in  the  old  Fitheles,  as  may 
be  seen  here  and  in  examples  at  Exeter  and 


1  Op.  cit.,  p.  40. 


124  Carvings  of  Mediaeval  Musical 

Beverley'(Pl.  VI.  1).  In  all  these  cases  the  instru- 
ment is  of  a  more  or  less  square  or  oblong  shape, 
and  the  incurvation  of  the  waist  is  absent,  which 
must  have  been  detrimental  to  the  bowing ; 
these  features,  together  with  the  ribs,  or  side- 
pieces,  helping  to  distinguish  the  fithele  from  the 
various  crwths,  or  crowds,  rotes  and  rebecs  with 
which  it  is  sometimes  confused. 

The  instrument  here  has  four  strings.  The 
drawing,  however,  does  not  clearly  distinguish 
between  the  sound-holes  and  the  bridge  ;  but 
doubtless  they  are  really  distinct,  as  elsewhere. 
The  curved  bow  will  be  noticed  :  a  form  which 
we  believe  is  now  entirely  obsolete  save  in  the 
case  of  the  double  bass  ;  and  even  here  we  are 
informed  the  straight  bow  is  now  sometimes 
used. 

14. — SYMPHONY. 

Our  last  instrument  is  in  some  respects  the 
most  curious  of  all.  The  Symphony  (Fr.  vielle), 
or  hurdy-gurdy,  was  a  later  form  of  a  larger 
instrument  called  the  organistrum,  which  was 
originally  used  for  ecclesiastical  purposes,  and  at 
first  like  the  organ  required  two  players  to 
manipulate  it,  as  shown  in  the  sculptures  at 


Organistrum.      (From  Jioschervillc,  Rouen  Museum.) 

Boscherville  (above),  and  Santiago,  and  in  many 
manuscript    illustrations.        One    of   the    players 


Instruments  in  Manchester  Cathedral       125 

worked  the  keys,  by  pressing  which  the  strings 
were  "  stopped "  ;  while  the  other  turned  a 
handle  at  the  end  of  the  body  which  caused  a 
wheel  inside  to  revolve  against  the  strings  and 
so  produce  a  sustained  tone,  the  pitch  of  which 
was  regulated  by  the  keys.  In  the  later  deriva- 
tive one  performer  was  able  to  discharge  both 
functions.  The  principle  of  the  hurdy-gurdy  was 
accordingly  that  of  a  viol  sounded  by  a  wheel 
instead  of  a  bow ;  hence  the  name  viette  by 
which  it  was  known  in  France.  The  keys  are 
simply  slides  pushed  back  by  the  player,  with 
projections  to  "  stop  "  the  string. 

The  manner  in  which  the  symphony  was  held 
during  performance  varies.  Sometimes  the  keys 
appear  at  the  top,  as  in  an 
example  found  in  the  Loutrell 
Psalter  ;  in  other  instances  it  is 
held,  as  here,  with  the  keys 
downwards,  in  which  case  the 
slides  when  released  would  fall 
back  by  their  own  weight.  As 
the  vielle  a  roue,  or  viol  with  a 
wheel,  this  curious  instrument 
long  continued  in  use,  and  a 
French  specimen  of  the  nine- 
teenth century  is  included  in 
the  Galpin  collection.1 
"  It  is  generally  supposed,"  says  Dr.  Watson 
in  his  note  on  this  instrument,  "  that  the  ancient 
vielle  (whose  descendant  in  direct  line  was  none 
other  than  the  peripatetic  charmer  of  our  youthful 
days,  the  vanished  hurdy-gurdy)  was  the  proto- 
type of  those  stringed  instruments  which  are 
played  by  friction  ;  in  which  case  it  may  be 
regarded  as  the  real  ancestor  of  the  viol  family." 
It  is  only  fair,  however,  to  say  that  in  tracing  the 
descent  of  this  family  strong  claims  have  been 

1  There  is  another  example  in  the  "  Henry  Watson  Collection  "  at 
Manchester. 


126     Carvings  of  Mediceval  Musical  Instruments 

made  in  other  directions,  as  is  the  case  with 
other  complicated  pedigrees,  but  we  must  forbear 
to  pursue  the  investigation. 

In  concluding  these  notes  upon  this  very  in- 
teresting collection  of  mediaeval  carvings,  the 
writer  would  add  that  it  is  not  without  trepida- 
tion that  he  has  ventured  upon  ground  that 
properly  belongs  to  the  domain  of  the  expert  in 
musical  archaeology.  Should  justification,  how- 
ever, be  needed  for  the  attempt  which  has  been 
made  to  describe  them  he  would  seek  it  in  the 
fact  that  no  account  of  the  carvings  has  hitherto 
been  available.  If,  therefore,  what  is  here 
presented  be  found  to  be  of  use,  no  further  excuse 
is  needed ;  if  not,  none  we  fear  will  be  accepted. 

The  writer's  acknowledgments  are  due  and  are 
hereby  most  gratefully  tendered  to  the  Dean  and 
Chapter  of  the  Cathedral,  to  Messrs.  J.  and  E. 
Cornish,  Ltd.,  for  kindly  allowing  the  reproduc- 
tions from  Crowther's  Architectural  History,  to 
Miss  E.  K.  Prideaux,  Mr.  F.  H.  Crossley,  F.S.A., 
and  the  Rev.  H.  G.  Hiller,  M.A.,  for  the  use  of 
photographs,  and  to  Mr.  J.  F.  Russell,  librarian 
of  the  Henry  Watson  Music  Library,  and  others 
for  help  courteously  rendered  in  various  ways. 


LEASOWE    CASTLE:     ITS    OWNERS 
AND    HISTORY. 

By  E.  Cuthbert  Woods,  L.D.S. 

Read  9th  December,  1920. 


pile  of  buildings  called  The  King  Edward 
A  VII  Memorial  Convalescent  Home  for  Rail- 
waymen,  previously  known  as  Leasowe  Castle, 
has  had  a  fairly  long  and  very  varied  career. 
Helsby,  in  his  edition  of  Ormerod's  Cheshire 
(ii.,  474),  says  it  was  built  by  Ferdinando  fifth  (not 
eighth)  earl  of  Derby,  relying,  no  doubt,  on  the 
stone  in  the  tower  which  bears  the  date  1593,  the 
year  in  which  that  earl  succeeded  his  father 
Henry.  He  further  states  that  the  building  con- 
sisted originally  of  an  octagonal  tower  four 
stories  high,  with  windows  on  every  side  of  its 
octagonal  periphery,  and  surmounted  by  a  flat 
lead  roof. 

The  history  of  the  manor  of  Wallasey,  which 
seems  originally  to  have  included  Poulton  and 
Seacombe,  is  not  at  all  clear,  the  evidence  being 
scanty.  One  moiety  was  held  directly  of  the 
earls  of  Chester,  and  appears  to  have  been  given, 
though  there  is  no  record,  to  Birkenhead  Priory, 
which  acquired  a  mediety  of  the  church.  John 
de  Meoles,  lord  of  Great  Meols,  in  1416  held  7 
bovates  of  land  in  Wallasey  of  the  Prior  of  Birken- 
head in  socage.1  Wallasey  Hall2  was  in  later  days 

1  Inquis.  p.  m. 

2  In  1296  Mary  widow  of  Alan    del  Halle    claimed    dower   against 
the  prior  of  Birkenhead  and  against  Robert  the  son  of  Alan,  in  respect 
of   two   messuages   and   4   bovates    of    land    in    Kirkby    in  Walley  ; 
Chester  Plea  Roll  9,  m.6. 


128        Leasowe  Castle  :  its  Owners  and  History 

considered  the  seat  of  this  "  manor."  The  other 
moiety  of  the  manor  was  held  of  the  honor  of 
Halton  by  the  fourth  part  of  a  knight's  fee  ;  and 
the  second  mediety  of  the  church  was  given 
to  St.  Werburgh's  Abbey  by  one  of  the  Walley 
family.1  The  tenant  or  mesne  lord  of  the  Halton 
part  in  the  time  of  Edward  II.  was  Richard 
Samson  ;  by  1450  he  had  been  succeeded  by  Sir 
Thomas  Stanley  of  Lathom  and  Henry  Litherland 
of  Poulton.2  As  in  other  cases  where  there  is  no 
record  of  change  of  ownership,  the  descent  was 
probably  quite  regular,  through  heiresses. 

The  Becheton  family,  also  prominent  in  Liscard, 
were  considerable  proprietors.  .  Williamson  says  : 

36  Edward  III.  I  find  that  William  de  Becheton  died 
[1359]  seised  of  ...  7  bovates  of  land  in  Wallasey,  leaving 
his  sister  Alice's  (married  to  John  de  Kirkby  in  Walley) 
grand-daughters  his  heirs. 

This  account,  however,  is  not  quite  accurate. 
The  heirs  were  William's  sisters,  Anilia  and 
Ellen,  and  Thomas  son  of  William,  son  of  Robert, 
son  of  John  de  Kirkby  Walley  by  Alice  his  wife, 
a  third  sister.  The  land  was  held  in  socage  of 
Ellen  de  Becheton.* 

Thomas,  first  Lord  Stanley,  who  died  in  1  45 , 
was  found  to  have  held  three  messuages  and  50 
acres  of  land  in  Seacombe,  Liscard,  Poulton  and 
Kirkby  in  Walley,  nothing  being  said  of  any 
"  manor."  The  estate  was  held  of  Robert 
Beconsall  in  socage.* 

The  same  estate  of  three  messuages  and  50 
acres  was  held  by  Thomas  second  earl  of  Derby, 

1  Williamson's  Villare  in  Add.  MS.  6031,  f.  128d.,  at  the  British 
Museum. 

*  Halton  Feodary  in  Ormerod's  Cheshire  (ed.  Helsby),  i.,  707.     In 
a  Chester  Fine  of  1607  the  estate  of  John  Litherland  is  described  as 
the  Manor  of   Wallasey,   with   messuages,   lands,   etc.,   in   Wallasey, 
Liscard,  Poulton  and  Seacombe. 

»  Chester  Inq.  p.  m.,  36  Edw.  III.,  no.  15. 

*  Inquis.   post  mortem  in   Dep.   Keeper's   Report  xxxvii.,   676. 


Leasowe  Castle  :  its  Owners  and  History        129 

who  died  in  1521,  of  the  heirs  of  Robert  Beconsall.1 
Ferdinando,  the  fifth  earl  (1595),  reputed  builder 
of  the  Castle,  is  stated  to  have  held  the  manor 
of  Wallasey  ;  his  three  daughters  were  co-heirs. 
Williamson  says  further  : 

In  the  40  Elizabeth  William  earl  of  Derby  [brother  and 
successor  of  Ferdinando]  passed  over  this  "  manor  "  by  the 
name  of  Kirkby-Walley  alias  Walezey  ;2  and  12  James  I. 
I  find  that  Sir  John  Egerton  died  seised  of  this  manor,  3 
messuages,  2  tofts,  500  acres  of  land,  200  of  meadow,  1000 
of  pasture,  etc.,  and  4s.  rent  cum  pertinentiis  in  Walezey,  late 
part  of  the  possessions  of  William  earl  of  Derby  ;3  and  John 
Egerton  is  lord  thereof,  1710. 

Earl  Ferdinando,  who  was  born  in  London 
about  1559,  seems  to  have  been  a  precocious  boy, 
matriculating  at  the  age  of  twelve  at  St.  John's 
College,  Oxford.  In  1579,  as  Lord  Strange,  he 
married  Alice,  youngest  daughter  of  Sir  John 
Spencer  of  Althorp — a  union  less  distinguished 
than  might  have  been  expected  for  the  heir  of 
one  of  the  great  nobles  of  the  day.  He  was  of  a 
literary  bent,  and  poems  of  his  are  reputed  to 
be  contained  in  a  collection  called  Belvidere,  or 
the  Garden  of  the  Muses,  published  1610,  and  from 
1589  to  1594  he  was  patron  of  the  Company  of 
Players.  He  was  mayor  of  Liverpool  in  1587  and 
took  part  in  raising  forces  to  resist  a  possible 
Spanish  invasion.  He  succeeded  his  father  Henry, 
fourth  earl,  in  1593,  but  enjoyed  his  dignities  and 
widespread  estates  but  a  short  time,  being  cut 
off  in  the  following  April,  after  a  painful  illness, 
attributed  by  some  to  witchcraft  and  by  others 
to  poison.  He  was  a  very  near  heir  to  the  crown, 
especially  if  the  King  of  Scots  were  excluded  as 

1  Inquis.  post  mortem  in  Dep.  Keeper's  Rep.  xxxix.,  95. 

2  Chester  Fines,   Sept.  40  Eliz.     The  claimant  was  Thomas   Fox, 
who  was  perhaps  acting  for  the  Egertons  of  Egerton  and   Oulton, 
the  next  possessors. 

3  Inquis.   p.   m.   21    James  I.,   no.   7.      The  tenure  was  unknown. 
A  fine  of  1609  shows  that  the  manor  was  then  in  Sir  John's  possession. 


130       Leasowe  Castle  :  its  Owners  and  History 

a  foreigner — and  to  the  Englishmen  of  that  day 
King  James  VI.  was  as  much  a  "  foreigner  "  as 
a  Spanish  princess  would  have  been — and  possibly 
the  leaders  of  the  state  were  rather  relieved  to 
have  a  romantic  and  wealthy  nobleman  out  of 
the  way. 

The  heir  male,  his  brother  William,  sixth  earl, 
was  abroad  at  the  time.  Disputes  ensued  as  to 
the  provision  for  Ferdinando's  widow  and 
children,  and  these  lasted  some  years.  They 
were  settled  by  an  arbitration,  confirmed  by 
private  acts  of  4  and  7  James  I.,  by  which 
elaborate  entails  were  made  of  great  part  of 
the  estates,  while  others  went  to  the  widow  and 
daughters.  Lands  sold  by  Earl  William  and  his 
predecessors  were  excluded  ;  this  would  exclude 
Wallasey,  sold  in  1598,  and  it  is  not  named  in 
the  acts. 

The  races  on  the  Leasowes  are  mentioned  in 
King's  Vale  Royal,  and  the  fact  that  the  Duke 
of  Monmouth  rode  his  own  horse  at  the  races 
here  in  the  autumn  of  1682,  has  been  referred  to 
already  in  the  Society's  Transactions.1  The 
tradition  that  James  I.  attended  these  races  is 
discussed  in  our  volume  for  1893.*  Why  the 
original  tower  was  built  it  is  difficult  to  say. 
Rumour  has  it  that  it  was  built  by  Ferdinando 
as  a  stand  for  watching  the  horse  races  on  the 
'Wallasey  course,  but,  as  Mr.  W.  F.  Irvine  points 
out,3  "  Inasmuch  as  the  finish  of  those  races  took 
place  nearly  two  miles  away,  it  is  not  a  position 
that  would  commend  itself  to  short-sighted 
onlookers."  But  for  watching  hawking,  standing 
as  it  did  almost  in  the  centre  of  a  plain  five  miles 
long,  without  a  single  tree,  there  could  be  few 
better  positions.  Doubtless  this  would  have  been 

1  Trans.,   xiv.,    151.  "  Ib.,    149. 

3  Trans.,  liii.,  94. 


Leasowe  Castle  :  its  Owners  and  History        131 

an  excellent  reason  to  give  at  the  time  of  its 
erection  ;  but  there  may  have  been  others.  The 
walls  of  the  old  tower  are  over  3  ft.  thick,  and 
the  remains  of  the  fosse  are  still  to  be  seen. 
Whatever  the  ostensible  reason  for  the  erection 
of  a  structure  so  substantial  that  sea  air  and  the 
storms  of  over  three  centuries,  in  an  exposed 
situation,  have  failed  to  affect  it,  it  is  more  likely 
that  it  originated  in  a  desire  on  the  part  of  the 
builder  to  be  prepared  for  any  eventuality  which 
the  disturbed  times  in  which  he  lived  rendered 
probable. 

At  some  time  four  square  towers  were  thrown 
out  from  the  alternate  faces,  and  it  is  owing  to 
this  that  the  incised  dated  stone  is  now  on  an 
inside  wall.  It  is  impossible  to  fix  at  what  date 
the  turrets  were  added,  but  they  very  much 
resemble  the  architecture  of  the  Racing  Stables 
which  stood  in  Wallasey,  and  on  which  Mr. 
R.  D.  Radcliffe  argues  thus  i1  "It  is  probable 
that  the  stables  were  erected  between  1600  and 
1642,  and  possibly  by  William  6th  Earl  of  Derby, 
who  passed  much  of  his  time  at  Bidston  and 
refronted  the  Hall  thereof."  May  not  these 
additions  to  the  tower  have  been  made  about  the 
same  time  ? 

They  are  shown  in  a  plan  of  "  Wallesea  Manor  " 
of  1735,  which  illustrates  Mr.  Radcliffe's  paper. 

Mr.  Hopps,  in  his  remarks  on  the  older  part  of 
the  building,  says  : 

"  The  two  turrets  remaining  intact  have  each  a  gable 
over  all  faces  and  cross  ridge-pieces.  They  have  moulded 
coping  stones  and  are  surmounted  by  stone  balls.  Their 
windows  are  the  square-headed  ones  with  chamfered 
reveals  and  mullions  and  have  the  protective  labels 
typical  of  their  age.  The  most  westerly  turret  is  very 
massive  and  contains  an  old  spiral  stone  stairway.  The 
building  must  have  existed  for  fully  two  centuries  in  this 

1  Trans.  Hist.  Soc.,  xlv.,  141. 


132       Leasowe  Castle  :   its  Owners  and  History 

form  of  an  octagon  with  four  flanking  turrets,  because  the 
next  stone  addition  is  clearly  not  ancient.  .  .  . 

"  In  the  ground-floor  apartment  of  the  southern  turret 
may  be  seen  the  lower  part  of  the  jambs  of  the  old  entrance 
doorway  (dated  1593)  ...  As  the  sill  below  them  is 
rather  more  than  5£  feet  from  the  ground,  it  is  presumable 
that  a  ramp  and  drawbridge  for  entrance  originally  existed, 
or  else  that  a  simple  ladder  was  used,  being  drawn  up  and 
let  down  as  occasion  required." 

As  James,  the  seventh  Earl,  adhered  to  the 
King's  side,  the  Stanleys  lost  heavily  by  the 
Civil  War  ;  their  estates  were  sequestered,  and 
much  was  sold  outright,  but  there  is  no  mention 
of  Wallasey  or  Leasowe  in  the  sequestration 
records.  During  the  Commonwealth  horse-racing 
and  other  "  worldly  sports  and  pastimes  "  were 
suppressed  by  the  Puritans,  and  it  is  believed 
that  at  this  time  the  building  once  called  the 
New  Hall  became  ruinous,1  and  acquired  the 
name  of  Mockbeggar  Hall,  a  title  given  to  any 
deserted  or  lonely  edifice.  It  is  marked  by  this 
name  on  Grenville  Collin's  Pilot  of  1690,  and  the 
shore  near  the  castle  and  lighthouse  is  marked 
in  the  charts  of  to-day  as  Mockbeggar  Wharfe. 
Sometime  about  the  end  of  the  17th  century  it 
was  used  as  a  farm  house,2  and  in  the  parish 
registers  of  Wallasey  in  1701,  the  burial  of  a  son 
of  Alice  Miller  of  the  New  Hall  occurs,  maybe 
in  distinction  from  Wallasey  Old  Hall,  built  by 
W.  Meols  in  1604. 

'  These  four  square  towers,"  to  quote  Ormerod 
again,  "  terminate  in  gables  which  rise  above 
the  central  tower,  which  has  a  flat  leaden 
terrace  on  the  summit."  His  work  was  completed 
in  1819,  i.e.,  nineteen  years  after  the  sketches 
executed  by  Mr.  Lysons,  now  in  the  British 
Museum,  which  show  the  roof  of  the  original 

1  Ormerod,    ii.,    174    note. 
•Catalogue  of  Sale.    15   July,    1808. 


Leasowe  Castle  :  its  Owners  and  History        133 

tower  as  it  is  at  present.  But  on  looking  closely 
at  the  masonry,  from  outside,  Mr.  Hopps  called 
my  attention  to  the  fact  that  the  upper  stone 
work  above  the  Oak  Room  window  on  the  south- 
east front,  does  not  appear  so  weathered  as  that 
of  the  turrets,  or  the  rest  of  the  tower,  for  on 
the  former  portion  the  chisel  marks  are  still 
visible.  So  possibly  another  storey  was  built  on 
to  the  oldest  portion  by  Mr.  Egerton  of  Oulton 
when  he  made  it  his  residence  in  1778.  Mr. 
Egerton  died  there  in  1786. 

The  building  next  passed  by  purchase  to  one 
Robert  Harrison,  who  sold  it  in  1802  to  the 
widow  of  Lewis  W.  Boode,  a  West  Indian  planter, 
described  as  "of  Amsterdam  and  Peover  Hall." 
It  is  in  the  act  of  sale  that  the  place  is  first  called 
"  Leasowe  Castle."  In  1818  considerable  addi- 
tions and  alterations  were  made  to  the  Castle  by 
Mrs.  Boode,  from  the  plans  of  Foster  of  Liverpool. 
Mrs.  Boode  was  Margaret,  daughter  of  the  Rev. 
Thomas  Dannett,  rector  of  Liverpool.  Ormerod 
described  the  gardens  in  1816  thus  : 

"  The  gardens  are  surrounded  with  a  large  fosse  and 
mound,  and  disposed  in  terraces  and  alcoves.  The  Castle 
is  situated  towards  the  middle  of  a  large  level  plain  called 
the  Leasowe  which  stretches  along  the  end  of  Wirral  and 
is  protected  partially  from  the  inroads  of  the  sea  by  a 
range  of  sandhills,  but  does  not  boast  of  a  single  shrub  to 
break  the  monotony  of  the  prospect.  This  plain,  containing 
about  220  acres,  is  about  to  be  enclosed  ...  in  the  act  the 
sandhills  are  directed  to  be  preserved  as  security  from  the 
inroads  of  the  Irish  Sea." 

These  sandhills  were  eroded  away  soon  after 
this,  for  the  Act  to  build  the  first  part  of  the 
embankment  was  passed  in  1829.1 

During  Mrs.  Boode's  occupancy  of  the  castle, 
it  was  frequently  turned  into  a  receiving  house 

1  Mortimer,  Hist,  of  Wirral,  p.  294. 


134       Leasowe  Castle  :  its  Owners  and  History 

and  hospital  for  the  survivors  of  the  shipwrecks 
which  were  then  of  frequent  occurrence  on  this 
coast.  Unfortunately  the  inhabitants  looked 
upon  all  property  cast  up  by  the  sea  as  their  own. 
From  the  report  of  the  Commission  appointed 
to  enquire  into  the  necessity  of  a  police  force 
in  1837,  we  learn  that,  for  wrecking,  the  counties 
of  Cheshire  and  Cornwall  were  the  worst :  "  On 
the  Cheshire  coast  not  far  from  Liverpool  they 
will  rob  those  who  have  escaped  the  perils  of 
the  sea  and  come  safe  on  shore,  and  mutilate 
dead  bodies  for  the  sake  of  rings  and  personal 
ornaments." 

Mrs.  Boode  was  killed  in  a  carriage  accident, 
21st  April,  1826.  A  gothic  monument  was 
erected  to  commemorate  the  accident  and  placed 
near  the  spot  where  it  occurred  in  Breck  Road, 
but  owing  to  widening  the  road  at  this  point  it 
does  not  now  occupy  its  original  site.  On  a 
stone  in  the  wall  which  surrounds  this  monument 
is  the  following  inscription  : 

Near  this  spot  Mrs.  BOODE  of  Leasowe  Castle  was  killed 
by  a  fall  from  her  pony-carriage  April  21st,  1826.  May  ye 
who  pass  by  respect  this  memorial  of  an  awful  dispensation 
and  the  affectionate  tribute  of  an  only  child  to  perpetuate 
her  dear  mother's  memory  beyond  the  existence  of  that 
breast  which  will  never  cease  to  cherish  it.  Ah,  may  the 
sad  remembrance  which  attaches  to  this  spot  impress  on 
everyone  this  salutary  warning  : 

"  In  the  midst  of  life  we  are  in  death." 

Mrs.  Boode's  daughter  and  heir,  Mary  Anne, 
married  Col.  Edward  Cust  at  Marylebone  Church, 
on  llth  January,  1821.  Her  husband  was  born 
in  1794,  being  the  sixth  son  of  Brownlow  Cust,1 
first  Lord  Brownlow,  and  a  brother  of  John  Cust, 
first  Earl  Brownlow.  He  was  born  at  30,  Hill 
Street,  Berkeley  Square,  London.  He  was 
gazetted  Colonel  in  the  16th  Light  Dragoons  on 

1  Diet,  of  Nat.  Biography. 


Leasowe  Castle  :  its  Owners  and  History       135 

15th  March,  1810,  and  saw  active  service  in  the 
Peninsular  War.  In  1816,  Prince  Leopold  of 
Saxe-Coburg,  afterwards  King  of  the  Belgians, 
and  an  Hon.  Colonel  in  the  16th  Light  Dragoons, 
appointed  Cust  as  his  equerry,  and  afterwards 
gave  him  the  Grand  Cross  Order  of  Leopold  of 
Belgium.  In  1831,  when  Leopold  became  King 
of  the  Belgians,  Cust  was  created  Knight  Com- 
mander of  the  Guelphic  Order  of  Hanover.  In 
1818,  he  became  M.P.  for  Grantham,  and  sat  for 
Lostwithiel  from  1826  till  the  suppression  of  that 
borough  in  the  Reform  Bill  of  1832.  He  became 
Assistant  Master  of  Ceremonies  to  Queen  Victoria 
in  1845  and  Master  of  Ceremonies  in  1847.  He 
was  author  of  several  military  histories,  for 
which  he  received  in  1869  the  Gold  Medal  of  the 
Austrian  Empire,  from  the  Emperor  of  Austria. 
In  1848,  he  published  Sunday  Night  Readings, 
and  in  1850  Family  Readings  from  the  New 
Testament  harmonised  and  explained.  He  received 
the  honorary  degree  of  D.C.L.  at  Oxford  in  1853. 
He  was  made  a  baronet  in  1876. 

He  married,  as  already  stated,  the  only  child  of 
Lewis  W.  Boode,  heiress  also  of  her  mother.  She 
was  Bed-chamber  woman  to  H.R.H.  the  Duchess 
of  Kent,  mother  of  Queen  Victoria.  She  wrote 
a  book  on  "  Cats,"  being  a  cat  fancier,  and  died 
on  10th  July,  1882.  By  her  Cust  left  one  son, 
Leopold  (called  after  his  godfather,  the  King  of 
the  Belgians)  and  four  daughters. 

In  May,  1828,  Col.  Cust  (as  he  then  was)  con- 
verted Leasowe  Castle,  his  wife's  property,  into 
an  hotel,  but  it  was  not  a  success,  and  about 
1843  he  made  his  residence  there,  and  visited  it 
at  times  till  shortly  before  his  death  in  1878. 
He  was  senior  magistrate  for  Wirral  for  a  number 
of  years,  and  elected  one  of  the  first  Vice- 
Presidents  of  this  Society  on  its  formation  in 


136       Leasowe  Castle  :  its  Owners  and  History 

1849,  a  position  he  retained  till  he  became 
President  in  1859.  It  was  he  who  presented  to 
it  the  ivory  mace  (which  originally  belonged  to 
the  Kings  of  Poland),  still  in  evidence  at  our 
meetings. 

It  was  probably  when  Sir  Edward  Cust  decided 
to  make  Leasowe  his  residence  that  he  built  the 
surrounding  wall  with  the  gates  and  gate  house. 
This  makes  a  striking  entrance,  with  the  stone 
portals  surmounted  by  a  pair  of  watch  dogs  (the 
crest  of  his  family)  and  the  motto  "  Qui  Cust  odit 
caveat."  The  so-called  Canute's  Seat,  which 
occupies  such  a  prominent  position  in  the  plate 
of  the  castle  in  Ormerod,  was  also  probably  the 
outcome  of  his  brain,  for,  as  we  have  seen,  till 
recent  times  this  point  was  separated  from  the 
sea  by  a  range  of  sandhills. 

Close  by  are  three  boulder  stones,  one  6  ft.  6  in. 
by  3ft.  by  3ft.,  the  others  about  7ft.  by  7ft. 
by  3  ft.  There  is  a  local  legend  to  the  effect  that 
these  stones  were  once  the  favourite  haunt  of  a 
very  fascinating  but  dangerous  mermaiden.  To 
look  upon  her  was  certain  death,  the  heart  of 
the  observer  "  being  burnt  to  ashes  within  his 
breast."  Some  twenty  years  ago  there  was  a 
board  about  4  ft.  by  3  ft.  fixed  to  the  wall  close 
by,  which  (as  well  as  I  remember)  went  on  to  say 
that  when  the  tide  was  at  flood  and  the  moon  at 
full  at  midnight,  the  lady  was  to  be  seen  here, 
combing  her  hair  in  the  manner  adopted  by  her 
kind.  Owing  to  the  more  abstemious  use  of 
intoxicating  liquors  mermaids  are  hardly  ever 
now  seen  on  this  coast,  but  among  the  folk-books 
mentioned  in  Chap-books  of  the  18th  Century  is 
one  with  this  promising  title  : 

"  The  Wonder  of  Wonders,  being  A  Strange  and  Wonderful 
Relation  of  a  Mermaid,  that  was  seen  and  spoken  with,  on 
the  Black  Rock,  nigh  Liverpool,  by  John  Robinson,  Mariner, 


Leasowe  Castle  :  its  Owners  and  History        137 

who  was  tossed  on  the  Ocean  for  Six  days  and  Nights. 
Together  with  the  Conversation  he  had  with  her,  and  how 
he  was  preserved  ;  with  the  manner  of  his  Death  five  days 
after  his  return  Home.  Licensed  and  entered  According 
to  Order." 

A  slight  quotation  may  be  allowed  : 

"  But  to  his  great  Amazement  he  espy'd  a  beautiful 
young  Lady  combing  her  head,  and  toss'd  on  the  Billows, 
cloathed  all  in  green  (but  by  chance  he  got  the  first  word 
with  her)  then  she  with  a  smile  came  on  board  and  asked 
how  he  did.  The  young  Man  being  Something  Smart  and 
a  good  Scholar,  reply'd,  Madam  I  am  the  better  to  see  you 
in  good  Health,  in  great  hopes  trusting  you  will  be  a  comfort 
and  assistance  to  me  in  this  my  low  Condition  ;  and  so 
caught  hold  of  her  Comb  and  Green  Girdle  that  was  About 
her  Waist.  To  which  she  replied,  Sir,  you  ought  not  to 
rob  a  young  Woman  of  her  Riches,  and  then  expect  a  favour 
at  her  Hands  ;  but  if  you  will  give  me  my  Comb  and  Girdle 
again,  what  lies  in  my  power  I  will  do  for  you." 

No  sailor  could  resist  such  an  entreaty,   and — 

"  At  her  departure  the  tempest  ceased  and  blew  a  fair 
Gale  to  South  West,  so  he  got  safe  on  shore  ;  but  when  he 
came  to  his  Father's  House  he  found  every  Thing  as  she 
had  told  him.  For  she  told  him  also  concerning  his  being 
left  on  Ship  board,  and  how  all  the  Seamen  perished,  which 
he  found  all  true  what  she  had  told  him,  according  to  the 
promise  made  him.  He  was  still  very  much  troubled  in 
his  Mind,  concerning  his  promise,  but  while  yet  he  was 
thus  musing,  she  appeared  to  him  with  a  smiling  Countenance 
and  (by  his  Misfortune)  she  got  the  first  word  of  him,  so 
that  he  could  not  speak  one  Word,  but  was  quite  Dumb, 
yet  he  took  Notice  of  the  Words  she  spoke  ;  and  she  began 
to  Sing.  After  which  she  departed  out  from  the  young 
Man's  sight,  taking  from  him  the  Compass.  She  took  a 
Ring  from  off  her  Finger,  and  put  it  on  the  young  Man's, 
and  said,  she  expected  to  see  him  once  again  with  more 
Freedom.  But  he  never  saw  her  more,  upon  which  he 
came  to  himself  again,  went  home,  and  was  taken  ill,  and 
died  in  five  Days  after,  to  the  wonderful  Admiration  of  all 
People  who  saw  the  young  Man." 

The  Black  Rock  referred  to  is  that  on  which 
the  old  Rock  Perch  stood  till  replaced  in  1827  by 
the  present  lighthouse. 


138       Leasowe  Castle  :   its  Owners  and  History 

To  the  right  of  the  present  main  entrance  is  a 
mounting  stone,  a  reminder  of  the  fact  that 
Miss  Boode  (Lady  Cust)  was  an  excellent  horse- 
woman. When  she  presented  the  silver  bugle 
to  the  local  volunteers,  although  the  ceremony 
took  place  in  a  field  adjoining  the  castle,  she 
appeared  mounted  upon  her  Arab  charger.1 

Of  the  alterations  and  improvements  which  Sir 
Edward  introduced  into  the  castle  itself,  perhaps 
the  decorating  of  his  dining  room  with  the  oak 
panelling  from  the  celebrated  Star  Chamber  at 
Westminster  is  most  noteworthy.  This  he  pur- 
chased when  the  old  Exchequer  buildings  were 
demolished  in  1836.  All  this  oak  was  removed 
from  the  castle  after  the  sale  of  the  furniture 
in  September,  1895.  Shortly  after  the  German 
prisoners  left  the  castle,  a  fire  occurred  which 
involved  one  corner  of  the  Star  Chamber,  and 
some  of  the  panelling  when  removed  showed 
traces  of  having  suffered  by  fire  previously— 
which  would  be  when  the  old  Exchequer  buildings 
were  partly  destroyed.  Some  of  the  tapestry 
in  this  room  is  said  to  be  fairly  old,  and  that 
which  was  burnt  it  was  found  quite  impossible 
to  replace. 

The  room  now  used  as  the  board  room  was  Sir 
Edward's  library,  and  was  fitted  by  him  with 
bog  oak  from  the  submerged  forest.  There  still 
remains  a  dummy  bookcase,  masking  a  door  of 
a  passage  leading  to  a  window  which  looks  into 
the  basement.  A  list  of  the  titles  on  the  dummies 
still  in  situ  will  be  found  at  the  end  of  this  paper. 

The  incised  stone  and  built-in  doorway  already 
mentioned  are  not  at  the  end  of  this  passage,  but 
more  to  the  left,  and  behind  the  fireplace.  The 

1  For  further  details  of  this  ceremony  the  reader  is  referred  to 
Memories  of  Birkenhead,  by  Mrs.  Gamlin,  p.  85.  A  copy  of  the  poem 
she  refers  to  is  to  be  found  in  the  Wallasey  Library. 


CQ 


Leasowe  Castle  :  its  Owners  and  History        139 

floor  of  the  board  room,  which  is  of  English  oak, 
is  about  8  ft.  above  the  present  ground  level.  I 
have  a  sketch  by  Mr.  Hopps  of  the  appearance 
of  this  built-up  doorway,  from  the  basement 
below,  and  also  a  plan  showing  how  much  is  to 


Cffefrr 


be  seen  in  the  storeroom  above.  The  height 
which  the  stone  stands  above  the  ground  is 
lift.  3  in.,  so  Ormerod  is  scarcely  correct  in 
saying  it  is  "  in  the  upper  interior  part  of  the 
tower."  This  door  I  take  to  be  the  original 
main  entrance. 

The  second  floor  of  the  old  tower,  known  as  the 
Oak,  or  Ghost,  Room,1  is  roughly  octagonal  in 

1  The  Castle  by  the  Sea.  p.  32. 


140       Leasowe  Castle  :   its  Owners  and  History 

shape,  26ft.  by  23ft.,  and  is  lighted  by  two 
quaint  lantern-shaped  windows  set  in  the  enor- 
mously thick  walls.  The  room  is  panelled  from 
floor  to  ceiling,  which  is  traversed  by  two  massive 
oak  beams.  The  walls,  however,  were  not 
originally  wainscoted,  but  were  of  rough  hewn 
stone.  There  is  an  old  legend  that  at  one  period 
of  the  castle's  history  there  was  a  serious  feud 
between  some  of  the  powerful  families  of  the 
North  and  West,  with  the  result  that  the  chief 
of  one  of  the  opposing  factions  and  his  young 
son  were  captured  and  confined  in  this  room. 
It  was  given  out  that  the  father  first  smothered 
his  son  and  then  committed  suicide  by  dashing 
out  his  brains  against  the  stone  wall  of  the  room. 
It  has  been  related  to  me  that,  in  the  later  hotel 
days  of  the  castle,  the  Oak  Room  was  on  one 
occasion  occupied  by  a  visitor  who  knew  nothing 
of  this  story,  but  who  made  a  terrible  hullaballoo 
at  midnight  about  a  man  and  a  boy  he  swore  he 
saw  standing  in  the  moonlight  between  his  bed 
and  the  window.  'Tis  also  said  that  the  clanking 
of  chains  up  and  down  the  old  stone  stairs  has 
been  heard  at  midnight  on  various  occasions. 

The  floor  of  the  above  Oak  Room  was,  I  think, 
the  flat  roof  of  the  original  tower.  Helsby,  in 
Ormerod  (ii.,  473),  says  this  "  consisted  of  a  tall 
octagonal  tower,  four  stories  high."  If,  as  he 
further  states,  the  turrets  added  later  rose  from 
the  central  building  I  do  not  see  how  this  can  be. 
These  words  "  of  four  stories  "  do  not  appear  in 
the  first  edition.  There  is  nothing  of  interest 
except  an  old  doorway  on  this  floor,  which  is 
divided  up  into  small  rooms  and  passages,  as 
the  plan  shows.  The  numerous  additions  which 
have  from  time  to  time  been  made  render  it 
difficult  at  first  to  see  which  the  original  was,  but  on 
the  third  floor  plan  it  shows  clearly  enough. 


Leasowe  Castle  :   its  Owners  and  History        141 

The  original  building,  as  far  as  can  be  made 
out,  consisted  of  a  basement  excavated  three  to 
four  feet  below  the  level  of  the  ground,  useful  as 
a  place  of  confinement  for  prisoners.  There  may 
have  been  a  well  in  this,  or  a  cistern  into  which 
the  rain  falling  on  the  flat  roof  drained,  but  I 
have  not  been  able  to  find  any  trace  of  either. 
Then  the  first  floor,  now  the  board  room,  which 
still  retains  its  floor  of  English  oak.  Above  it  a 
second  floor,  the  oak  room,  surmounted  by  the 
flat  lead  roof. 

Writing  in  1866,  Dr.  Hume  mentions  a  well 
near  the  gate  of  the  castle,  surrounded  by  a  wall 
about  4  ft.  high,  with  a  gallows  crane  suspended 
over  it.1  There  was  no  scarcity  of  water  in  this 
area,  several  springs  existing  on  the  shore.  One 
directly  to  seaward  of  the  castle,  below  high- 
water  mark,  had  medicinal  properties.' 

The  four  turrets  of  the  tower  are  not  geometri- 
cally perfect,  as  a  glance  at  the  plans  will  show. 
One  of  them  contains  a  stone  spiral  stair,  which 
commences  in  the  basement,  on  a  level  with  the 
ground,  and  has  a  door  to  the  board  room  and  the 
Oak  Room.  It  terminates  in  a  kind  of  platform 
outside  the  door  on  the  top  floor. 

Besides  fitting  the  library  with  oak  from  the 
submerged  forest,  Sir  Edward  Cust  was  responsible 
for  the  so-called  Battle  Staircase,  the  rails  of 
which  are  of  iron,  84  in  number.  On  each  is 
carefully  inscribed  in  coloured  letters  one  of  the  84 
principal  and  decisive  battles  in  which  the  English 
took  part  in  the  18th  and  19th  centuries,  from 
Blenheim,  1704,  to  Sebastopol.  On  each  of 
these  rails  is  also  affixed  the  name  of  the  sovereign 
in  whose  reign  the  battle  was  fought,  and  the 
names  of  the  British  and  the  foreign  General  in 

1  Trans.  H.  S.,  xviii.,  60.  »  Ibid.,  i.(    105. 


142       Leasowe  Castle  :   its  Owners  and  History 

command  of  the  respective  forces.1  At  the  foot 
of  the  staircase  is  a  handsome  marble  pedestal, 
surmounted  by  a  figure  of  Victory  holding  a 
laurel  wreath  in  outstretched  hand.  The  column 


bears  the  following  inscription,  "  Opera  illius  mea 
sunt,"  the  motto  of  the  first  Lord  Brownlow, 
Sir  E.  Gust's  father.  Beneath  this  inscription  is 

1  Cat.  of  Sale,  17  June,  1893. 


Leasowe  Castle  :  its  Owners  and  History       143 

an  order  or  decoration.  It  is  circular  in  shape, 
and  is  surmounted  by  a  diadem  with  a  cross. 
Upon  it  is  blazoned  an  olive  branch,  crossed  by  a 
sword,  and  the  legend  "  Dieu  et  mon  droit  "  and 
"  Beati  pacifici."1 

The  alabaster  bas-relief,  which  has  painted 
above  it  these  words  : 

"  These  Remains  of  Forest  Life  were  found  under  the 
peat  soil  upon  this  shore  and  seem  to  verify  the  local 
adage  : 

From  Birkinheven  unto  Hilbree 

A  squirrel  might  leape  from  tree  to  tree  ," 

is  supposed  to  depict  life  in  the  forest.  Both  the 
panel  and  the  spelling  of  the  superscription  I 
take  to  be  part  of  Sir  Edward's  scheme  of  pseudo- 
antique  decoration.  Another  instance  of  it  are 
the  curious  carvings  above  the  boiler-house  door. 
Mr.  H.  Hopps  suggests  that  they  might  represent 
"EM  AC'  (Sir  Edward  and  Lady  -Gust's 
initials),  and  below  the  date— 

M  Cvm  X"1  IV  (or  1834). 

If  his  surmise  is  correct  it  shows  approximately 
the  date  when  Sir  Edward  discontinued  the  hotel 
and  made  the  castle  his  residence. 

It  is  an  interesting  fact  that  the  first  Saint 
Bernard  dog  ever  brought  to  this  country  found 
a  home  at  Leasowe  Castle. 

Sir  Edward  Cust  died  on  14th  January,  1878, 
aged  83,  in  Jermyn  Street,  London,  and  the 
property  passed  to  his  only  son,  Sir  Leopold  Cust, 
Bart.,  who  died  in  Ireland  in  1878,  and  was 
succeeded  by  Sir  Charles  Cust. 

The  castle  and  grounds  (in  all  about  50  acres) 
were  offered  for  sale  by  auction  by  Messrs.  Branch 
and  Leete,  on  17th  June,  1893,  but  there  was  no 
offer.  They  were  again  offered  for  sale  in 
September,  1895,  by  order  of  Sir  Charles  Cust, 

1  Castle  by  the  Sea,  p.  26. 


144       Leasowe  Castle  :  its  Owners  and  History 

who  was  relinquishing  his  Cheshire  property, 
The  sale  took  from  the  16th  to  the  20th  of 
September,  and  not  only  the  castle  and  estate, 
but  all  the  furniture  and  fittings  were  disposed 
of.  The  property  was  bought  by  a  company  and 
once  again  converted  into  a  hotel,  under  the  name 
of  "  The  Leasowe  Castle  Hotel."  On  15th  July, 
1908,  the  property  was  offered  for  sale  as  a  going 
concern,  including  furniture,  fittings,  etc.,  and 
Mr.  Harold  Smith,  of  Birkenhead,  brother  of  the 
present  Lord  Chancellor,  was  the  auctioneer. 
The  bidding  commenced  at  £9,000,  rose  to  £10,000, 
and  after  a  few  desultory  bids  was  withdrawn  at 
£1 1,750.  It  was  finally  purchased  by  the  Trustees 
of  the  Railwaymen's  Convalescent  Homes  in 
1910  for  £11,750,  and  the  trustees  spent  a  further 
sum  of  £2,500  in  various  alterations. 

The  new  home  was  formally  opened  on  12th 
June,  1911,  by  Mrs.  Mason  Hutchinson,  Lady 
Mayoress  of  Liverpool,  assisted  by  the  Mayor 
and  Mayoress  of  Wallasey.  The  consecration 
service  was  performed  by  the  Bishop  of  Chester, 
assisted  by  Archdeacon  Spooner  of  Warrington 
and  a  portion  of  the  choir  from  Liverpool 
Cathedral.  During  the  war  the  place  was  used 
for  housing  German  prisoners,  but  a  few  months 
ago  it  once  more  renewed  its  functions  as  a 
convalescent  home  for  railwaymen. 

The  matter  in  this  paper  has  been  collected  from 
various  sources  and  authors,  as  Ormerod, 
Mortimer,  Lysons,  and  a  most  interesting  brochure 
called  The  Castle  by  the  Sea,  written  by  Mr.  T.  S. 
Ling,  one  of  the  late  trustees  of  the  Railwaymen's 
Convalescent  Homes,  and  sold  for  the  benefit  of 
the  institution.  Besides  permission  to  quote  from 
this  book,  Mr.  Ling  has  been  kind  enough  to 
supply  me  with  further  information  about  the 
Castle,  and  with  plans.  My  thanks  are  also  due 


Leasowe  Castle  :   its  Owners  and  History        145 

to  Mr.  P.  C.  Brown  and  Mr.  H.  Hopps  for  much 
assistance  in  collecting  data  and  slides,  and  to 
the  latter  for  the  sketches  which  illustrate  it. 


APPENDICES. 


I.    A  LIST 

OF  THE  FACETIOUS  BOOK  TITLES  THAT  ARE  STILL  IN  SITU 
ON  THE  DUMMY  BOOKCASE  AT  LEASOWE  CASTLE. 

Top  row. — Custs  of  the  past.     Opera  illius. 

1.  Religious  ;    2.  Virtuous  ;    3.  Worthy  ;    4.  Sensible  ; 

5.  Honest ;    6.  Useful ;    7.  Beneficent ;    8.  Loved ;    9. 
Respected. 

The  Custs  of  the  future.     Opera  mea. 

1 .  Peers  and  Peeresses  ;    2.  Baronets  ;   3.  Knights  ;   4. 
Ladies ;     5.    Honourables ;    6.    Rt.    Honourables ;     7. 
Bishops. 

Second  Row. — Payne  on  pleasure  ;  Contentment,  Moore  ; 
The  Longman  Family,  Tallboys  ;  On  Angling,  Dr. 
Hook ;  Reminiscences  of  a  Nursemaid,  Infant  ; 
Cookery,  Fryer ;  Above  and  below,  Parr ;  1 ,  2,  3. 
Adventures  of  a  Rook,  Crowe  ;  Vocal  Music,  Singer ; 
How  to  keep  cool,  Airey  ;  On  laughter,  Smiles  ;  Under 
a  cloak,  Hood  ;  Lightfoot  on  Dancing  ;  Essays  on 
greediness,  Moore ;  Rifle  practice,  Butts ;  English 
Orchards,  Pears  ;  Art  of  Matchmaking,  Lowe  ;  Church 
Music,  Bell  ;  Billiards,  Kew ;  Fruit  of  learning, 
Plumtree  ;  Evils  of  squinting,  Boswell  ;  The  days  of 
Chivalry,  Knight  ;  Cricket,  Balls. 

Third  row. — Miseries  of  Life  ;  Smoky  chimneys  ;  Stinking 
Lamps  ;  Open  doors. 

Fourth  row. — Military  Records  :    1 ,  The  sports  of  Nimrod  ; 

2.  Chevy  Chase  ;   3.   Abraham's  Defeat  of  the  Kings  ; 
4.    Encampment   of   Moses  ;     5.    Joshua's   Conquests ; 

6.  Assyrian    Campaigns ;     7.    Siege    of    Samaria ;     8. 
Nebuchadnezzar's    Judaean    Campaign  ;      9.     Cyrus's 
Jewish     Campaign  ;      10.      Alexander     conquers     the 
World  ;    11.  The  World  conquered  by  Caesar;    12.  The 
World  conquered  by  Napoleon  ;    13.  Britannia  rules  the 
Waves. 


146       Leasowe  Castle  :  its  Owners  and  History 

Fifth  (bottom)  row. — Life  of  Bacon,  Hogg  ;  Culture  of 
Trees,  Bush  ;  History  of  Spiritualism,  Rapper  ;  King's 
Republic  ;  Needle-making,  Sharp  ;  Rushes,  Reed  ; 
Counties  of  Hills,  Kent ;  vol.  1,  2,  3.  Purgatory, 
Purge  ;  Value  of  Money,  Penny  ;  Perpetual  motion, 
Dunn  ;  vol.  1,  2,  3.  Adulteration  of  Bread,  Hallam  ; 
Ironical  Essays,  Steel ;  St.  Paul,  Peters  ;  The  Arctic 
regions,  South  ;  Our  Aristocracy,  Earle  ;  Hitchcock  on 
Drapery  ;  French  on  the  English  ;  Effects  of  true 
wit,  Smiles  ;  The  Pope  not  Infallible,  Watt ;  Black- 
man's  Hindoo  Law ;  Employers  and  Employed, 
Masterman. 

II.     THE  OXGANGS  IN  WALLASEY  PARISH,  1768. 

The  following  lists  of  the  Oxgangs  in  Wallasey  and 
Liscard  are  copied  from  John  Hough's  Notebook  or  Journal, 
of  which  an  account  was  given  in  the  last  volume  of 

Transactions  : 

WALLASEY. 

O.   H.    Q. 

Jonathan  Dean       10     |     | 

Thomas  Hill 3    0     J 

John  Rainford        1     |     0 

Henry  Bird             ....                                            ....  0    0     f 

Mrs.  Gorden            1     0     J 

William  Smith        0    0     \ 

Mrs.  Urmson           ....                                            ....  300 

John  Harvey          ....         ....         ....         ....         ....  1     0     £ 

Richard  Jackson    6    0  £-| 

Phoebe  Hillard       1     0     J 

Mrs.  Webster 200 

Josh.  Dean             1     0     £ 

Thomas  Dean         700 

John  Hill     ....  5     0     i 

Thomas  Robinson 100 

Daniel  Robinson    ....                                002 

Thomas  Rodgers    0     0     | 

Ann  Reily 0     0     { 

William  Coventry              0     0     £ 

Daniel  Taylor         200 

Elizabeth  Rainford            1     0     £ 

Thomas  Dean  of  Hoes  Side                              ....  100 


[?  56] 
LISCARD. 

John  Molyneux       400 


Leasowe  Castle  :  its  Owners  and  History        147 

O.    H.  Q. 

Josh.  Robinson       ....  0     £     0 

Robt.  Richardson 1     6    0 

William  Strong       ....                                            ....  1     &     0 

William  Evans        1     |     0 

Nicholas  Seed         ....  2     |     0 

John  Dean,  senior 2     \    0 

Samuel  Cotton        0     |     0 

John  Hough           200 

Jonathan  Dean       600 

Edward  Young       700 

Margaret  Tyrer       ....         ....         ....         ....         ....  100 

Elizabeth  Richardson        200 

Thomas  Wilson      300 

Deborah  Wilcock 1     £     0 

Thomas  Stanley     2     |     0 

Samuel  Urmston    ....         ....         ....         ....         ....  0     |     0 

Thomas  Strong       300 

Josh.  Kenyon         0     |     0 

Thomas  Dean         1     f     0 

Daniel  Robinson     0     \    0 

Robert  Postlethwaite        ....         ....                     ....  0     \    0 

James  Coventry     ....         ....         ....         ....         ....  0     0     \ 

John  Dean,  junior             ....         ....         ....         ....  230 

William  Young       1     0     0 

George  Mulls          1     £    0 


[?  56] 

Though  the  columns  are  headed  Oxgangs,  Halves  and 
Quarters,  it  would  appear  that  \  in  the  second  column 
means  half  an  oxgang,  not  half  of  half.  The  figures  in  the 
third  column  seem  to  be  half  and  quarter  oxgangs.  But 
this  is  doubtful. 

On  another  page  occurs  the  memorandum  : 

1748  and  1749.— Mr.  Hough  and  Mr.  Hillard,  Church- 
wardens. One  lay  of  Is.  6^.  per  year  for  3  years.  5 
oxgangs  his  own  estate  and  1  oxgang  Bread  Land  ;  6 
oxgangs  in  all. 

The  Bread  Dole  oxgang  does  not  seem  to  be  mentioned 
in  the  above,  but  it  may  be  under  the  occupier's  name. 

From  a  plea  recorded  in  the  Cheshire  Sheaf  (Series  III., 
No.  4416)  it  would  appear  that  there  were  in  Poulton  about 
1600  exactly  28  oxgangs,  viz.,  17  in  Poulton  proper  and 
11  in  Seacombe. 


148       Leasowe  Castle  :  its  Owners  and  History 

Supposing  there  is  some  slight  mistake  in  the  Liscard 
figures,  so  that  this  township  and  Wallasey  had  56  oxgangs 
each,  the  total  for  the  parish  would  amount  to  140  oxgangs. 
This  would  point  to  an  entirely  fresh  assessment  of  the 
parish  according  to  oxgangs  of  land,  for  140  does  not  well 
agree  with  either  the  1|  hides  or  4  carucates  shown  in 
Domesday  Book,  as  the  assessment  of  Wallasey.  It  shows 
instead  17|  carucates  of  land.  Two  holdings  of  7  bovates 
each  (recorded  above)  would  suit  a  total  of  56  oxgangs. 


PLATE  I. 


A  XIVTH  CENTURY  ENGLISH  ALABASTER 
OF  THE  BLESSED  VIRGIN. 

By  Philip  Nelson,  M.D.,  F.S.A. 

Read  7th  April,  1921. 


HTHE  alabaster  carving  of  the  Blessed  Virgin 
•I  and  Child,  which  forms  the  subject  of  this 
paper,  is  of  English  workmanship  and,  prior  to 
its  acquisition  by  me,  was  in  a  church  in  Brittany. 
Many  English  alabasters  are  still  to  be  seen  in 
Brittany,  and  that  there  was  a  very  considerable 
trade  in  alabaster-work  between  England  and 
Brittany,  countries  in  close  commercial  and  court 
connection,  is  evidenced  by  the  export  to  Nantes 
of  the  tomb  of  John  IV.,  duke  of  Brittany,  the 
first  husband  of  Joan,  second  wife  of  Henry  IV. 
of  England,  in  1408,  at  which  time  a  safe  conduct 
was  granted  to  John  Guychard  on  the  occasion 
of  its  export  to  that  country  by  the  following 
bill  of  Privy  Seal : 

Rex  universis  &  singulis  Admirallis  &c.  ad  quos  &c. 
Salutem.  Sciatis  quod  nos  ad  supplicationem  carissimae 
Consortis  nostrae,  quae  ad  quandam  tumbam  alabastri, 
quam  pro  Duce  Britannias  defuncto,  quondam  viro  suo, 
fieri  fecit,  in  bargea  de  Seynt  Nicholas  de  Nantes  in  Britannia, 
una  cum  tribus  ligeorum  nostrorum  Anglicorum,  qui  eandem 
tumbam  operati  fuerunt — videlicet,  Thoma  Colyn,  Thoma 
Holewell,  &  Thoma  Poppehowe — ad  tumbam  praedictam 
in  ecclesia  de  Nantes  in  Britannia  assidendum  &  ponendum, 
ad  praesens  ordinavit  mittendum,  Suscepimus  in  salvum  & 
securum  conductum  nostrum  Johannem  Guychard, 
mercatorem,  Magistrum  bargeae  praedictae,  ac  decem 
servitores  suos,  marinarios  in  comitiva  sua,  ad  Britanniam, 
ut  praedictum  est,  transeundo,  &  exinde  in  regnum 


150  A  XIV .  Century  English 

nostrum  Angliae  mercatorie  redeundo,  necnon  bargeam 
praedictam,  ac  bona  et  hernesia  sua  qusecumque  ;  Et  ideo 
vobis  mandamus  quod  ipsum  Johannem,  &  servitores  ac 
Marinarios  suos  praedictos,  versus  Britanniam  transeundo  & 
exinde  in  regnum  nostrum  Angliae  mercatorie  redeundo, 
necnon  bargeam  praedictam  ac  bona  &  hernesia  sua 
quaecumque,  manuteneatis,  protegatis  &  defendatis,  non 
inferentes  eis  seu  quantum  in  vobis  est  inferri  permittentes 
injuriam,  molestiam,  dampnum,  violenciam,  impedimentum 
aliquod  seu  gravamen,  Et  si  quid  eis  forisfactum  vel 
injuriatum  fuerit  id  eis  sine  dilacione  debite  corrigi  et 
reformari  faciatis.  Proviso  semper  quod  ipsi  quicquam 
nobis  vel  populo  nostro  seu  dicto  regno  nostro  aut  aliis 
dominiis  et  potestatibus  nostris  praejudiciale  colore 
praesencium  interim  non  attemptent  seu  faciant  quovis  modo. 
In  cujus  &c.  usque  festum  Nativitatis  Sancti  Johannis 
Baptistae  proximo  futurum  duraturas.  Teste  Rege  apud 
Westmonasterium  xxiiij  die  Februarii  [1 407-8]. 1 

This  statuette  measures  16ins.  in  height.  The 
back  is  hollowed  out  and  provided  with  two 
latten  wire  loops,  for  attachment  to  its  wooden 
"  housyng."  The  design  may  be  thus  described  : 
The  Holy  Mother,  who  rests  her  weight  upon  her 
right  foot,  wears  a  long  white  robe  edged  with 
gold,  over  which  is  draped  a  white  cloak 
lined  with  scarlet  and  edged  with  gold.  On  her 
head  is  a  tall  elaborate  open  crown  and  in  her 
left  hand  she  holds  a  very  long  sceptre  enriched 
with  leaves.2  Upon  her  right  arm  she  supports 
the  Divine  Child,  clad  in  a  white  robe  and  cloak, 
both  edged  with  gold,  who  holds  in  both  hands 
a  bird.3 

It  would  be  of  interest  if  we  could  identify  the 
atelier  from  whence  came  this  carving,  and  there 

1  Rymer's  Fcedera,  viii.,  510-511   (from  Treaty  Roll  91.  m.  15). 
*  The  sceptre  of  thy  kingdom  is  a  right  sceptre. — Psalm  xlv.,  6. 

8  In  regard  to  the  presence  of  a  bird  in  the  hands  of  the  Child  I 
would  hazard  the  suggestion  that  this  may  refer  to  the  miracle  of 
the  twelve  clay  sparrows  made  on  the  Sabbath,  which  became 
endowed  with  life  upon  Christ  clapping  His  hands. — Gospel  of  the 
Pseudo-Matthew,  xxvii.  ;  Gospel  of  Thomas,  ii.  ;  The  Arabic  Gospel 
of  the  Infancy,  xxxvi. 


PLATE  II. 


THE    FLAW  FORD    VIRGIN 
(Nottingham  Must-inn). 


Alabaster  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  151 

is  some  evidence  which  may  assist  us  in  arriving 
at  a  conclusion  in  this  matter. 

We  know  that  Edward  III.,  in  1367,  purchased 
from  Peter  Mason  of  St.  Mary's  Street, 
Nottingham,  for  the  sum  of  £200,  an  alabaster 
reredos,  doubtless  one  consisting  of  large  separate 
figures,  for  the  chapel  of  St.  George  at  Windsor, 
which  required  for  its  conveyance  thither  in 
1371,  ten  carts. 

Again,  during  the  priorate  of  John  Fossor  of 
Durham,  1341-1374,  he  gave  to  the  cathedral, 
"  Imagines  sanctae  Trinitatis  et  beatae  Virginis, 
de  alabastro,  cum  tabernaculis,  cum  aliis 
ornamentis,  pretium  22.1.  "l 

Subsequent  to  this  (in  1374),  John,  lord  Neville 
of  Raby,  in  conjunction  with  Prior  Fossor  and 
others,  gave  the  sum  of  £700  for  the  purchase  of 
"  illud  opus  super  altare  quod  vocatur  La 
Reredos;"2  and  from  the  Rites  of  Durham 
we  learn  that  "  right  over  the  said  hye  altar  were 
artificially  placed  in  very  fine  Alabaster  the 
picture  of  our  Lady  standinge  in  the  midst,  and 
the  picture  of  St.  Cuthb  :  on  the  one  side  and 
the  picture  of  St.  Oswald  on  the  other  beinge 
all  richly  gilded."3  This  reredos,  though  it  was 
shipped  in  cases  from  London,  was  as  regards 
the  imagery  doubtless  of  Nottingham  workman- 
ship. 

In  1779  there  were  found  beneath  the  floor  of 
the  church  at  Flawford,  Notts.,  three  large 
alabaster  images  of  the  Blessed  Virgin,  St.  Peter 
and  a  bishop,  which  may  be  dated  as  circa  1360. 
These,  as  is  also  true  of  the  Pieta  at  Breadsall, 
Derby,  may  be  considered  as  of  Nottingham 

1  Histories    Dunelmensis    Scriptores    Tres    (Surtees    Society,    1839), 
p.  131. 

1  Ibid.,  p.  135. 

8  The  Rites  of  Durham  (Surtees  Society,  107),  p.  7. 


152         XIV.  Century  English  Alabaster 

origin,  and  give  us  the  clue  as  to  the  character 
of  the  sculpture  produced  there  at  that  period. 
The  Flawford  Virgin  (PL  2)  is  very  similar  to 
the  large  figure  at  Cadillac-sur-Garonne  (PL  3), 
and,  like  it,  exhibits  that  marked  swaying  of  the 
figure,  hauchement,  which,  perhaps  derived  from 
the  workers  in  ivory,  was  a  method  of  treatment 
one  associates  rather  with  the  French  school  than 
with  the  English. 

The  statuette  (PL  1),  the  subject  of  this  paper, 
has  a  close  connection  with  the  Cadillac  figure, 
but  lacks  the  graceful  sway  which  it  exhibits, 
while  the  folds  of  the  drapery  are  treated  in  a 
much  simpler  manner  and  it  thus  comes  into 
relationship  with  the  English  alabaster  image  of 
the  Virgin,  preserved  in  the  church  of  St.  Seurin, 
Bordeaux.1 

In  all  these  examples  the  Child  is  depicted  as 
uncrowned,  for  it  is  only  in  figures  of  the  late 
fifteenth  century  that  we  find  Him  crowned,  in 
addition  to  the  Mother. 

I  would  suggest,  therefore,  in  conclusion,  that 
this  statuette  was  wrought  at  Nottingham,  circa 
1380,  not  improbably  in  the  workshop  of  Peter 
the  Mason. 

Mv  thanks  are  due  to  M :  T.  A.  Bruitails  for  his 

»/  +j 

kind  permission  to  reproduce  the  photograph  of 
the  Cadillac  Virgin  (PL  3),  and  to  the  Society  of 
Antiquaries  for  the  use  of  the  block  (PL  2),  of  the 
Flawford  Madonna. 


1  J.  A.  Bruitails,  Album  d'Objets  d' Art  existant  dans  les  Eglises  de  la 
Gironde,  pi.  xii.,  fig.  2. 


PLATE    III. 


THE    CADILLAC    SCULPTURE. 


COMMUNICATIONS. 


THE  CROSSE  FAMILY  OF  WIGAN, 
CHORLEY  AND  LIVERPOOL. 

By  R.  Stewart- Brown,  M.A.,  F.S.A.,  and 
F.  C.  Beazley,  F.S.A. 


•"PHE  main  lines  of  descent  of  this  ancient 
A  Lancashire  family,  now  represented  by 
Crosse  of  Shaw  Hill,  Chorley,  Co.  Lancaster, 
and  Legh  of  Adlington,  Co.  Chester,  are  well 
known  and  were  recorded  in  1846  in  Burke's 
Landed  Gentry  and  in  1873  in  Foster's  Lancashire 
Pedigrees.  Neither  of  these  pedigrees  is  satis- 
factory and  both  are  very  weak  in  details  and  in 
the  collateral  lines.  Since  they  were  compiled 
much  information  has  become  available ;  for 
example  a  Calendar  of  the  Crosse  deeds  at  Shaw 
Hill,  by  Mr.  R.  D.  Radcliffe,  further  Crosse  deeds 
in  Towneley  MS.  GG  (British  Museum),  and, 
above  all,  the  valuable  notices  of  the  family  in 
the  Victoria  History  of  the  County  of  Lancaster. 
Owing  to  the  plan  of  that  work,  the  Crosse  family 
was  necessarily  dealt  with  by  the  editors  in  many 
places,  and  mainly  for  the  manorial  and  landed 
descents,  so  that  one  has  to  refer  for  the  family 
to  the  accounts  of  Lathom,  Wigan,  Chorley, 
Aughton,  Uplitherland  and  Liverpool.  The 
article  on  the  last  place  was  written  by  another 
hand  and  no  connected  account  is  given  of  the 
long  and  close  connection  of  the  Crosse  family 
with  the  town.  Hence,  on  several  grounds,  it 


154  The  Crosse  Family  of  Wigan, 

seems  desirable  to  restate  the  pedigree,  at  least 
down  to  1700,  after  which  date  there  is  little  that 
is  new  to  be  recorded. 

The  pedigree  from  Adam  del  Crosse  of  Wigan 
is  clear.  The  earlier  descent  suggested  from  the 
Waleys  of  Lathom  is  not  proved  but,  on  general 
probabilities  and  after  a  study  of  the  evidence 
provided  in  the  references,  seems  very  likely. 
Earlier  occurrences  of  these  Walenses  are  found 
at  Lathom  and  elsewhere  and  they  may  well  have 
been  descendants  of  men  from  Wales  who  settled 
in  1177  in  various  parts  of  Lancashire  and  also 
in  Wirral,  after  their  leader,  Robert  Banastre, 
was  expelled  from  Rhuddlan  by  Owen  Gwynedd.1 
In  this  connection  it  may  be  noted  that  the  names 
of  Adam,  Thurstan,  Gilbert,  Robert  and  Richard, 
all  Banastre  names,  occur  in  the  early  Crosse 
pedigree. 

Amongst  much  entirely  new  matter  the  wills 
of  various  members  of  the  Crosse  family  are  of 
interest ;  and  several  show  their  continued 
attachment,  though  settled  elsewhere,  to  the 
chapels  of  St.  Nicholas  and  St.  Mary  del  Quay  at 
Liverpool.  Some  contain  gifts  of  books  to  Oxford 
colleges.  Perhaps  the  most  noticeable  new  facts 
in  the  pedigree  are  the  results  of  some  prolonged 
investigations  for  the  purpose  of  identifying 
persons  of  this  family  bearing  the  name  of  John 
Crosse  who  appear  in  holy  orders  between  1500 
and  1530.  At  the  outset  there  seemed  to  be  four 
or  five  different  clergymen  of  this  name,  and 
there  has  been  the  greatest  confusion  made 
between  them  which  has  been  difficult  to  clear 
up.  It  has  now  been  fairly  solidly  established 
that  there  were  only  two.  One  of  them  was  the 
rector  of  St.  Nicholas'  in  the  Shambles,  London, 

1  See  Viet.  Co.  Hist.  Lanes.,  i..  369  ;  ii..  189  ;  iii.,  289,  295.  299,  etc.  ; 
Col.  Close  Roll,  1227-31,  159  ;  Fine  Roll,  13  Hen  III.  m.  7.  11  ;  Pipe 
Roll,  3  Hen  III.,  etc. 


PLATE    III. 


THE    CADILLAC    SCULPTURE. 


Chorley  and  Liverpool.  155 

who  died  in  1517  and  was  the  founder,  by  one  of 
his  wills,  of  the  grammar  school  at  Liverpool, 
and  of  a  chantry  in  the  chapel  of  St.  Nicholas 
there.  The  other  was  his  nephew  John  Crosse, 
rector  of  Moulsoe  and  holder  of  various  other 
benefices.  Mr.  Leach,  in  his  account  of  the 
schools  of  Lancashire,1  thinks  the  John  Crosse 
who  died  in  1502  and  was  mayor  of  Liverpool 
1459  and  1476,  was  probably  the  founder  of  the 
chantry,  but  this  is  an  obvious  error  as  the  founder 
was  a  younger  son  and  the  foundation  was  in 
1515.  Foster,  in  his  pedigree,  combines,  in  the 
person  of  the  nephew,  the  rectors  of  St.  Nicholas, 
of  Turvey  (Beds.)  and  of  Moulsoe  (Bucks)  ; 
Burke  does  the  same  and  makes  him  the  founder 
of  the  grammar  school.  Both  are  wrong.  We 
have  established  that  the  rector  of  St.  Nicholas' 
in  the  Shambles  was  also  rector  of  Turvey  and,  as 
such,  made  a  second  will  in  1517.  His  patron  at 
Turvey  was  John  Mordaunt,  afterwards  Lord 
Mordaunt,  who  evidently  held  the  Crosse  family 
in  high  regard,  for  he  presented  John  Crosse,  the 
nephew  of  the  rector  of  Turvey  and  the  ultimate 
heir  of  the  Lancashire  family,  to  several  benefices 
in  succession  ;  and  finally  by  his  will  in  1560, 
forty-three  years  after  the  rector's  death,  left 
thirty  shillings  for  prayers  for  his  soul  in  recom- 
pense for  certain  tithes  which  had  been  due  to 
him.  This  continued  patronage  by  Lord  Mordaunt 
may  have  had  some  connection  with  the  fact  that 
his  father  Sir  John  Mordaunt,  knight,  of  Turvey, 
who  fought  on  the  Lancastrian  side  at  Barnet, 
had  been  appointed  Chancellor  of  the  Duchy  of 
Lancaster  in  1504,  the  year  of  his  death.  He  had 
other  earlier  local  connections,  having  been 
granted,  when  a  King's  Serjeant,  the  manors  of 
Eaton  and  Rushton,  Co.  Chester,  by  George  Earl 

1  V.C.H.  ii,  593b. 


156  The  Crosse  Family  of  Wigan, 

of  Kent  and  he  also  became  one  of  the  Chester 
Justices  in  eyre  and  eventually  Justice  of  the 
Palatine  Court  of  that  county.  A  number  of 
Lancashire  families  seem  to  have  settled  in  Bed- 
fordshire on  the  Mordaunt  estates  and  we  find  that 
the  Lancashire  names  of  Pemberton  and  Raynford 
(which  occur  in  the  pedigree  below)  are  well  known 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  parish  of  Turvey. 

In  the  course  of  our  searches  we  have  met  with 
a  number  of  persons  at  Oxford,  Newark  and  in 
Lincolnshire  in  the  late  sixteenth  and  seventeenth 
centuries  who  bore  the  name  of  Latimer  Crosse. 
We  have  been  unable  to  place  them  in  this  pedigree, 
but  it  seems  very  likely  that  they  descended  from 
a  branch  of  the  Lancashire  Crosses  named  after 
some  member  of  the  family  of  Sir  Nicholas 
Latimer,  whose  daughter  Edith  was  the  wife  of 
Sir  John  Mordaunt  the  Chancellor,  and  the  mother 
of  the  Crosses'  patron.1 

A  pedigree  dated  1598  (attributed  to  Camden) 
of  the  Crosses  of  Charlinch  near  Bridgewater  and 
of  Sutton,  Co.  Chester,  has  been  printed,2  in 
which  that  family  is  stated  to  descend  from  the 
Crosses  of  Crosse  Hall,  Lancashire,  but  the 
pedigree  appears  to  be  quite  untrustworthy  and 
we  have  been  unable  to  verify  a  single  statement 
in  the  six  generations  which  it  contains.  It 
appears  to  have  been  one  of  the  W.  S.  Spence 
frauds,  exposed  over  sixty  years  ago  in  Notes  and 
Queries.  3 


1  Robert  Latimer,  gent.,  was  one  of  the  executors  of  the  rector  of 
Moulsoe,  1533.  The  name  Latimer  Crosse  occurs  in  1862  as  that  of 
a  son  of  Thos.  Crosse,  of  Brodlands  and  Friskney,  Co.  Lines.,  in  a  suit 
in  which  it  appears  the  father  owned  the  manor  of  Wrenbury,  Co. 
Chester  (Law  Times  Reports,  8  N.S.  399).  According  to  Ormerod's 
Cheshire,  John  Cross  of  Wrenbury,  who  died  in  1855,  assumed  the  name 
of  Starkey  under  a  will  of  1809. 

»  Cheshire  Sheaf,  Ser.  III.,  vol.  v.,  94. 
8  2nd  Series,  vol.  ix. 


Chorley  and  Liverpool  157 

We  feel  sure,  however,  that  the  collateral  lines 
of  the  pedigree  here  printed  are  capable  of  much 
further  elaboration,  but  this  we  must  leave  to 
others. 

As  will  be  seen  from  the  references  we  have 
made  very  full  use  of  the  Victoria  History  and  to 
the  editors  the  fullest  acknowledgments  are  due. 
So  far  as  possible  an  independent  investigation 
of  the  available  sources  has  been  made. 

The  following  abbreviated  references  have  been 
used  : — 

V.C.H.  =  the  Victoria  Hist,  of  Co.  Lancaster. 
C.D.=Crosse  Deeds,  in  Schedule  of  Deeds  at  Shaw  Hill, 
Chorley,  by  R.  D.  Radcliffe,  M.A.,  F.S.A.  (Trans.  Hist. 
Soc.    Lanes.   &  Chesh.,    Vols.    xli.,    xlii.,    xliii.,    xlv.  ; 
also  priv.  reprint,  1895). 
T.  =Crosse  and  other  deeds,  in  Towneley  MS.    GG    (Brit. 

Mus.  Add.  MSS.  32305). 

M.D.  =  Moore  Deeds,  in  Calendar  of  Moore  MSS.   (Rec. 
Soc.   Lanes.   &  Chesh.  Vol.  Ixvii.). 

PEDIGREE  No.  1. 
1.    ROBERT    LE    WALEYS,     of    the    Cross    of 

Lathom,    near   Ormskirk,    Co.    Lanes,    temp. 

Henry   III  ;   mentioned  as  greatgrandfather 

of  Robert  of  the  Cross  of  Lathom  in  a  suit  of 

1321  (V.C.H.,  iii.  255,  w.6). 
II. — RICHARD    LE   WALEYS,    of   the   Cross   of 

Lathom,  son  and  heir  of  (I.)   (suit  of  1321)  ; 

perhaps  identical  with  Richard  de  la  Croyz, 

father  of  Adam  de  la  Croyz  of  Wigan  (C.D. 

20)  ;  issue  : — 

1. — Richard  le  Waleys  (III.),  of  whom  below. 

2. — Robert  of  the  Cross  of  Lathom,  the  elder, 
living  1291  and  1309  (V.C.H.  iii.  255). 

3. — Adam,  brother  of  Robert  of  the  Cross  of 
Lathom  the  elder  (ibid)  ;  perhaps  identical 
with  Adam  de  Cruce  of  Wigan  (see  Pedigree 
No.  2  and  V.C.H.  iv.,  75,  n.98;  iii.  255,  n.7). 

4. — Henry,  living  1291. 


158  The  Crosse  Family  of  Wigan, 

III. — RICHARD  LE  WALEYS,  son  and  heir  of 
(II.)  (suit  of  1321);  also  called  "  Richard  le 
Juvene"  of  the  Cross,  1292  (V.C.H.  iii.  255,  nA). 

IV. — ROBERT  OF  THE  CROSS  OF  LATHOM  junior, 
son  of  (III.)  plaintiff  in  1321  in  a  cairn  to 
land  at  Lathom  of  which  his  greatgrandfather, 
Robert  le  Waleys,  was  seised  temp.  Henry  III. 
(V.C.H.  iii.  255,  ».6). 

V. — ROBERT,  SON  OF  ROBERT  OF  THE  CROSS  OF 
LATHOM,  living  in  1334  and  defendant  with 
his  wife  Isolda  in  a  Wigan  suit  (V.C.H.  iii. 
255,  n.7).  The  further  descent  in  this  line 
cannot  be  made  out. 

PEDIGREE  No.  2. 

I. — ADAM  DE  CRUCE,  or  DEL  CROSSE,  of 
Wigan,  living  1277  and  1292  (V.C.H.  iv. 
75,  n.98 ;  iii.  255,  n.7)  ;  perhaps  identical 
with  Adam  brother  of  Robert  of  the  Cross  of 
Lathom  (see  Pedigree  No.  1).  Issue  : — 

1. — William  del  Crosse  (II.),  of  whom  below. 

2. — John  de  Cruce,  of  Wigan,  living  1295  and 
1329  (V.C.H.  iv.  75  ;  C.D.  passim)',  per- 
haps husband  of  Margery  wife  of  "  John 
de  la  Croyz  of  Lathom/'  1292  (Lanes. 
Final  Concords,  i.  72)  ;  Issue  : — 

(i) — Thurstan  de  Cruce,  of  Wigan,  living 
1324-67;  marr.  Emma  (V.C.H.  iv.  75; 
C.D.  36,  37)  ;  issue  :- 

(a) — Hugh  del  Crosse,  of  Wigan,  living 
1370  and  1392  (V.C.H.  iv.  75,  w.101)  ; 
Mayor  of  Wigan  1386  (C.D.  80)  ;  marr. 
Katherine,  widow  of  (1)  John  Crosse 
(IV.)  and  (2)  William  son  of  Adam  de 
Liverpool ;  (for  her  see  below).  She 
had  issue  by  Hugh,  possibly  Richard 


Charley  and,  Liverpool.  159 

(V.),  and  also  Henry  (perhaps  only 
son),  and  Imayne,  both  living  1395 
(V.C.H.  iv.  75,  w.101).  The  latter 
probably  marr.  John  Fox  of  Burton 
in  Wirral  as  his  son,  Richard  Fox, 
calls  Richard  del  Crosse  (V.)  his 
"  uncle  "  (T.  2840).  Hugh  died  circa 
1392. 

(bf— William     }    living  1395  (V.C.H.  iv. 
(c)— Gilbert        \        75,  w.101). 
(ii)_ William,  living  1324  (C.D.  36  ;  V.C.H. 

iv.  75). 
(i) — Matilda     (or     Maud),     marr.     Henry 

Banastre  (of  Walton?)  (C.D.  36). 
1. — Margery,  (C.D.  36),  perhaps  Margery 
sister  of  John  atte  Crosse  and  widow  in 
1331  of  Roger  de  Wigan,  (son  of  William 
son  of  Hugh  de  Wigan)  (V.C.H.  iv.  74, 
w.89;  C.D.  14*,  36). 

2. — Ellen,  marr.  Alan  the  fuller,  son  of  Walter 
the  fuller,  of  Wigan,  who  occurs  with  his 
brothers  John  and  William  1299-1323 
(V.C.H.  iv.  76,  C.D.  14  etc.). 

II. — WILLIAM  DEL  CROSSE,  the  "  walker  "  (or 
fuller),  of  Wigan  (V.C.H.  iv.  76)  ;  called 
William  Crosse  son  and  heir  of  Almeric  (?  for 
Adam)  Crosse  in  Visitation  Co.  Lanes.  1567  ; 
had  land  in  Ormskirk  (V.C.H.  iv.  76,  «.102)  ; 
married  Emma  daughter  of  Thomas  de  Ince. 
She  a  widow  in  1316  (ibid).  Issue  : — 
1. — Almoric,  or  Aymory,  the  walker  of  Wigan, 
(III.),  of  whom  below. 

III. — ALMORIC,  o  r    AYMORY,    the    walker,    of 
Wigan,  living  1309  and  1345,  married  Agnes 

— ;     she    was    a    widow    in    1359 

(V.C.H.    iv.    w.102).     He   is   called   Almeric 


160  The  Crosse  Family  of  Wigan, 

Crosse  son   and  heir  of   William   Crosse  in 

Visitation  1567.     Issue  : — 

I.— John  Crosse  (IV.),  of  whom  below. 

2. — William,  the  walker,  of  Wigan,  living 

1347  and  1369  ;  married  Isobel 

and  had  a  son  Aymory  the  walker  of  Wigan 
(V.C.H.  iv.  76),  who  was  living  1380  and 
1417  and  married  Alice  daughter  of  Adam 
the  loriner  of  Wigan  (C.D.80),  and  had  a 
son  Henry. 

3.— Henry,  living  1369  (V.C.H.  iv.  76),  and 
had  a  son  Richard  Aymary  who  is  men- 
tioned in  1423  as  "  cousin  "  of  Richard 
del  Crosse  (ibid,  w.102). 

4. — Thurstan,  living  1369  (ibid). 

IV. — JOHN  CROSSE,  alias  AMORYSON,  son  of 
Almoric,  son  of  William,  son  of  Adam  ;  of 
Wigan  and  Liverpool ;  living  1331-1369 ; 
called  John  Crosse  of  Liverpool  in  Visitation 
1567 ;  purchased  land  in  Liverpool  from 
Adam  son  of  Richard  de  Liverpool  circa  1347 
(V.C.H.  iv.  76,  n.102)  ;  Mayor  or  deputy- 
mayor  of  Liverpool  1368  (Trans.  Hist.  Soc. 
Lanes,  and  Ches.  liv.  124)  ;  died  1369  (C.D. 
65,  66)  ;  he  married,  about  1366  (C.D.  56), 
Katherine  daughter  of  Adam  son  of  Matthew 
de  Kenyon,  and  had  issue  as  below ;  she 
married,  secondly,  circa  1371-4,  William  son 
of  Adam  de  Liverpool,  who  died  in  1383  and 
by  whom  she  had  issue  (Trans.  Hist.  Soc. 
Lanes.  &  Ches.  Iv.  114).  She  married, 
thirdly,  Hugh  del  Crosse  of  Wigan,  (see 
above),  and,  fourthly,  Thos.  del  Hough 
(Thornton  Hough  in  Wirral),  who  died 
in  1409.  A  son  John  del  Hough,  "  brother 
of  Richard  del  Crosse  and  of  John  de 
Liverpool,"  is  mentioned  (T.2301).  Thos. 


Charley  and  Liverpool.  161 

del     Hough     had     a     former     wife     also 
called    Katherine     (Ormerod's    Cheshire    ii. 
549,    V.C.H.    iv.    76,    n.Wl).        Katherine 
(his  second  wife)  was  living  in  1417  (C.D.126), 
and   is   given    a   first    husband   William   de 
Houghton  in  Visit.  Co.  Lanes.  1567,  probably 
an  error.     The  following  are  mentioned  in 
1369   as   sons   of  John   "  Almoricson  "    and 
Katherine,   his  widow,   in   an  agreement  to 
give     Adam    de    Kenyon    custody    of    the 
children's  goods  (C.D.  66).  :- 
(1). — Richard.     Unless    Katherine    had    two 
sons  each  called    Richard  by  her  first  and 
third  husbands    (who  were  both  Crosses), 
this  Richard  was  the  successor   (V.)    (see 
V.C.H.  iv.  76,  ».102). 
(2). — Nicholas. 
(3). — Thurstan. 

V. — RICHARD  DEL  CROSSE,  of  Wigan,  Liverpool 
and  Chorley ;  son  of  Katherine  (C.D.  113, 
125,  T.  2679),  but  by  which  husband  is  not 
certain  (see  above  and  V.C.H.  iv.  76,  w.102)  ; 
called  son  and  heir  of  John  Crosse  of  Liverpool 
and  Katherine  in  the  Visitation  1567,  and  son 
of  John  son  of  Almoric  in  a  MS.  pedigree 
(M.D.  365)  ;  living  ?  1369-1442  ;  Mayor 
of  Liverpool  1409-10  (T.2592,  2700)  ;  pur- 
chased lands  in  Liverpool  and  settled 
there  ;  also  bought  the  Eaves  Hall  (Crosse 
Hall)  property  at  Healey  in  Chorley  1418-20 

(V.C.H.  vi.  40)  ;  married  Margaret , 

she  living   1437   (C.D.    138).     Issue  :— 
(1). — John  Crosse  (VI.),  of  whom  below. 
(2). — Perhaps  Edmund  Crosse  ;      living    1450 
and    1472,   witness   in    1461    and    1471    to 
sales  of  land  in  Liverpool  to  John  Crosse 
of     Liverpool     (T.    2232,    2270);    Royal 


162  The  Crosse  Family  of  Wigan, 

bailiff,  approver  and  lessee  of  the  lordship 
of  Liverpool  (Hist.  Mun.  Gov.  Liverpool, 
316  etc.)  ;  Mayor  1469-70  (Trans.  Hist. 
Soc.  liv.  130).  This  Edmund  may,  how- 
ever, have  been  of  a  Rivington  family. 
Perhaps  Henry  Crosse  of  Wavertree,  gent., 
lessee  of  the  lordship  of  Liverpool  1475 
etc.  (Hist.  Mun.  Gov.  Liverpool,  324  etc.), 
was  a  son  of  Edmund. 

VI. — JOHN  CROSSE,  of  Wigan,  Liverpool  and 
Chorley,  son  and  heir  *of  (V.)  ;  Mayor  of 
Liverpool  1459  and  1476  (Trans.  Hist.  Soc. 
liv.  130 ;  Col.  Moore  Deeds  No.  194)  ; 
Commissioner  of  Peace  1  Feb.  1485-6,  and  26 
March,  1489  (Duchy  of  Lane.  Pat.  Roll). 
In  1442  it  was  proposed  that  he  should  marry 
Alison  daughter  of  William  Norreys  (T.  2281)  ; 
married,  first,  Joan  daughter  of  Ric.  Calcott 
of  the  City  of  Chester,  gentleman  ;  dis- 
pensation 26th  July,  1449  from  Archbishop 
of  York,  citing  a  dispensation  of  Pope 
Nicholas  V.,  they  being  twice  related  in  the 
4th  degree  (Reg.  Kempe  137  a.b.,  in  Test. 
Ebor.(Surtees  Soc.),  iii. 331);  married, secondly, 
Agnes,  Annis,  Alice  or  Avis  [?  Botyll],"  late 
wife "  (C.D.  165,  167)  ;  she  was  married 
again  before  1526  to  Humphrey  Gerard  and 
they  then  released  her  dower  lands  to 
"  Master  John  Crosse,  clerk  "  (T.  2371). 
Will  of  John  Crosse  of  Liverpool  dated  20th 
August,  1502  ;  to  be  buried  in  the  chancel  of 
St.  Nicholas  of  Liverpool  before  the  image 
of  the  Blessed  Mary ;  to  Richard  Crosse 
my  son  and  heir,  my  best  gown  and  the  big 
brass  pot  that  was  his  mother's  ;  to  Roger 
his  son,  my  second  best  gown  ;  to  my  son 
William  Crosse,  goods  in  my  workshop 


Chorley  and  Liverpool.  163 

(opella),  Richard  my  heir  to  assign  to  him 
the  house  and  garden  in  Ley  Dale  Street  in 
which  Henry  Plumbe  dwells  and  my  two 
workshops  (with  the  chambers),  next  the 
Cross,  for  life  (see  C.D.  164)  ;  to  my  wife 
Agnes  and  my  son  John  the  chaplain,  12 
silver  spoons  equally  between  them  ;  John 
Crosse,  son  of  Richard  my  heir,  to  have  the 
farm  of  the  tenement  I  have  in  the  lordship 
of  Walton  from  Wm.  Lightwode  for  4  years, 
on  condition  he  be  willing  to  take  holy  orders, 
also  20s,  a  tunic  and  gown  and  a  pair  of 
"  ledrybuskynnus  "  ;  what  I  heretofore  had 
and  bought  of  Margaret  Tailor  to  be  ex- 
pended for  maintenance  of  a  priest  to 
celebrate  before  the  image  of  the  Blessed 
Mary  in  the  chapel  of  Liverpool,  except  the 
workshop  which  I  have  given  to  the  main- 
tenance of  a  chaplain  celebrating  in  the 
chapel  of  St.  Mary  de  Key  ;  to  Wm.  Bolton, 
vicar  of  Walton,  a  silver  bowl ;  to  Ellen 
Cross  my  sewing  maid  20s.  ;  to  James 
Thomasson  10s.  and  the  tenement  in  which 
Henry  Coke  dwells  or  that  in  which  the 
widow  of  Edmund  Thorpe  dwells,  for  life, 
he  to  take  my  sewing  maid  Joan  Longbakke 
to  wife  ;  to  John  Crouke,  one  cow  ;  to  the 
church  of  St.  Mary  of  Walton  26s.  8d.  ;  to 
the  church  of  Sefton  20s.  out  of  money  in 
hands  of  the  rector  ;  all  other  goods  to  my 
son  John  the  chaplain,  my  wife  Agnes  and 
Wm.  Bolton  chaplain,  to  dispose  for  my  soul; 
witnessed  by  Thomas  Eyvis,  Mayor  of  Liver- 
pool, Thomas  Harebrowne,  William  Hare- 
browne,  gent.,  John  Fleccher,  John  Woolfall, 
Richard  Fletewode,  chaplain  ;  proved  23rd 
Sept.,  1502  by  the  executor  (John  Crosse) 


164  The  Crosse  Family  of  Wigan, 

(P.C.C.  11  Blamyr).     Issue  (probably  all  by 

first  wife)  :— 

(1) — Richard  Crosse  (VII.)  ,  of  whom  below. 

(2) — William    Crosse,    mercer,    of    Liverpool 

and  London  ;   married  Alice ; 

his  will  dated  18th  December,  1502  ;  to 
be  buried  in  the  chapel  of  St.  Nicholas  of 
Lyverpoll  ;  all  stuff  in  shop  in  Lyverpoll 
to  son  John  and  daughter  Elizabeth,  my 
brother  Sir  John  Crosse  priest  to  have  the 
guiding  thereof  to  their  behoof;  to  wife 
Alice  stuff  and  goods  in  London  and  lease 
of  the  "  s(c)halding  house  "  for  10  years 
on  condition  she  pay  my  debts  ;  the  over- 
plus of  the  lease  to  descend  to  my  said  son 
and  daughter  ;  to  Sir  John  Fleccher  5s.  ; 
20s.  to  the  building  of  a  house  that  shall 
be  made  to  the  behoof  of  a  priest  to  sing 
afore  Our  Lady  of  the  Kye  in  Lyverpolle  ; 
executors  wife  and  son  ;  my  brother,  Sir 
John  Crosse,  to  be  overseer  ;  witnessed  by 
John  Crosse,  priest,  Sir  John  Fleccher, 
priest,  Elizabeth  Themberton  (Pember- 
ton  ?)  ;  proved  1st  March,  1502-3  by  relict 
and  executrix,  with  power  reserved  etc. 
(P.C.C.  22  Blamyr).  Issue  :- 

probably     both     died 
without    issue    as    the 


1.— John. 
2.— Elizabeth. 


lease    of    the  scalding 
house       in       London 


seems  to  have  passed 
to  their  uncle  John. 
(3) — John  Crosse,  founder  of  the  grammar 
School  at  Liverpool  and  of  the  chantry  of 
St.  Katherine  in  the  chapel  there  ;  called 
"  my  son  John  the  chaplain  "  (will  of 
father  1502),  "  my  brother  Sir  John  Crosse 
priest  "  (will  of  brother  William  1502)  ; 


Chorley  and  Liverpool.  165 

executor  of  father's  will  ;  early  benefices 
not  known  ;  appointed  16  Sept.,  1489,  by 
the  Dean  of  St.  Martin's-le-Grand  (the 
regular  patron),  to  the  rectory  of  St. 
Nicholas  ad  Macellas  (in  the  Flesh 
Shambles),  London,  which  he  held  till  his 
death  in  1517  (Hennessy,  Novum  Reper- 
torium  Ecc.  Par.  Londinense,  1893,  p.  352)  ; 
on  8th  Aug.,  1493,  as  Master  John  Crosse, 
M.A.  (probably  of  Oxford),  priest,  he  was 
instituted  personally,  at  Burgh  St.  Peter, 
to  a  mediety  of  the  parish  church  of 
(All  Saints)  Turvey,  Beds.,  patron  the 
prior  and  convent  of  St.  Neots  (Lincoln 
Epis.  Reg.  xxii.,  271,  d.).  Said  to  have 
been  also  one  of  the  two  chantry 
priests  at  Turvey  founded  by  the  will 
dated  1504  of  Sir  John  Mordaunt  of 
Turvey,  Chancellor  of  the  Duchy  of 
Lane.  1504  (Harvey,  History  of  Hundred 
of  Willey,  198;  Nicolas,  Test.  Vetusla,  ii. 
461)  ;  executor  and  residuary  legatee  of 
the  will  dated  21st  November  1478  of  Hugh 
Botyll,  perpetual  vicar  of  the  prebendal 
church  of  Pottern  (or  Porton),  Co.  Wilts. 
(Harl.  MS.  2042,  162).  On  10th  April  1507 
as  rector  of  St.  Nicholas  etc.,  but  not  of 
Turvey,  he  enfeoffed,  for  the  fulfilment  of 
his  last  will,  John  Fleccher  chaplain,  John 
son  of  Richard  Crosse,  Thomas  son  of 
George  Raynford,  William  Moore,  Evan 
Haghton,  Roger  Fazakerley  and  William 
Lake,  with  all  his  lands,  etc.  in  Lyrpole 
or  Co.  Lanes.,  also  those  in  Fazakerley  held 
by  feoffment  of  his  "  relation  "  Hugh 
Botehyll,  clerk,  and  the  premises  there 
bought  from  William  Lightwood  (C.D.  170); 
a  similar  deed  dated  6  Henry  VIII.  (1514-15) 


166  The  Crosse  Family  of  Wigan, 

confirms  these  lands  to  the  same  feoffees 
except  Fletcher ;  John  Crosse,  son  of 
Richard,  being  there  called  rector  of 
Mickleham,  Thomas  Raynford  being  called 
of  Turvey  chaplain,  and  Hugh  Botill  being 
entitled  B .(accalarius)  U.(triusque)  J.(uris) 
(Duchy  of  Lane.  Dep.  66).  On  5th  Febru- 
ary, 1509-10,  he  received  the  king's  general 
pardon1  as  John  Crosse  clerk,  alias  John 
Crosse  of  London  parson  of  the  parish 
church  of  St.  Nicholas  ad  Macellas,  alias 
John  Crosse  parson  of  the  parish  church  of 
Turvey,  alias  John  Crosse  late  of  Lyverpull 
clerk,  executor  of  the  will  of  John  Crosse 
late  of  Lyverpull  gentleman,  alias  John 
Crosse  clerk,  executor  of  the  will  of  Master 
Hugh  Botyll*  late  vicar  of  "  Portorn  " 
Co.  Wilts  (Pat.  Roll.  Suppl.  57,  m.25, 
formerly  Pardon  Roll  1  Henry  VIII.  Part 
II)  ;  he  died  between  4th  June  and  3rd 
July  1517  (when  a  successor  was  instituted 
to  Turvey),  having  made  two  wills. 

By  his  first  will,  dated  10th  May,  1515,  as 
parson  of  St.  Nicholas,  etc.  (but  not  of 
Turvey),  (printed  in  full  Liverpool  Vestry 
Books,  ed.  Peet,  i.  450),  he  left  the  lands  in 
Liverpool  which  he  had  by  deed  of  gift  of 
"  Sir  "  Hugh  Botill,  son  and  heir  of  Hugh 
Botill  of  Liverpool,  and  lands  bought  from 
William  Light  wood  in  Fazakerley,  etc., 
upon  the  trusts  of  the  deed  of  feoffment 
(of  1507  etc.),  and  provided  for  the  estab- 
lishment of  a  chantry  priest  before  the 
altar  of  St.  Katherine  in  the  Chapel  of 
Liverpool,  to  pray  for  the  souls  of  John 
Crosse,  Avice  Crosse,  Hugh  Botyll  and 

1  We  owe  this  reference  to  Professor  J.  A.  Twemlow  of  the  University 
of  Liverpool. 


Chorley  and  Liverpool.  167 

their  friends,  and,  after  his  death,  for  that 
of  the  founder  etc.  ;  the  will  gave  the 
appointment  of  new  trustees  of  the  chantry 
foundation  to  the  Mayor  of  Liverpool  and 
testator's  brother  Richard  Crosse,  etc.,  and 
provided  that  the  priest  should  keep 
"  gramer  scole  "  and  take  fees  except  from 
children  named  Crosse  and  those  who  were 
poor  ;  testator  further  gave  to  the  Mayor 
and  burgesses  of  Liverpool  '  the  new- 
called  Our  Ladie  House  "  to  keep  their 
courts  etc.,  the  cellar  under  it  to  provide 
help  for  the  chantry  priest  of  Our  Lady  of 
the  Chapel  of  the  Key,  he  to  give  5s.  a  year 
out  of  the  income  to  the  chantry  priest  of 
St.  Katherine  etc.  ;  witnessed  by  Hum- 
phrey Crosse  priest,  John  Ogle,  Thomas 
Eccleston,  Laurence  Ireland  and  John 
"  Wrythtyntone."  Place  and  date  of  pro- 
bate unknown  and  possibly  never  proved, 
though  acted  upon  in  1527  and  1554  as  a 
trust  by  the  Chancery  Courts  (Duchy  of 
Lane.  Pleadings  iv.  C2  (1527),  Depositions 
vol.  66,  M3  a— r). 

The  second  will,  as  parson  of  Tyrvey,  is 
date  4th  June  1517  ;  my  body  to  be 
buried  in  the  church  of  All  Saints  in  Tyrvey 
in  the  high  chancel ;  to  my  sister  Mary 
my  best  bed  and  a  violet  gown  ;  to  my 
sister  Elizabeth  a  bed  in  London  ;  to  Sir 
Thomas  Raynesford  priest  a  bed  in  Tyrvey 
with  what  books  be'th  necessary  for  him 
to  occupy  ;  to  my  cousin  Elizabeth  Pem- 
berton  a  bed  and  my  russet  gown  furred 
with  black  lamb  ;  to  John  Copyn  a  bed 
with  half  the  brass  pots  and  old  pewter 
vessels  in  Tyrvey  to  the  use  of  Margaret 
his  wife  and  her  children,  and  both  my 


168  The  Crosse  Family  of  Wigan, 

carts  and  two  carthouses,  two  kine,  ten 
sheep  and  ten  lambs  ;  my  cousin 
[  ?  nephew  ]  John  Button  to  have  the  lease 
of  the  Scalding  house  in  St.  Nicholas 
Shambles  in  London,  during  the  years, 
to  find  him  to  school  if  he  will  be  a 
priest,  or  else  it  be  disposed  to  find  some 
other  to  the  school  at  the  mind  of  my 
cousin  [nephew]  John  Crosse  ;  to  my  cousin 
[nephew]  James  Crosse  the  great  bed  and 
hangings  in  the  parlour  in  London  ;  my 
farm  stock  to  George  Slake,  Richard  Bar- 
bor,  John  Bulloke,  Thomas  Waren  ;  to  the 
Abbey  of  Lavenden  [Bucks.]  twelve  sheep 
and  twelve  lambs  towards  the  building  of 
the  cloister ;  to  my  cousin  [?  nephew] 
Richard  Crosse's  wife  a  gown  furred  with 
white  ;  to  Sir  John  Dorff  40s.  in  remittance 
of  part  of  his  debt  ;  to  Maister  Pate  one 
book  ;  to  my  cousin  [?  nephew]  Richard, 
"  querester "  at  Whitingdon  College  (see 
below)  40s.  ;  all  my  books  of  parchment  to 
be  equally  divided  betwixt  Mawdelyn  Col- 
lege and  the  King's  College  of  Brasynnose  in 
Oxford  ;  the  parson  that  shall  succeed  me 
to  have  the  house  I  dwell  in,  with  the  lead 
and  the  brewing  vats  for  dilapidation  ;  to 
the  church  of  St.  Nicholas  in  Lyverpole, 
four  books,  two  of  them  Distructorium 
Viciorium1  and  the  other  the  Con- 
stitutions and  Randowlff ;  to  my  cousin 
[nephew]  John  Crosse  clerk  a  bed,  a  gown 
and  the  use  of  all  my  books  unto  such  time 
that  my  cousin  [?  nephew]  John  Sutton  be 
able  to  occupy  them,  or  else  to  be  disposed 

1  A  "  Summa  que  Destructorium  Viciorum  appellatur  .  .  .  cujusdam 
fabri  lignarii  filio  .  .  .  anno  1429  collecta  "  was  printed  at  Cologne, 
1480  and  1485,  and  at  Nuremburg,  1496  and  later  (Cat.  Brit.  Mus.). 
There  is  now  no  trace  of  this  or  the  other  books  at  St.  Nicholas'  Church- 


Charley  and  Liverpool.  169 

for  the  health  of  my  soul ;  all  the  rest  of 
my  goods  to  my  said  cousin  John  Crosse, 
and  my  sister  Mary,  to  be  disposed  as  they 
perceive  my  mind,  whom  I  constitute  my 
executors,  and  Master  John  Mordauntesq. 
supervisor  ;  witnesses,  Maister  John  Mor- 
daunt,  esquier,  Sir  Thomas  Raynforth, 
curett  of  the  parish,  and  Humphrey  Har- 
dys  ;  proved  6th  July  1517  by  the  execu- 
tors (P.C.C.  34  Holder). 

(4) — Perhaps  Edmund  Crosse,  who  married  a 
daughter  of  Sir  William  Norreys  of  Speke 
(M.S.  ped.  M.D.365),  and,  with  his  wife 
and  "  children  "  was  commemorated  in  a 
stained  glass  window  in  the  Norreys  Chapel 
at  Childwall  Church,  Co.  Lanes.  (Trans. 
Hist  Soc.,  Ixv.,  99).  Issue  (inter  alios)  : — 
1- — Laurence.  )  /Ayrc  ,  ,  .. » 
2.— William.  }  (MS'  ped'  loc'  "'•> 

(1) — Mary,  married  in  1486  John  son  of 
Gilbert  Sutton  of  Scarisbrick  (Scarisbrick 
Deed  178),  and  had  issue  (V.C.H:,  hi.  273). 

(2) — Margaret,  married  circa  1470  Edmund 
son  of  Richard  Gillibrand  of  Lathom  (C.D. 
147). 

VII. — RICHARD  CROSSE,  of  Walton  on  the  Hill, 
Liverpool  and  Chorley,  son  and  heir  of 
(VI.)  ;  living  in  1515  (C.D.  175  etc.)  ; 
married,  first,  Elizabeth  daughter  and  co- 
heir of  Roger  Walton  of  Walton-on-the-Hill 
and  Fazakerley,  Co.  Lanes.,  armiger,  the 
estates  being  partitioned  4th  July  1494  (Chor- 
ley Survey  (Rec.  Soc.  Lanes.  &  Cheshire), 
37);  issue  seven  children  ;  married,  secondly, 
Elizabeth  daughter  of  Edmund  Win- 
stanley  of  Winstanley,  Co.  Lanes.,  marriage 


170  The  Crosse  Family  of  Wigan, 

agreement    1493    (T.    2250).     Issue    six    (?) 

children.     Issue  of  first  marriage  : — 

1. — Roger  (VIII.),  of  whom  below. 

2. — John  (IX),  of  whom  below. 

3. — Robert,  ob.  s.  p. 

4. — Richard,  probably  "  my  cousin  [nephew] 
Richard,  querester  [chorister]  at  Whiting- 
don  College  "  [Whittington's  College  in  the 
Ch.  of  St.  Michael  Paternoster,  Cannon 
Street,  London]  will  of  John  Crosse,  rector 
of  Turvey,  1517)  ;  ob.  s.  p. 

5. — William,  married  circa  1522  Joan 
daughter  of  Henry  Banastre  (T.  2887). 
She  held  Crosse  Hall,  Liverpool,  for  life 
(T.  2488),  and  was  alive  in  1548  (will  of 
Richard  Banastre  of  Bank  in  Lanes.  & 
Ches.  Wills  (Chet.  Soc.),  i.  200).  He  died 
s.p.  before  30th  April  1532  (will  of  IX.), 
and  probably  before  December  1526 
(Liverpool  Town  Bks.  ed.  Twemlow  i.  434). 

1. — Blanche,  married  in  1515  to  Roger  Breres, 
yeoman  and  linendraper,  of  Chorley  (C.D. 
175,  179)  ;  became  joint  heiress  of  the 
Walton  and  Fazakerley  property  of  her 
mother  and  had  issue. 

2. — Margaret,  married  George  Garston  of 
Walton  (C.D.  179)  ;  joint  heiress  with  her 
sister  Blanche. 

Issue    of    second    marriage    of    Richard 
Crosse  (VII.)  :- 

1. — James  (X),  of  whom  below. 

2. — Edmund,  second  in  remainder  after  his 
brother  James,  and  executor  of  will  1532 
of  half-brother  John  (IX)  ;  "  servant  to 
John  Lord  Mordaunt  "  (MS.ped.M.D.  365). 

3.— Perhaps  Humphrey  (MS.  ped.  M.D.365). 
A  Humphrey  Crosse,  priest,  was  a  witness 
in  1515  to  the  will  of  John  Crosse  rector 


Chorley  and  Liverpool.  171 

of  St.  Nicholas  etc.,  a  defendant  in  a 
Liverpool  chantry  suit  of  1527,  and  men- 
tioned in  1530  (deed  of  rector  of  Moulsoe 
below),  also  a  chantry  priest  of  St. 
Katherine's  altar  in  St.  Nicholas',  Liverpool, 
1533  (Valor  Ecc.  v.  221),  also  master  of 
the  Grammar  School  and  aged  50  in  1548 
(Gregson's  Fragments  and  Liverpool  Town 
Books,  i.  140,  532).  All  these  are  perhaps 
not  identical. 

4. — George  (MS.  ped.). 

1. — Katherine,  mentioned  in  will  of  half- 
brother  John  (IX.) ;  married  (1)  John  War- 
ren of  St.  Albans,  (2)  Edward  Taylor  of 
Hadley,  Co.  Middlesex,  son  of  Edward  Tay- 
lor of  same  and  Eleanor  his  wife,  daughter 
of  Edward  Cheeseman,  "  cofferer  to  Henry 
8"  (Middlesex  Peds.,  Harl.  Soc.). 

2.— Elizabeth  (MS.  ped.). 

VIII. — ROGER  CROSSE,  of  Walton,  Liverpool, 
Wigan  and  Chorley  ;  eldest  son  and  heir  of 
(VII.)  (C.D.  171,  174  etc.)  ;  married  Letitia 
daughter  of  Thomas  Norreys  of  West  Derby, 
(according  to  Foster)  which  marriage  was 
dissolved  12th  October  1519  by  the  official 
of  Bishop  of  Chester,  for  want  of  consent,  the 
parents  having  compulsorily  espoused  them 
when  children  (C.D.  176)  ;  Burke  states 
that  Letitia  afterwards  married  Thos.  Norreys 
of  Speke;  but  she  may  have  been  daughter  of 
Richard  Norreys,  married,  secondly,  Hum- 
phrey Ball  of  Chester  (Visitation  of  Cheshire 
1613,  15).  Roger  Crosse  died  22nd  April  1522 
s.p.  ;  inq.p.m.  at  Preston,  llth  August;1 
he  was  seised  of  56  messuages  and  1215 
acres  of  various  kinds  of  land,  etc.,  as 

1  The  year  is  now  illegible. 


172  The  Crosse  Family  of  Wigan, 

follows  : — Walton  12  messuages,  450  acres, 
held  of  the  King  in  socage,  rent  20s.  ;  Liver- 
pool 12  messuages,  150  acres,  a  windmill, 
of  the  Duke  of  Lanes,  in  free  burgage,  rent 
23s.  lOd.  ;  (West)  Derby  2  messuages  42 
acres,  of  the  King  by  custom  of  manor  and 
court  roll,  rent  11s.  8d.  ;  Rainhill  1  mes- 
suage 16  acres,  of  Richard  Lancaster  esq. 
in  socage,  rent  4|d.  ;  Much  Woolton  2  mes- 
suages 22  acres,  of  St.  John  of  Jerusalem  in 
socage,  12d.  rent  ;  Ditton  2  messuages  36 
acres,  of  William  Dichefield  in  socage,  rent 
4d.  ;  Upholland  17  acres,  of  Edward  Earl  of 
Derby  by  custom  and  court  roll,  rent  17s.  ; 
Golborn  1  messuage  28  acres,of  Thomas  Lang- 
ton  and  Henry  Keighley,  esqs.,  in  socage, 
rent  3s.  8d.  ;  Wigan  8  burgages  44  acres,  of 
rector  of  Wigan  in  free  burgage,  rent  19s.  2d.  ; 
Adlington  2  messuages  54  acres,  of  the  Lords 
of  Leylandshire  in  socage,  rent  8Jd.  ;  Heath 
Chernock  1  messuage  30  acres,  of  St.  John  of 
Jerusalem,  in  socage,  rent  12d.  ;  Coppull  3 
messuages  66  acres,  of  Richard  Worthington 
of  Worthington,  in  socage,  rent  4s.  ;  Chorley 
10  messuages  260  acres,  of  the  Lords  of  Ley- 
landshire, rent  26s.  8d.  ;  and  of  St.  John  of 
Jerusalem,  rent  4d.  ;  John  Crosse,  clerk,  is 
his  brother  and  heir  and  was  40  years  and 
more  at  date  of  inq.  It  also  appears  that  on 
12th  September  1522  the  said  John  granted, 
by  charter,  to  Nicholas  Banastre  and  Henry 
Banastre  jun.,  gents.,  Crosse  Hall  in  Lyver- 
pole,  etc.,  to  Joan  daughter  of  Henry  Banas- 
tre for  life,  etc.,  then  to  William  Crosse 
brother  and  heir  [apparent]  of  said  John; 
Alexander  Banastre  and  Thomas  Banastre, 
chaplain,  being  appointed  attorneys  to 
deliver  seisin  ;  said  Joan  still  was  living. 


Chorley  and  Liverpool  173 

Also  that  by  another  charter  19th  February 
1524-5  John  Crosse  (IX),  rector  of  Mulsho, 
Bucks,  confirmed  to  said  William  and  Joan 
for  her  life  other  lands  in  Liverpool,  etc. 
(Duchy  of  Lane.  Inq.  p.m.  vi.  18). 

IX. — JOHN  CROSSE  ;  "to  take  Holy  Orders  " 
(will  of  grandfather  1502)  ;  a  chaplain  1509 
(C.D.  171)  ;  aged  40  and  more  at  inq.  p.m. 
of  brother  Roger,  to  whose  Lancashire  estates 
he  became  heir  ;  probably  John  Crosse  of 
Lincoln  College,  Oxford,  B.A.  18th  June  1511, 
M.A.  27th  June  1514  ;  presented  to  numerous 
benefices ;  instituted  31st  October  1513 
(patron  John  Mordaunt  of  Turvey)  to  the 
rectory  of  Mickleham,  Surrey  (Manning  and 
Bray,  Surrey  ii.  663)  ;  instituted  15th  Novem- 
ber 1518  (by  the  same  patron  on  grant  from 
Goring  Priory)  to  the  rectory  of  Moulsoe, 
Bucks.  (Lincoln  Epis.  Reg.  xxv.  53),  also  on 
22nd  May  1525  by  the  same  (then  Sir  John 
Mordaunt  Kt.),  to  the  rectory  of  White 
Roding,  Essex,  which  he  held  till  his  death 
(Newcourt,  Repertorium  (1710)  ii.  500)  ;  also 
on  3rd  June,  1530,  by  the  same  to  the  vicarage 
of  West  Horndon,  Essex,  which  he  soon 
resigned,  a  successor  being  appointed  24th 
August  1530  (ibid.  342)  ;  resigned  Moulsoe, 
not  "  to  a  kinsman  "  as  thought  by  Lipscomb 
(Bucks,  iv.  254)  but  probably  pro  forma,  on 
presentation  to  West  Horndon.  He  appears 
to  have  been  re-instituted  to  Moulsoe  "  on 
resignation,"  personally  at  Woburn,  18th  June 
1530,  patron  Sir  John  Mordaunt  (Lincoln  Ep. 
Reg.  xxvii.  213)  ;  on  12th  October  1530,  as 
rector  of  Moulsoe,  he  made  a  feoffment  to  Sir 
Ewin  Quykk,  clerk,  George  Goldwell  and 
William  Dowse,  upon  the  trusts  of  his  last  will, 


174  The  Crosse  Family  of  Wigan, 

of  all  lands  in  Co.  Lanes,  formerly  held 
by  John  Crosse  his  grandfather  and  inherited 
from  his  brother  Roger  (except  lands  in  Cop- 
pull,  etc.,  with  which  he  enfeoffed  John  Mor- 
daunt  jun.  and  Edmund  Feteplace  esquires, 
Roger  Hoggeson  and  Henry  Holywell  by 
charter  24th  June  1528),  Humphrey  Crosse 
clerk  and  Richard  Dowse  being  appointed  to 
deliver  seisin  (C.D.  178)  ;  died  between  30th 
April  and  10th  September  1532  when  a 
successor  was  appointed  to  White  Roding 
(Newcourt,  Repertorium  ii.  500)  and  on  20th 
June  1533  to  Moulsoe,  both  on  his  death 
(Lincoln  Epis.  Reg.  xxvii.  217  d).  Will,  as 
rector  of  Moulsoe,  dated  30th  April  1532  ;  to 
be  buried  where  I  die  ;  to  Master  Sterky  my 
gown  of  medley  furred  with  black  lamb,  and 
to  John  Hoggeson,  clerk,  my  best  short  gown 
with  two  tippets  of  same  cloth  ;  to  the  Royal 
College  of  Oxford  called  Brasenose1,  four 
books  of  the  Bible  with  "  Lira  ",  six  books 
of  Antoninus  (three  called  "  Cronicles  "  and 
three  "  Summa")  and  a  book  called  "St. 
Augustine  on  the  City  of  God  "  ;  residue  of 
goods  to  [half]  brother  Edmund  Crosse,  he 
to  pay  £5  to  Katherine  Crosse  my  sister  to 
her  marriage,  at  the  discretion  of  Sir  John 
Mordaunt,  Kt.,  Lord  Mordaunt  ;  all  lands  in 
Wigan,  Lyverpole  and  Walton  which  de- 
scended to  me  on  death  of  my  father  to  my 
[half]  brother  James  Crosse  and  to  Edmund 
Crosse  in  tail  male  successively  with  con- 
tingent remainders  etc.  to  Blanche  Brears, 
Margaret  Garston  and  said  James  ;  lands  in 

1  The  College  has  two  volumes  of  "  The  Bible  with  Lira,"  three 
parts  (Nos.  2,  3,  4)  of  the  Summa,  dated  1475  (inscribed  '  ex  dono  '  the 
founder  Bp.  Smith  of  Lincoln),  and  "  St.  Augustine,"  etc.,  1488  (in- 
scribed ex  dono  John  Raster,  a  fellow).  This  will  throws  doubt  on 
these  ascriptions. 


Chorley  and  Liverpool.  175 

Coppull,  Heath  Chernock,  Heley  and  Chorley 
and  a  messuage  called  "  le  Crossehall  "  and 
all  manors  etc.  to  the  same  belonging,  with 
the  moiety  of  a  water  mill,  to  Edmund  for 
life,  then  to  Blanche  and  Margaret  in  tail, 
James  in  tail,  and  heirs  male  of  Edmund  ;  if 
Blanche  and  Margaret  disturb  James  in  the 
enjoyment  of  the  lands  at  Walton  which  Joan 
Crosse  widow  of  my  brother  William  Crosse 
enjoys  of  my  grant  for  life,  then  after  her 
death  the  lands  in  Heley  and  Chorley  with 
Crossehall  etc.  to  remain,  after  death  of 
Edmund,  to  James ;  rest  of  lands  in  Co. 
Lanes,  to  Blanche  and  Margaret  in  tail, 
except  a  messuage  in  Golborn  in  par.  of 
Wynwick  to  servant  William  Dowse  for  life  ; 
executors  Robert  Lattymer  gent,  and  brother 
Edmund  ;  overseer  "  Lord  "  Mordaunt ;  wit- 
nessed by  Sir  John  Mordaunt  Kt.  "  Lord  " 
Mordaunt,  John  Mordaunt  esq.,  John  Browne 
esq.,  Edmund  Fetiplace  esq.,  Eugene  Quike 
chaplain,  Proved  27th  February  1532-3  by 
Edmund  Crosse  (P.C.C.  24  Thrower). 

X. — JAMES  CROSSE,  goldsmith  and  citizen  of 
London  (C.D.  181,  187,  etc.)  ;  heir  to  the 
Lancashire  estates  of  his  half-brother 
John  (IX)  (C.D.  179  etc.)  ;  married  Mar- 
garet daughter  of Cotes,  according 

to  Visitation  1567,  but  daughter  of  Thomas 
Trotter  according  to  MS.  ped.  (M.D.  365). 
He  died  24th  Jan.  "  last  past  "  4/5  Philip 
&  Mary ;  his  inq.  p.m.  at  Wigan,  4/5 
Ph.  &  M.  (1557-8),  shows  he  mortgaged  the 
estates  (being  the  same  as  those  held  by  Roger 
Crosse),  to  John  Fleetwood,  esq.  for  £60  and 
that  on  20th  November,  1538  they  were 
assigned  by  Fleetwood,  James  Crosse  and  his 


176  The  Crosse  Family  of  Wigan, 

wife  Margaret,  to  Roger  Ashawe  esq.  and 
Lawrence  Ashawe  his  brother  on  the  uses  of 
a  deed  of  10th  November  1538  between 
Roger  Ashawe  and  James  Crosse  ;  John  son 
and  heir  of  James  Crosse  having  married 
Alice  daughter  of  Roger  Ashawe  ;  remainders 
are  mentioned  to  Thomas  and  Christopher 
brothers  of  John  Crosse  and  to  the  heirs  of 
Richard  Crosse,  great-grandfather  of  James  ; 
Margaret  the  wife  and  Roger  Ashawe  were 
then  dead ;  John  Crosse  was  his  son  and 
heir,  aged  33  at  date  of  inq.  (Duchy  of  Lane. 
Inq.  p.m.  x.  20).  Issue  :— 
1. — John  (XL),  of  whom  below. 
2. — Thomas  (Visit.  1567),  (ancester  of  Crosse 

of    Ledsham    Co.     Chester    according    to 

Foster,  but  this  has  not  been  proved, 
3. — Christopher  (Visit.  1567),  mentioned  as  a 

Spanish   merchant    1561    and    1564    (C.D. 

196  and  Liverpool  Town  Books  i.  179). 
1. — Elizabeth,    married    George    Bloodworth 

(Visit.  1567). 

XL — JOHN  CROSSE,  of  Crosse  Hall  in  Chorley, 
Healey  and  Crosse  Hall  in  Liverpool,  son  and 
heir  of  (X)  ;  aged  33  at  Inq.  p.m.  of  father  ; 
Mayor  of  Liverpool  1565  and  1572,  deputy- 
searcher  of  Liverpool  Customs  1563-4,  Mayor- 
elect  1563,  deputy-mayor  1568,  etc.  (Liver- 
pool Town  Books,  i.  615 — index)  ;  married 
thrice,  first,  to  Alice  daughter  of  Roger 
Ashawe  of  the  Hall  of  the  Hill  in  Heath 
Charnock,  Co.  Lanes.,  contract  for  marriage 
llth  October  1533  (C.D.  181,  184,  185)  ;  she 
was  buried  at  Chorley  26th  February,  1557-8  ; 
issue  six  children  ;  married,  secondly,  Alice 
daughter  of  Ralph  Assheton  of  Great  Lever, 
Co.  Lanes.  (Visitn.  1567)  ;  issue  a  daughter  ; 


Chorley  and  Liverpool  111 

married,  thirdly,  Ann  daughter  of  Robert 
Langton  of  The  Lowe  in  Hindley,  Co.  Lanes. 
(Visitation).  John  Crosse  died  in  July  1575  ; 
will  dated  24th  July  17  Elizabeth  ;  to 
be  buried  in  the  chapel  of  Lyverpole  usually 
called  the  chapel  of  Saynt  Nicholas  ;  mentions 
wife,  daughter  Bridgett  (£100),  sons  Richard, 
Robert,  William,  Edmond  and  John  ;  and 
Jane  Langton  ;  executors  Peter  Stanley  of 
Bickerstaffe,  Ralph  Assheton  of  Lever, 
Thomas  Ashaw  of  the  Hill,  Edward  Stanley 
of  Pou(l)ton  ;  witnesses,  John  Maynwaring, 
William  Secum,  Richard  Andleser,  Roger 

,  proved  C.  C.  Chester  1st  August 

1575  by  first  three  executors. 

Issue  of  first  marriage  : — 

1. — John  (XII.),  of  whom  below. 

2. — Richard. 

3.— Robert. 

4. — William. 

5. — Edmund,  bapt.  22nd  July  1557  at  Chorley. 

1. — Ann,     married     Laurence     Ireland     of 

Lydiate,  Co.  Lanes.  (Visitn.  1567). 
Issue  of  second  marriage  :— 
1. — Bridget,     married     Laurence     Brownlow 

(MS.  ped.  M.D.  365). 

XII. — JOHN  CROSSE,  of  Crosse  Hall  in  Chorley 
and  Crosse  Hall  in  Liverpool,  son  and  heir 
of  (XL)  ;  Freeman  of  Liverpool  23rd  July 
1568,  bailiff  1569,  mayor  1581-2;  married 
Alice  daughter  of  John  Moore  of  Bankhall, 
Co.  Lanes.,  marriage  covenant  7th  August 
1566  (C.  D.  224,  M.D.  255).  She  was  alive 
in  1617  (will  of  son  Richard).  The  will  of 
John  Crosse,  dated  9th  November  1596,  men- 
tions my  wife  "Alis,"  children,  William,  Mary, 
Eleanor  and  Elizabeth  Chorley  ;  to  son  and 


178  The  Crosse  Family  of  Wigan, 

heir  Richard  my  gilt  salte  and  cuppe,  my 
grey  mare  and  her  colt  ;  to  daughter  Eliza- 
beth "  th'one  of  my  little  gilt  bowles  "  ;  to 
Alice  her  daughter  an  incalf  heifer  (T.  2251). 
Place  and  date  of  probate  unknown.  He  was 
alive  in  1598  (inq.  p.m.  of  XIV.)  and  probably 
later.  The  name  "  John  Crosse  "  appears  as 
one  of  the  79  Lancashire  gentry  who  signed 
a  loyal  address  to  James  I.  at  Wigan  on  31st 
March  1603  (Lanes.  Lieutenancy  (Chet.  Soc.) 
ii.  245).  He  was  probably  the  John  Crosse 
buried  at  Chorley  llth  September  1612. 
The  inq.  p.m.  of  his  grandson,  (XIV.),  after 
reciting  the  seisin  of  the  grandfather  of  the 
various  estates  (including  330  acres  in  Wood- 
church  and  Knoctorum,1  Co.  Chester,  held 
of  the  manor  of  East  Greenwich),  states  that 
by  fine  of  12th  September  1598  he  gave  them 
to  Henry  Byrom,  Philip  Langton,  William 
Moore  and  Laurence  Browne  [?  Brownlow]  to 
fulfil  a  settlement  of  20th  September  1596 
between  (1)  himself  and  his  son  and  heir 
Richard  and  (2)  Anne  Ireland  widow  of 
George  Ireland  of  Hutt.  Issue  :— 
1. — Richard  (XIII.),  of  whom  below. 
2. — William. 
1. — Elizabeth,  married  William  Chorley  of 

Chorley,  Co.  Lanes.  (Visitns.  1567  and  1664, 

C.D.  189,  190). 
2. — Mary. 
3. — Eleanor. 

XIII. — RICHARD  CROSSE,  of  Liverpool  and 
Chorley  ;  son  and  heir  of  (XII.)  ;  Freeman 
of  Liverpool  16th  May  1574  ;  married  Anne 
daughter  of  Robert  Langton  of  The  Lowe,  Co. 
Lanes.  (Visitns.  1567,  1664)  ;  died  at  Liver- 

1  For  sales  by  the  Crosses  of  this  property,  see  Cheshire  Sheaf,  August- 
1921. 


Chorley  and  Liverpool.  179 

pool  27th  March  1619  ;  Inq.  p.m.  7th  Sep- 
tember, 1619  (Lanes.  Inq.  (Rec.  Soc.)  ii.  135 
and  another  inq.  27th  September  1625,  Duchy 
of  Lane.  Inq.  p.m.  xxv.  3)  ;  held  upwards  of 
600  acres  in  Liverpool,  Walton,  Fazakerley, 
West  Derby,  Coppull,  Chorley,  Healey  and 
Kirkdale  in  Co.  Lanes.,  Woodchurch  and 
Knoctorum,  Co.  Chester  ;  heir  son  John  aged 
19  years,  1  month,  3  days.  Will  dated  20th 
August  1617  ;  to  be  buried  in  the  chappell 
of  Liv'poole  where  formerlye  my  auncestors 
have  been  buryed  ;  £50  to  be  bestowed  upon 
my  funeral  (£10  to  poor  of  Walton,  £10 
to  poor  of  Lyverpoole,  £30  on  the  blacks  and 
mouldmeats  and  other  necessaries);  £300  to 
son  Robert  now  an  apprentice  in  London  ; 
£360  to  son  William  ;  to  brother  William 
Crosse  my  ambling  mare  ;  to  my  mother  a 
best  feather  bed,  etc.  ;  legacies  to  my  cozen 
Richard  Chorley,  my  cozen  Alice  Chorley, 
my  cozen  Laurence  Brownlowe,  my  aunt 
Brownlowe,  Henry  Houle,  John  Winstanley, 
my  cozen  Judith  More  (£5  at  her  marriage), 
Richard  Lunt  my  hoste,  Mr.  Richard  More  ; 
money  owed  by  Mr.  John  Poole,  Nicholas 
James  and  Tyrer,  John  Eccleston,  John 
Banks,  Richard  Lunt,  Mr.  More's  tenant ; 
all  the  rest  to  John  Crosse,  son  and  heir 
apparent  ;  executors  John  Harrington  of 
Huyton  Hey  and  James  Anderton  of  Cleaton, 
Co.  Lanes.,  the  younger,  esq.  ;  overseers  Sir 
Richard  Molineux  Kt.  and  Bt.,  and  Sir  Gil- 
bert Ireland  Kt.,  my  best  beloved  friends. 
Debts  due  to  Hugh  Stursacres,  Mr.  Hallowes 
of  Manchester  (for  4  yards  of  Kersey  prooffe 
at  6s.  7d.)  ;  I  remember  not  anie  more  but  if 
any  ells  doe  demand  anye,  on  due  prooffe  pay 
it  without  suyte,  for  I  have  hated  suyte  all 


180  The  Crosse  Family  of  Wigan, 

my  lyeftime  and  wold  not  heare  of  it  after 
my  deathe  ;  a  bond  due  to  Ralph  Eccleston 
and  money  owed  by  his  brother  Richard 
Eccleston  for  ground  in  the  Speake  fields  ; 
bonds  in  my  name  of  ould  Mr.  Starkey  of 
Stretton,  but  the  truth  is  the  money  is  his 
daughter  Timothye's  (sic),  but  publish  not 
this  without  her  consent  lest  she  lose  her 
money  to  her  father ;  Richard  Eccleston 
my  tenant.  [Note  on  will]  :—  '  Upon  Mon- 
day in  Easter  weeke  being  the  29th  of  March 
1619  this  will  was  found  in  the  chiste  of  the 
said  Richard  Crosse  at  Walton  in  his  chamber 
there  amongst  his  bills  and  bonds  of  debt 
&  in  the  same  place  where  the  gould  &  silver 
&  rings  were  w'ch  wee  found,  and  the  other 
syde  of  this  sheete  of  pap.  was  cut  the  one 
half  awaye  as  nowe  it  is,  and  this  will  wee 
foure  found  as  aforesaid  being  putt  in  trust 
to  look  for  it.  [sd.]  W.  Norres,  Alex  Moli- 
neux,  Robt.  Blundell,  Thomas  Molineux." 
Proved  C.  C.  Chester  8th  August  1619  by 
John  Harrington,  power  reserved  to  James 
Qeyton  (sic),  of  Qeyton.  Inventory  5th 
April  1619  by  Oliver  Fairhurst,  John  Diccon- 
son,  Robt.  Flecher  and  Richard  Lunte, 
£1615  12s.  4d.,  six  yoake  of  oxen  (£64)  barley, 
malte,  oats,  beanes,  pease,  rye,  wheat,  hus- 
bandry geare,  books  (£5),  bills,  bonds,  &c. 
(£1080  4s.  4d.)  his  backclothes  and  app'ell 
£20.  Issue  :- 

1. — John  (XIV.),  of  whom  below. 
2. — Robert  (will  of  brother  John)  ;  an  appren- 
tice in  London  1617  (will  of  father)  ; 
probably  Robert  Crosse  of  Chorley  who 
proved  the  death  of  John  Crosse  (XIV.) 
in  1640  (Roy.  Comp.  Papers  (Rec.  Soc.), 
ii.  96). 


Charley  and  Liverpool  181 

3. — William,  mentioned  in  wills  of  father  and 
brother  John. 

XIV. — JOHN  CROSSE,  of  Liverpool  and  Chorley 
aged  19  years  1  month  3  days  at  inq.  p.m.  of 
father ;  married,  first,  Juliana  daughter  of 
Henry  Banestre  of  the  Bank  in  Croston,  Co. 
Lanes.  ;  she  was  buried  at  Chorley  15th 
March  1625-6 ;  secondly,  about  February 
1630-1,  Frances  daughter  of  Thomas  Wool- 
fall  of  Woolfall,  Co.  Lanes.  ;  postnuptial 
settlement  of  lands  in  Mellor  and  Showley 
30th  October  1640  (Roy.  Comp.  Papers  (Rec. 
Soc.),  ii.,  95)  ;  her  will  as  Frances  Crosse 
of  Cunscough  (in  Melling),  Co.  Lanes.,  widow, 
dated  4th  February  1688-9,  proved  C.  C. 
Chester  15th  June  1693  by  the  executors, 
"  her  kinsmen  "  John  Bamber  of  Aughton, 
gentleman,  and  James  Hunter  of  Cunscough, 
yeoman  ;  she  left  a  gold  ring  and  pix  to  her 
daughter-in-law  Mistris  Crosse,  and  a  gold 
ring  to  her  nephew,  Master  Stanley  of  Moor- 
hall  (son  of  Peter  Stanley  who  married 
testator's  sister  Elizabeth).  Her  arrears  of 
jointure  included  £125  due  from  John  Crosse 
esq.  and  £215  from  Thomas  Crosse  esq. 
John  Crosse  died  3rd  December  1640  at  Tox- 
teth  Park  and  was  buried  at  Liverpool 
(Roy.  Comp.  Papers  ii.  96)  ;  will  dated  18th 
October  1637  ;  to  be  buried  in  St.  Nicholas' 
Chappell  in  Liverpoole  amongst  my  ances- 
tors ;  lands  in  Lanes,  and  Cheshire  (except 
certain  lands  to  the  use  of  John  Crosse  my 
second  son)  to  executors  for  9  years,  they 
paying  to  my  son  Richard  for  his  maintenance 
£30  p. a.  and  for  the  preferment  in  marriage 
of  my  daughter  Frances  ;  mentions  the  house 
I  bought  of  Richard  Broster  in  Liverpool 


182  The  Crosse  Family  of  Wigan, 

called  the  Angell  with  the  horsemill  thereto 
belonging  ;  my  other  younger  children  except 
John  who  is  preferred  ;  son  Richard  under 
21,  my  brother  Haggerston  [Thomas  Hag- 
gerston  of  Haggerston,  Northumberland, 
created  Bt.  1642,  married  Alice  sister  of 
Juliana  testator's  first  wife  and  was  of 
Cuerden  Co.  Lanes,  in  1637]  to  bring  him  up, 
to  whom  and  to  my  sister  [-in-law]  I  bequeath 
gold  rings  ;  my  cousin  Bridget  Chorley  ;  my 
two  brothers  Robert  and  William  ;  Mr. 
Robert  Harrington,  Mr.  Roger  Briers,  John 
Banks,  Ralph  Winstanley  ;  executors  John 
Harrington  of  Huyton  Hey  and  Richard 
Chorley  of  Chorley  esq.  ;  debts  to  my  two 
sons  John  and  Thomas  £400  ;  debt  due  to 
me  from  William  Crosse  of  Goosnergh  £290  ; 
my  son  John  in  lieu  of  divers  lands  sold  shall 
have  all  my  lands  in  Shouley  and  Mellor  ; 
proved  C.  C.  Chester  29th  January  1640. 
Inq.  p.m.  at  Preston  30th  April  1641,  recites 
seisin,  etc.,  of  grandfather  (see  XII.),  father 
Richard  and  self  of  the  same  estates  ;  also 
his  own  seisin  of  8  messuages  200  acres  in 
Mellor  (held  of  heirs  of  Thomas  Southworth) 
and  Shouley  (tenure  unknown),  100  acres  in 
Goosnergh  (held  of  the  Duke  of  Lanes,  as 
,ob  knight's  fee)  ;  that  on  30th  October  1640 
he  conveyed  those  in  Mellor  and  Shouley 
to  Thomas  Woolfall  and  Robert  Harrington 
on  trusts  for  his  younger  son  John  with 
remainder  to  settlor's  other  sons  Thomas  and 
Robert  and  to  his  own  issue  by  Frances  his 
wife  ;  that  on  16th  February  1630-1  he  had 
granted  Crosse  Hall  in  Healey  and  Chorley 
etc.  to  John  Harrington  of  Huyton  and 
Robert  Harrington  his  son  and  heir  in  satis- 
faction of  the  dower  of  Frances  (whom  he  was 


Chorley  and  Liverpool.  183 

to  marry)  ;  that  he  and  his  former  wife 
Juliana  were  seised  in  her  right  of  a  mill  and 
lands  in  Bretherton,  (held  of  Duke  of  Lan- 
caster as  260  of  a  knight's  fee),  and  that  they 
had  issue  Richard  the  eldest  son  and  heir, 
aged  16  years  3  months  3  days  at  father's 
death.  His  wife  Frances  survives  at  Wool- 
fall  (Duchy  of  Lane.  Inq.  p.m.  xxix.  7  and 
C.D.  209).  Issue  :- 
1. — Richard  (XV.),  son  of  first  wife.  For  him 

see  below. 

2. — John,  second  son,  of  Showley  and  Mellor 
Co.  Lanes.,  aged  about  17  in  1652  (Roy. 
Comp.  Papers  ii.  95)  ;   and  if  so  could  not 
be  a  son  of  first  wife. 
3. — Thomas  (will  and  inq.  of  father). 
4. — Robert  (inq.  of  father). 
1. — Frances    (will    of    father),   daughter  of  a 
"  former  (?  first)  wife  "  (Roy.  Comp.  Papers, 
ii.  98)  ;   possibly  Frances  Crosse  of  Wool- 
fall,  buried  at  Huyton  22nd  August  1666. 

XV. — RICHARD  CROSSE,  of  Liverpool  and 
Crosse  Hall,  Chorley  ;  aged  16  years  3  months 
and  3  days  at  inq.  p.m.  of  father  (C.D.  209)  ; 
matric.  Hart  Hall,  Oxford,  1st  July  1640,  aged 

14  (Alum.  Oxon.},  married  Elizabeth 

(C.D.   211)  ;   buried  at  Chorley   18th  March 

1658-9.     Issue  :- 

1. — Richard  (XVI.),  of  whom  below. 

2. — John  (XVII.),  of  whom  below. 

3.— Robert,  bapt.  Chorley  19th  March  1650-1  ; 

entered  on  Preston  Guild  Roll  1662. 
4. — Thomas,    bapt.     Chorley     12th    October 

1652  ;   entered  on  Preston  Guild  Roll  1662. 
5. — William,  bapt.  Chorley  18th  June  1654  ; 

entered  on  Preston  Guild  Roll   1662. 


184  The  Crosse  Family  of  Wigan, 

6. — Alexander,  bapt.  Chorley  6th  January 
1655-6  ;  buried  there  26th  September  1656. 

1.— George,  bapt.  Chorley  llth  June  1657; 
buried  there  9th  March  1657-8. 

1. — Juliana,  bapt.  Chorley  1st  October  1646  ; 
buried  at  Garstang  15th  March,  1679 ; 
married,  by  licence  dated  15th  October 
1664,  as  of  Toft,  Co.  Chester,  the  Rev. 
Robert  Ditchfield,  B.A.,  Oxon.,  Vicar  of 
Garstang  ;  he  buried  there  10th  July  1677. 

2. — Ann,  bapt.  Chorley  2nd  December  1649  ; 
buried  there  14th  April  1659. 

3. — Jane,  married  Ralph  Longworth  of  Upper 
Rawcliffe  in  St.  Michaels  on  Wyre,  Co. 
Lanes.,  a  major  in  Colonel  Kirkby's  trained 
band ;  he  buried  at  St.  Michaels  25th 
January  1693-4. 

4.— A  child,  buried  Chorley  29th  March  1645. 

XVI. — RICHARD  CROSSE,  of  Crosse  Hall,  eldest 
son  of  (XV.),  bapt.  Chorley  23rd  October 
1647,  ob.  inf.  s.p.  and  buried  Chorley  13th 
September  1661. 

XVII. — JOHN  CROSSE,  of  Crosse  Hall,  Liver- 
pool and  Crosse  Hall,  Chorley,  second  son 
and  ultimate  heir  of  (XV.)  ;  bapt.  Chorley 
29th  December  1648  )  at  Brasenose  College, 
Oxford  1668  ;  outburgess  of  Preston  1662, 
1682  ;  Common  Councillor  of  Liverpool 
1685  ;  married  Ann  daughter  of  Rev. 
Samuel  Yate  of  Middleton  Cheney,  Northants; 
postnuptial  settlement  10th  April  1681 
(C.D.  213)  ;  he  was  buried  at  Chorley  7th 
February  1688-9  as  "  Captn.  John  Cross 
of  Cros  Hall  esqr."  will  dated  24th  January 
1688-9  ;  personal  estate  (including  part  of 
£500  given  to  testator  by  his  mother 
Elizabeth)  to  sons  and  daughters  Thomas, 


Charley  and  Liverpool.  185 

John,  Dorothy,  Ann  Joane,  Julian  and 
Frances  equally ;  executor  brother-in-law 
Ralph  Longworth  esq.  ;  witnessed  by  Pe. 
Standish,  Benjamin  Edmundson  [curate  of 
Chorley  1684-1713],  G.  Woosey  ;  armorial 
seal  of  three  (lions'  ?)  heads  erased,  impaling 
Crosse  ;  proved  C.  C.  Chester  28th  February 
1688-9  by  James  Browne  of  Chorley,  shoe- 
maker, for  the  creditors,  R.  Longworth 
renouncing  ;  a  second  grant  26th  December 
1695  to  John  Smith  of  Chorley,  a  creditor. 
Issue  :— 

1. — Thomas  (XVIII.),  of  whom  below. 
2.— -John,  bapt.  Chorley  10th  August  1676  ; 
of  Heath  Charnock  ;   administration  C.  C. 
Chester,  5th  June  1711  to  his  sister  Juliana 
Cross  of  Sephton,  spinster. 
3.— Richard,  buried  30th  November  1681  at 

Chorley. 

1. — Dorothy,  bapt.  Chorley  27th  November 
1673 ;  married  Edward  Farnworth, 
probably  of  Euxton,  Co.  Lanes.  ;  she 
buried  at  Leyland  18th  February  1720. 
2. — Ann,  bapt.  Chorley  14th  January  1674-5 
(married  Rev.  William  Loftus,  according  to 
Foster) . 

3. — Joanna,  married  John  France  of  Little 
Eccleston    Hall ;  he    buried    at    Kirkham 
27th    December    1762 ;  she    buried    there 
5th  September  1705,  M.I.  (Hist,  of  Kirk- 
ham     (Cheth.    Soc.),    195;     Hist,     of    St. 
Michaels  on  Wyre  (Cheth.  Soc.)  95/6.) 
4. — Juliana,  see  brother  John. 
5. — Frances. 

6. — Elizabeth,  buried  Chorley  3rd  November 
1681. 

XVIII. — THOMAS  CROSSE,  of  Crosse  Hall,  Chor- 
ley and  Liverpool ;  son  and  heir  of  (XVII.)  ; 


186        The  Crosse  Family  of  Wigan,  &c. 

entered  on  Preston  Guild  Roll  1682  ;  married 
Mary  "  grandchild  "  of  Thomas  Clayton  of 
Adlington,  Co.  Lanes.;  (probably  daughter  of 
John  Williamson  of  Liverpool,  and  Anne  his 
wife  daughter  of  Thomas  Clayton  of  Adlington, 
who  were  married  at  Bolton-le-Moors  30th 
August  1676)  ;  postnuptial  settlement  22nd 
July  1698  (C.D.  215)  ;  Mary  Crosse  married, 
secondly,  on  12th  July  1711  at  Chorley, 
James  Parker  of  Bagganley  Hall  in  Chorley, 
yeoman,  who  was  buried  23rd  August  1747  ; 
she  was  buried  21st  February  1753  ;  for  them 
and  their  issue  see  Wilson,  Chorley  Church 
(1914).  Thomas  Crosse  was  buried  at  Chorley 
24th  June  1706  ;  administration  C.  C.  Chester 
30th  April  1707  to  widow.  He  left  issue.1 


1  For  the  pedigree  from  this  point  and  the  division  of  the  family 
into  the  Leghs  of  Adlington,  Co.  Chester,  and  the  Crosses  of  Shaw 
Hill,  in  Chorley,  reference  may  be  made  to  Foster's  Lancashire 
Pedigrees,  Burke's  Landed  Gentry,  Ormerod's  Cheshire,  iii.,  663, 
Earwaker's  East  Cheshire,  ii.,  249,  and  the  Victoria  History  of  the 
County  of  Lancaster. 


TOCKHOLES    CHAPEL. 

By  John  Livesey. 


The  following  deed  (from  Close  Roll  5556)  gives 
some  further  information  as  to  the  endowment 
of  Tockholes  Chapel,  recorded  briefly  in  Abram's 
History  of  Blackburn,  p.  695. 
[January  2,  1735-6]. 

ATHERTON       This  Indenture  made  between  John  Atherton 
&  of  Liverpool,   co.   Lancaster,   merchant   and 

HOLME.  Frances  his  wife  of  the  first  part,  the 
Governors  of  the  Bounty  of  Queen  Ann  for 
the  Augmentation  of  the  maintenance  of  the  poor  Clergy, 
and  Ralph  Livesay  of  Livesay  in  the  said  county,  Esq., 
of  the  second  part,  Alexander  Osbaldeston  of  Preston,  John 
Ainsworth  of  Pleasington,  Esquires,  John  Holme,  clerk, 
and  Thomas  Whalley,  gent.,  both  of  Blackburn  all  in  the 
said  county  of  Lancaster  (trustees  for  the  Chapel  of 
Tockholes  hereinafter  mentioned)  of  the  third  part,  and 
Thomas  Holme,  clerk,  curate  of  Tockholes  in  Blackburn 
aforesaid  of  the  fourth  part.  Whereas  the  said  Ralph 
Livesay  did  by  his  deed  bearing  date  the  9th  of  February 
1724  propose  and  promise  to  the  said  Governors  to  advance 
and  pay  £200  so  soon  as  they  should  order  £200  to  be  added 
thereto  the  whole  to  be  laid  out  for  a  perpetual  augmentation 
of  the  Curacy  of  Tockholes  aforesaid.  And  whereas  the 
said  Governors  have  ordered  £200  to  be  paid  out  of  their 
revenue  to  be  laid  out  together  with  the  moneys  so  proposed 
as  aforesaid  in  a  purchase  of  lands  and  tythes  to  be  settled 
for  a  perpetual  augmentation  of  the  said  Curacy  of  Tock- 
holes. And  whereas  the  said  Alexander  Osbaldeston,  John 
Ainsworth,  John  Holme  and  Thomas  Whalley  have  agreed 
and  consented  to  add  £105  being  part  of  the  Chapel  Stock 
of  Tockholes  to  be  laid  out  together  with  the  moneys  so 
ordered  by  the  said  Governors  and  proposed  by  the  said 
Ralph  Livesay  as  aforesaid  making  together  in  the  whole 


188  Tockholes  Chapel 

£505 :  Now  this  indenture  witnesseth  that  for  and  in 
consideration  of  £505  to  the  said  John  Atherton  in  hand 
paid  he  the  said  John  Atherton  doth  grant  bargain  sell  and 
confirm  unto  the  said  Thomas  Holme  and  his  successors, 
curates  of  the  Curacy  of  Tockholes,  all  that  messuage  or 
tenement  called  Barnsfold  and  several  closes  and  parcels 
of  land  thereunto  belonging  containing  53  acres  1  rood 
22  perches  lying  in  Goosnargh,  co.  Lancaster,  now  in  the 
occupation  of  John  Parsons.  To  have  and  to  hold  the 
same  unto  the  said  Thomas  Holme  and  his  successors 
curates  of  the  curacy  of  Tockholes  for  ever  for  a  perpetual 
augmentation  of  the  said  curacy,  etc. 

In  witness  whereof,  etc., 
Witnesses  : 

S.  RICHMOND  RA.  PETERS, 

RICHD.  BERNSHALL,    JA.  NAYLOR, 
HENRY  FIELDEN,        LAWRENCE  HOLDEN. 


LANCASTER    JOTTINGS,    V. 


THE  NEW  HALL  AND  ITS  OWNERS. 

THE  New  Hall  is  marked  on  Speed's  plan  of 
Lancaster  (1611)  as  situated  on  the  south 
side  of  Church  Street,  then  called  St.  Mary's 
Street,  near  the  present  New  Street.  It  was  the 
house  of  Lawrence  Starkey  in  the  time  of  Henry 
VIII.,  and  he  probably  built  it.  Starkey  was  a 
prominent  official  in  the  county  in  the  reigns  of 
Henry  VII.  and  Henry  VIII.  A  younger  con- 
temporary has  been  wrongly  identified  with  him 
both  in  Whitaker's  Whalley  (ii.,  46-48)  and  in 
Pink  and  Beaven's  Parliamentary  Representation 
of  Lancashire,  viz.,  Lawrence  Starkie  of  Hunt- 
royde.  The  statement  that  he  ended  his  days 
in  the  London  Charterhouse  is  due  to  some  error 
on  the  part  of  the  index-maker  of  Brewer's 
Letters  and  Papers  of  Henry  VIII.,1  or  to  con- 
fusion with  another  of  the  same  name. 

Our  Lawrence  was  a  younger  son  of  Geoffrey 
Starkey  of  Stretton,  in  Cheshire,  about  five  miles 
south  of  Warrington,  and  brother  of  Richard 
Starkey  who  held  that  manor  till  his  death  in 
1526.z  His  mother  was  Joan,  daughter  and 
co-heir  of  Roger  Darby  of  Chester  and  Liverpool, 
and  by  her  he  was  a  kinsman  of  Lady  Stanley 
wife  of  Sir  Edward  Stanley  of  Hornby  (after, 
wards  Lord  Mounteagle),  and  probably  owed 
his  promotion  to  this  circumstance.  He 
became  one  of  Sir  Edward's  most  trusted 
officials,  and  was  deputy  or  acting  sheriff  for  him, 

1  Letters  and  Papers,  v.,  301  (dated  18th  June,  1531). 
*  Cheshire  Sheaf,  3rd  Series,  ix.,  103.     Pedigree  in  Ormerod's  Cheshire, 
i.,  666,  where  Lawrence  is  omitted. 


190  Lancaster  Jottings 

Sir  Edward  having  been  appointed  sheriff  of  the 
county  for  life  in  1485.1  He  was  also  one  of  the 
coroners,  and  for  a  time  at  least  was  a  receiver 
of  the  Duchy  revenues.2  Lord  Mounteagle,  who 
died  in  1523,  made  him  one  of  his  executors, 
and  in  that  capacity  he  occurs  in  the  State  Papers 
of  Henry  VIII.'s  time,  several  of  his  letters  being 
preserved  in  the  Public  Record  Office.3  Starkey 
served  as  mayor  of  Lancaster  in  1495-6  and  later 
and  was  returned  as  one  of  the  members  of  the 
borough  in  1529.4 

The  first  documents  here  printed  recite  com- 
plaints against  him  both  as  mayor  of  the  town 
and  under-sheriff  of  the  county.  Starkey  himself, 
in  a  letter  to  Lord  Darcy  soon  after  Lord 
Mounteagle's  death,  states  that  Mounteagle's 
adversaries  had  prayed  the  king  to  remove  him 
(Starkey)  from  the  office  of  sheriff,  alleging  that 
they  could  not  have  justice  while  he  held  it.8 
Collom  bridge,  mentioned  in  the  following  deposi- 
tions, is  now  known  as  Cowan  Bridge  ;  near  it 
is  the  Lowood  School  of  Jane  Eyre.  Lancaster 
Corporation  had  the  tolls  of  the  bridge  in  1488,' 
which  explains  their  possession  of  a  house  there. 
There  is  nothing  to  fix  the  date  more  exactly 
than  the  fact  that  Sir  Henry  Marney  was 
Chancellor  of  the  Duchy  from  1509  till  his  death 
in  1523. 

To  the  right  honorable  Syr  Henry  Marney  Knyght 
of  the  garter  Chauncellour  of  the  Duchie  of 
Lancastre.7 

Humbly  shewyth  unto  your  Maistership  your  Oratour 
Wyllyam  Tunstall  of  Fayrthwayte  Parke  in  the  Countie 

1  For  example,  see  Duchy  Pleadings  (Rec.  Soc.  Lanes.  &  Ches.),  vol.  i. 
1  Ducatus  Lane.,  i.,  197  ;   ii.,  204. 

*  Brewer's  Letters  and  Papers  of  Henry  VIII.,  iii.,  iv. 

*  Ibid,  iii.,  p.  2692. 

6  Ibid.,  iii.,  No.  3187  (17  July.  1523). 

*  V.C.H.  Lanes.,  viii.,  43,  note  171. 

7  Ducby  of  Lancaster  Pleadings,  vol.  18,  T3. 


Lancaster  Jottings  191 

of  Lancastre  that  where  your  sayd  Oratour  by  spec  y all 
labor  and  procurement  of  one  Laurence  Starky  gentylman, 
mayr  of  Lancastre  and  undershyref  of  the  Countie  of 
Lancashyre,  and  one  William  Sclater  of  Lancastre  by  theyr 
malycyose  and  crafty  meanys  made  a  byll  of  indictament 
for  to  have  indycted  your  sayd  Oratour  at  the  towne  of 
Lancastre,  the  whiche  to  doo  xij.  men  of  the  sayd  towne 
refusyd  knowyng  the  sayd  byll  was  onely  made  for  malyce. 
And  the  sayd  Starky  perseyvyng  that  he  cold  not  performe 
his  malycyose  intent  went  unto  the  farthest  part  of  the 
sayd  shire  to  a  towne  callyd  Wygayn  and  ther  indictyd 
your  sayd  Oratour  of  forsyble  entre  into  a  house  wherunto 
the  towne  of  Lancastre  never  pretendyd  tytyll  nether  before 
nor  sens.  And  where  your  sayd  Oratour  hath  layn  syk  and 
went  not  oute  of  his  house  save  onely  upon  crowches  all 
this  last  somer,  yet  notwythstondyng  the  sayd  Starky  for 
malyce  hath  indictyd  hym  wherof  he  knowyth  not  In  lyke 
forme  as  he  dyd  indycte  syr  Christofer  Pykeryng  and  his 
broder  wyth  other  xxx.  persons  wyth  them  for  stelyng  of 
shepe,  and  also  John  Cansfeld  for  stelyng  of  a  mare,  as  ys 
his  custume  to  doo  wyth  many  other  suche  as  he  owyth 
malyce  unto.  In  consideracion  not  onely  of  the  premysses 
but  also  for  the  great  Iniuryes,  extorcyons,  wronges, 
counterfeatyng  and  forgyng  of  evydences  as  of  counter- 
featyng  of  a  testymonyall  of  the  gentylmen's  sealys  of 
Lancashire  and  Westmerland  agayns  Maister  Urswyk  for 
the  Priour  of  Cartmell  wherof  he  was  attayntyd  bifore  the 
kynges  Councell  in  the  kynges  days  that  dede  ys  (whose 
soull  God  pardon),  as  also  for  makyng  of  the  byll  of 
defamacyon  of  Maister  Conyngesby,  For  the  whiche  one 
Gylys  Curwen's  wyfe  dyd  opon  penaunce  at  Westmynster  ; 
as  also  for  forgyng  of  evydences  of  Edward  Parker's  land, 
whereby  the  said  Parker's  wyfe  was  dystracte  long  tyme 
after  ;  As  also  for  receyvyng  of  dyvers  summes  of  moneye 
of  dyvers  collectors,  retournyng  them  to  be  dede  whom  be 
yet  lyvyng,  in  deceyvyng  the  kynges  grace  of  his  dutye 
and  the  sayd  collectors.  And  ferthermore  where  the  sayd 
Starky  beyng  shireff  and  Receyvour  should,  because  he 
was  and  ys  the  kynge's  offycer,  ought  to  have  gevyn  good 
example  in  that  wyld  countre  for  to  obey  the  kynges 
commaundement,  he  nothyng  regardyng  the  kynge's 
commaundement  ne  the  pryvey  sealys  to  hym  dyrectyd 
wold  not  appere  befor  your  Maistership  because  that  a 
Chanon  which  usyth  sorcery  and  that  hath  done  opon 
penaunce  at  Yorke  for  crystenyng  of  a  Cok  dyd  councell 


192  Lancaster  Jottings 

hym  to  tary  at  home  whan  the  sayd  commaundement  came 
to  the  sayd  Starkey,  Advertysyng  hym  that  yf  he  came  at 
that  tyme  that  he  shuld  be  hangyd,  but  advysyd  hym  to 
tary  to  suche  tyme  as  he  bad  hym  goo  and  then  he  wold 
warant  hym  to  cumme  up  safe.  Plesyth  yt  your  good 
Maistership,  the  premysses  consydered,  to  punysshe  and 
correcte  the  sayd  Starkey  acordyng  to  Justyce  that  other 
may  be  ware  and  take  example  for  forgyng  of  evydence, 
extortion  and  infidelite  ;  So  that  the  sayd  cuntre  may  be 
by  your  proteccion  in  good  rest  and  quete.  And  your  sayd 
Oratour  shall  pray  to  Almyghty  God  for  the  preservacyon 
of  your  Maistership  long  to  endure. 

T3a.     STARKEY'S  REPLY. 

He  denies  the  charges,  most  of  which  are  "  nothing 
material."  No  complaints  had  been  made  against  him 
before  the  king's  judges  or  special  commissioners.  As  to 
the  special  complaint  here  made  he  says  that  Lancaster  is 
an  ancient  borough,  and  the  mayor,  burgesses  and  common- 
alty are  seised  of  a  house  in  Tunstall  nigh  to  Collombrige, 
which  they  have  held  for  20  years  past.  But  about  six 
years  ago  William  Tunstall  forcibly  entered  and  still  keeps 
possession  of  it,  and  that  was  the  reason  why  he  was 
indicted  at  Wigan.  At  a  sessions  at  Lancaster  a  little 
before  last  Christmas  a  number  of  complaints  were  made 
against  Tunstall  by  many  persons  for  riots,  extortions, 
briberies,  etc.,  and  Tunstall's  neighbours  have  many  times 
complained  to  Lord  Mounteagle  as  sheriff  of  the  injuries 
he  has  done  them. 

T3B. 

Tunstall  in  reply  reiterated  his  complaint. 

With  such  a  position  under  the  Stanleys  it  is 
not  surprising  that  Starkey  acquired  wealth. 
He  purchased  a  number  of  small  properties  in 
north  Lancashire — in  Lancaster  itself,  Bolton-le- 
Sands  and  the  neighbourhood,  Preston  and 
Broughton  ;  also  others  in  Yorkshire,  Cheshire 
and  Staffordshire.  He  was  twice  married.  The 
name  of  his  first  wife  is  not  known,  but  from  her 
daughter's  will,  quoted  below,  it  appears  that 
she  had  a  tenement  at  Henley-on-Thames.  This 
daughter,  whose  name  was  Margaret,  married 
George  Singleton,  as  appears  from  the  complaint 


Lancaster  Jottings  193 

next  cited,  and  after  his  death  (about  1518)  she 
married  William  Banaster.  By  her  second 
husband  she  left  a  son  and  heir  Wilfrid,  who  was 
sixteen  years  of  age  in  1550  and  therefore  born 
about  1534.1  The  date  of  Tunstall's  complaint 
was  sometime  in  the  latter  end  of  1523,  after 
Lord  Marney's  death.  The  parliament  referred 
to  was  that  summoned  for  April,  1523.  The 
election  is  not  recorded  by  Pink  and  Beaven,  who 
say,  under  Lancaster,  that  "  returns  were  dis- 
continued for  nearly  two  centuries,"  i.e.,  between 
1331  and  1529. 

Complaint2  by  William  Tunstall  to  Sir  Richard  Wyngfeld, 
K.G.,  as  Chancellor  of  the  Duchy,  concerning  the  manor 
of  Auclyff  [Aldcliffe]  near  Lancaster.  He  states  that 
Elizabeth  late  abbess  of  Syon  by  lease  of  7  Sept.  1515 
granted  the  manor  for  seven  years  to  George  Syngilton, 
who  died  two  or  three  years  later,  when  one  William  Banyster 
marrying  George's  widow  came  into  possession.  The 
present  abbess3  gave  plaintiff  a  lease  of  the  manor  to  begin 
on  the  expiry  of  that  mentioned,  but  Banister  refuses  to 
quit,  in  spite  of  the  abbess  and  in  spite  of  a  privy  seal 
directed  against  him  by  Lord  Marney  lately  Chancellor. 
"  And  over  that  one  Laurence  Starkey,  fader-in-lawe  unto 
the  said  Banyster,  beyng  nowe  mayr  of  Lancastre,  by 
his  subtill  and  crafty  meanys  a  litill  before  the  cummyng 
up  to  London  of  the  said  Banyster  causid  the  said  Banyster 
to  be  made  a  freman  of  Lancastre,  And  incontynent  after 
causid  hym  to  be  chosen  a  burgeys  of  parlyament.  By 
reason  whereof  the  said  Banyster  myght  escape  from  this 
courte  and  the  lawes  of  the  realme  in  defrauding  and 
delaying  your  said  Oratour  of  his  right  and  also  to  frustrate 
and  delude  the  kynges  said  commaundement." 

Banaster  in  reply  [T.9a]  denied  there  was  any  such  lease 
made  to  Singleton,  or  that  any  privy  seal  had  been  directed 
against  him  ;  at  any  rate  he  had  never  been  called  to 
make  answer.  George  Singleton  had  held  the  manor  not 

1  There  is  a  pedigree  in  Whitaker's  Craven  (ed.  Morant),  236.     Wilfrid 
married  Isabel,  daughter  of  John  Talbot  of  Salesbury,  and  is  named  as 
his  son-in-law  in  Talbot's  will,    1551  ;     Piccope's  Wills  (Chet.   Soc.), 
iii.,  106. 

2  Duchy  of  Lane.  Pleadings,  xviii.,  T9. 

3  Dame  Agnes,"  from  the  first  day  of  March  last  past  "   (1522-3) 
See  T9,  b. 


194  Lancaster  Jottings 

by  lease,  but  in  succession  to  his  brother  by  the  custom  of 
tenant-right  of  the  country  there  used  time  out  of  mynde. 
The  abbess  Elizabeth  was  very  desirous  that  Margaret 
Starky,  daughter  to  Lawrence,  should  marry  Singleton,  and 
promised  that  they  should  enjoy  the  manor  according  to 
the  custom  of  tenant  right.  Lawrence  consented  and 
"  gave  great  sums  of  money  to  the  same  George  in  marriage 
with  his  said  daughter,"  so  enabling  him  to  pay  debts  he 
owed  to  the  abbess.  He  himself  held  the  manor  in  right 
of  his  wife,  George's  widow.  As  to  the  further  charge 
made  he  "  saith  that  he  was  freely  by  the  desire  and  good 
minds  of  the  burgesses  of  the  said  town  [of  Lancaster] 
chosen  burgess  thereof  as  other  burgesses  tofore  there  hath 
been." 

Tunstall  replied  denying  the  tenure  by  tenant-right.  The 
manor  had  always  been  held  by  lease  from  the  abbess  as 
by  one  Claughton,  Sir  Thomas  Strikland  kt.  and  one 
Gardyner.  Banister  rejoined,  repeating  and  amplifying 
the  statements  he  had  made  previously. 

Lawrence  Starkey's  second  wife  was  Anne, 
daughter  of  Sir  Thomas  Butler  of  Bewsey,  one 
of  the  magnates  of  the  county.  She  had  been 
married  previously  to  a  Radcliffe,1  and  to  George 
Atherton  of  Atherton  or  Chowbent,  esq.,2  and  it 
is  said  she  had  dower  from  each.  Starkey 
married  her  about  1519,  and  this  being  a  great 
match  for  him  he  was  expected  to  make  a  corre- 
spondingly liberal  settlement  to  provide  for  her 
and  any  issue  by  her.  The  statement  of  several 
witnesses,  as  will  be  seen  by  the  depositions 
printed  below,  was  that  he  offered  to  assign  his 
whole  landed  estate  to  feoffees  for  the  use  t)f 
himself,  his  wife  should  she  survive  him,  and  their 
issue,  whether  son  or  daughter.  As  this  arrange- 
ment practically  disinherited  the  daughter  by 
the  former  marriage,  it  was  on  this  point  that, 
after  his  death,  the  disputes  took  place  which  led 
to  the  examinations  of  witnesses  by  order  of  the 

1  Apparently  John  Radcliffe  of  Radcliffe  Tower,  whose  wife  was 
named  Anne.  He  died  without  legitimate  issue  in  1514.  V.C.H. 
Lanes.,  v.,  59. 

»  Lanes.  Visitation  of  1567  (Chet.  Soc.).     Atherton  died  in  1518. 


Lancaster  Jottings  195 

Chancellor.  By  this  marriage  he  had  a  daughter, 
Etheldreda,  who  was  28  years  old  and  more  in 
1550,  and  therefore  was  born  about  1520.1  She 
married  Humphrey  Newton  of  Newton  and 
Pownall  in  Cheshire  and  left  issue.2 

Starkey  died  on  24th  July,  1532.  In  addition 
to  the  two  daughters  named  above,  he  had  an 
illegitimate  son,  Oliver  Starkey,  who  occurs  as 
holding  property  in  Cat  on.  The  following  in- 
quisition is  declared  in  the  depositions  to  record 
the  result  of  an  agreement  between  the  disputants. 
The  statement  seems  reasonable  enough  in  view 
of  the  date,  and  must  be  taken  into  account  in 
considering  its  terms  : 

By  an  inquisition3  taken  at  Preston  before  Ralph  Worsley, 
esq.,  escheator,  on  26  August  4  Edward  VI.  [1550]  it  was 
found  that  Lawrence  Starkye  esq.  had  died  seised  of  four 
messuages,  four  burgages,  and  various  lands  and  rents  in 
Lancaster,  Preston,  Broughton,  Halghton,  Chepindale, 
Bolton  [-le-Sands],  Slyne,  Haklackes,  Nether  Hutton, 
Hyesham,  Scotford  and  Flokborowe.  The  estate  descended 
to  Margaret  wife  of  William  Banaster  esq.  and  Etheldred 
wife  of  Humphrey  Newton  gent.,  as  daughters  and  heirs, 
who  accordingly  entered  into  possession.  On  31  March 
30  Henry  VIII  [1539]  Margaret  Banaster,  then  a  widow, 
granted  a  life  annuity  of  20s.  to  her  servant  William 
Symkynson,  on  tenements  in  Broughton  near  Preston  ; 
and  on  6  Oct.  1542  she  made  her  will,  of  which  the  following 
extract  is  recorded  : 

Item  yt  ys  my  wyll  that  my  brother  Olyver  Starkye 
and  my  servantes  Wylliam  Sympkynson  and  George 
Metcalfe  shall  have  every  oon  of  them  annuell  rent  of 
xxs.  by  yere  for  terme  of  their  lyffes  and  for  the  lyf 
of  every  of  them  to  be  taken  and  receyved  yerelye  of 
the  revenues  rentes  and  proffytes  of  my  moitie  and 
purpart  of  my  laundes  in  the  countye  of  Lancaster  at 
days  usuall  and  accustomed  by  thandes  of  myne 
executours.  And  for  default  of  paiment  of  the  said 

1  In  depositions  (see  below)  taken  in  November,   1541,  the  mother 
Anne  was  stated  to  have  died  about  22  years  earlier — say  in  1520. 

2  Visitation  of  Cheshire,  1612  (Harl.  Soc.) 
'  Duchy  of  Lane.  Inq.  p.  m.,  ix.,  21. 


196  Lancaster  Jottings 

annuityes  the  said  Olyver,  Wylliam  and  George 
severallye  to  dystreyne  upon  all  my  laundes  in 
Lancashire  tyll  thay  be  satysfied  of  theire  said  annuityes 
wythe  the  arrerages  of  the  same.  Providet  alway  that 
when  so  ever  yt  shall  happen  eny  of  the  said  Olyver, 
William  and  George  to  deceasse  that  then  the  annuitie 
of  hym  so  deceasynge  to  retorne  and  remayne  to  myn 
executours  for  performaunce  of  thys  my  last  wyll.  And 
the  resydew  of  all  the  rentes  and  fermes  and  the 
revenues  of  my  moitie  and  purpart  of  my  laundes  to 
me  discended  by  my  father  in  the  countyes  of  Yorke, 
Lancaster,  Chester  and  Stafford,  and  also  of  a  mese  or 
tenement  in  Henley  upon  Thames  discended  unto  me 
by  my  mother  I  will  that  myne  executours  shall  yerely 
receyve  perceave  and  take  the  same  for  terme  of 
xiiijth  yeares  next  ensuinge  my  deceasse  towardes  the 
payment  of  my  dettes  and  performaunce  of  my  wyll  ; 
the  remaynder  to  reverte  to  my  sone  Wylfryde  Banaster 
and  hys  heires  for  ever. 

Margaret  died  on  20  Oct.*  following,  and  her  moiety  of 
her  father's  estate  then  came  to  her  son  and  heir  Wilfrid 
Banaster,  who  being  under  age  became  the  king's  ward. 
The  lands  were  held  of  the  king  as  Duke  of  Lancaster  by 
knight's  service.  Lawrence  Starkye  died  24  July  24  Henry 
VIII.  [1532],  and  the  heirs  were  the  above-named  Wilfrid 
and  Etheldred,  their  ages  now  being  16  years  10  months 
and  28  years  respectively. 

The  following  petition/  addressed  to  the 
Chancellor  in  Hilary  term  28  Henry  VIII.  (Jan. 
1536-7),  shows  how  the  matter  stood  five  years 
after  Starkey's  death  : 

To  the  right  hon.  Sir  William  Fitzwilliam  Kt.,  lord 
admiral  of  England  and  chancellor  of  the  Duchy  of 
Lancaster. 

Humphrey  Newton  and  Etheldrede  his  wife  complain 
that  whereas  the  late  Lawrence  Starkie,  one  of  the  king's 
receivers  of  the  Duchy,  had  lands  in  Preston  and  elsewhere 
in  Lancashire,  also  in  Cheshire,  Staffordshire  and  Yorkshire, 
and  about  17  years  ago  enfeoffed  Sir  William  Laylond  Kt. 
(then  esquire)  and  others  to  hold  to  the  use  of  the  said 
Lawrence,  Anne  his  wife  and  their  issue,  the  said  Etheldrede 
being  that  issue,  yet  she  cannot  obtain  possession.  Lawrence 

1  Duchy  of  Lane.  Depositions,  xxxi.,  N2. 


Lancaster  Jottings  197 

being  in  debt  to  the  king  at  his  death,  a  commission  was 
appointed  to  inquire  into  his  possessions,  and  a  return 
was  duly  made  ;  then  the  administration  was  committed 
to  William  Banastre,  Sir  Simon  Starky  (deceased),  Thomas 
Starky  and  Richard  Marbury,  who  will  not  pay  the  king 
the  money  owing  to  him  nor  allow  petitioneis  their 
inheritance  under  the  feoffment.  They  pray  that  Banastre 
and  the  others  be  called  to  account. 

An  order  was  then  made  for  the  attendance 
of  William  Banaster  and  Thomas  Starkey 
esquires  and  Richard  Marbury  gent.  Thomas 
Starkey  of  Stretton  and  Sir  Simon  (no  doubt  a 
priest)  were  nephews  of  Lawrence  Starkey. 

William  Banaster  in  reply  said  he  was  willing 
to  render  an  account  to  anyone  the  Chancellor 
of  the  Duchy  might  appoint  to  receive  it,  but  his 
own  wife  Margaret  was  one  of  the  heirs  of  Lawrence 
Starky e  and  he  had  to  preserve  her  right. 

On  15  Nov.,  1537,  the  king  ordered  Sir 
Marmaduke  Tunstall,  Sir  James  Layborne  and 
George  Leigh  to  inquire  into  the  complaint  and 
Banaster's  reply.  The  following  letter  gives  the 
result : 

Oure  deuties  in  humble  wysse  remembrede  unto  your 
goode  lordshipe,  pleasithe  the  same  to  be  advertishede  : 
We  resavede  a  commyssion  oute  of  the  Duchie  chamere 
to  us  and  to  oone  George  Leighe  esquiere  directede  for 
a  mattre  in  travesse  betwixe  Humfrey  Newton  and 
Etheldrede  his  wiff  upon  thone  partie,  and  William  Banastre 
gentilman  and  Margaret  his  wyf  upon  thother  partie  ; 
and  accordyng  to  theffecte  of  the  said  commyssion  we 
appoyntede  Fryday  the  vth  daye  of  Aprill  last  paste  to 
have  executede  the  same  and  ther  of  dide  assertayne  the 
said  George  Leigh  and  the  aforsaid  Newton  by  our 
writynge  as  we  be  creadabilly  informede  ;  Who  dide  faithe- 
fully  promyse  for  to  have  kepte  the  same  day.  At  which 
day  we  bothe  were  redie  at  Lancastre  accordynge  to  our 
deweties  and  the  said  Banastre  in  likewysse,  bot  the  said 
Legh  and  the  afforsaide  Newton  dide  not  appeire  ne  none 
for  theme.  By  reason  whereof  and  for  asmuche  as  the 
saide  Leigh  was  of  the  quorum  in  the  same  commyssion 
we  colde  nothinge  doo  at  that  tyme  in  executynge  the  same 


198  Lancaster  Jottings 

and  for  so  mych  as  the  afforsaide  Newton,  unto  whome  the 
folowynge  of  the  same  commyssion  dothe  specially  belonge, 
was  then  absente  as  he  haith  beyne  sinderye  tymes  herto- 
fore,  We  trust  that  your  lordeshipe  will  taike  suche  one 
indeferent  ordre  and  direccion  in  the  premisses  that  the 
saide  parties  heraftre  shalbe  at  a  better  staye  and 
appoyntemente ;  wherein  your  lordeshipe  shall  do  a 
good  and  meritoryus  deade,  as  knowithe  the  holie  Trynitie, 
whoe  preserve  your  lordeshipe  withe  myche  honour.  Writyn 
at  Lancastre  the  vjth  day  of  this  instante  moneth  of  Aprill 
[1538]. 

Youer  own  to  hys  lytyll  pouer 
JAMES  LAYBURN  K. 

Yowrs  at  commandment, 

MARMADUC  TUNSTALL  K. 

To  the  right  honorable  and  cure 
singulere  goode  lord  the  Erie 
of  Hampetonne  Chauncelere  of 
the  Duchie  of  Lancastere. 

The  Newtons  resumed  their  complaint  in  the 
Easter  term  of  1540,  by  the  following  bill.1  It 
shows  that  William  Banaster  died  between  April, 
1538,  and  April,  1540.  Henry  Banaster  is 
described  as  "  of  Whitwell." 

To  the  right  hon.  William  earl  of  Hampton  lord 
admiral  of  England  and  Chancellor  of  the  Duchy. 
Humphrey  Newton  and  Etheldrede  his  wife  recite  their 
story  in  similar  terms  (the  feoffment  was  made  22  years 
ago  ;  the  lands  in  Cheshire  were  at  Appleton  and  Stretton, 
and  those  in  Staffordshire  at  Newcastle  ;  the  debt  to  the 
king  was  £158  19s.  6d.),  renewing  the  complaint  that 
William  Banaster  and  Margaret  his  wife  had  taken  the 
rents  of  Starkye's  lands  from  Pentecost  24  Henry  VIII. 
till  Martinmas  in  the  28th  year,  and  that  William  Banastre 
had  accounted  before  Thomas  Burgon  and  others  appointed 
by  the  Chancellor  but  was  found  in  arrears  ;  and  that 
afterwards,  in  April  in  the  28th  year  [1537]  George  Poulett 
and  Thurstan  Tyldesley  were  made  receivers  of  the  estate, 
Poulett  for  Cheshire  and  Staffordshire  (receiving  nothing 
because  the  lands  are  mortgaged)  and  Tyldesley  for 
Lancashire  and  Yorkshire  (£18  yearly).  William  Banastre 
is  now  dead,  and  the  deed  of  feoffment,  with  other  evidences , 

1  Duchy  of  Lane.  Pleadings,  xii.,  N.  1. 


Lancaster  Jottings  199 

has  come  into  the  hands  of  Margaret  Banastre  and  one 
Henry  Banastre,  brother  of  William,  who  have  "  by  their 
craftye  and  subtyll  invencions  and  collusyons  embeseled 
conveyed  and  destroyed  as  well  the  said  dede  of  feffement 
as  also  some  part  of  the  said  other  dedes  evidences  and 
wry  tinges."  Margaret  has  entered  into  possession  of  the 
estate,  to  petitioners'  injury.  They  claim  also  a  moiety 
of  that  third  part  of  the  goods,  which  is  the  children's 
share  according  to  the  custom  of  the  county. 

Margaret  Banaster's  reply  recited  the  former 
answer  of  her  late  husband,  and  denied  the 
alleged  feoffment ;  if  the  deed  had  been  drawn 
up,  possession  had  not  been  given.  Newton  had 
already  had  witnesses  examined  on  that  matter 
and  failed  to  prove  his  case.  As  to  the  goods 
and  chattels  her  husband  had  rendered  an 
account. 

Humphrey  and  Etheldrede  replied,  saying  that 
Anne  before  she  married  Lawrence  Starkye  had 
lands  of  £80  a  year  for  life  as  jointures  from  her 
previous  husbands, —  Radclyff  of  the  Towre  esq. 
and  —  Atherton  of  the  Cholbent  esq.,  and  also 
owned  considerable  goods,  and  therefore  her 
father  Sir  Thomas  Butler  in  consenting  to  the 
third  marriage  required  this  feoffment  to  be  made 
under  which  they  claimed.  They  renewed  their 
charge  of  embezzling  the  deed  and  their  claim 
for  a  moiety  of  the  third  part  of  the  goods. 

Henry  Banaster's  reply  has  been  preserved. 
He  said  that  the  late  Roger  Banaster  of 
Waddyngton  made  his  will  about  five  years  ago, 
and  appointed  the  said  Henry,  William  Banaster 
of  Esyngton,  and  Henry  Colthurst  (deceased)  his 
executors.  In  searching  his  papers  they  found 
the  deed  of  feoffment  and  read  it  ;  it  was  signed 
by  Lawrence  Starkye  and  sealed.  They  left  it 
in  a  chest  in  Roger's  house.  Afterwards 
Margaret  Banaster,  then  wife  of  William  Banaster 
of  Lancaster,  came  to  the  house,  accompanied 


200  Lancaster  Jottings 

by  William  Towrner  of  Lancaster  and  others, 
broke  the  chest  open  and  took  the  deed  away. 

A  commission  ordering  them  to  inquire  was 
directed  to  Sir  Edward  Fytton  kt.,  John 
Holcroft  esq.,  Francis  Frobyssher  and  John 
Kechyn,  on  12  Feb.,  32nd  year  [1540-41]. 

Depositions1  were  accordingly  taken  at  Lancaster 
on  6  April,  1541  (32  Henry  VIII.),  by  Sir  Edward 
Fitton,  John  Holcroft  esq.  and  Francis  Frobissher 
on  behalf  of  both  plaintiffs  and  defendant  in  the 
claim  of  Omfray  Newton  and  Etheldrede  his  wife 
against  Margaret  Banester.  The  interrogatories 
are  included  with  the  Pleadings  just  cited 
(xii.,  N.  1)  ;  fourteen  questions  were  put  on 
plaintiff's  behalf  and  five  on  defendant's. 
Omitting  the  points  on  which  no  answers  were 
given,  the  depositions,  which  name  the  New  Hall 
as  Starkey's  Lancaster  residence,  were  as  follows  : 

For  the  Plaintiffs. 

William  Turner,  mayor  of  Lancaster,  aged  50,  said  he 
knew  Lawrens  Starkie,  one  of  the  king's  receivers  of  his 
Duchy  of  Lancaster.  He  never  knew  feoffment  made  to 
Sir  Thomas  Sothworth  knight  and  others  of  all  his  lands 
and  tenements  to  the  use  of  Laurens  Starkie  and  Anne  his 
wife  and  to  the  heirs  of  their  two  bodies  lawfully  begotten  ; 
but  he  saith  he  heard  it  "  commyned  "  that  he  was  minded 
to  give  five  pounds  lands  to  the  use  of  a  chantry  in  the 
church  of  Lancaster. 

John  Singleton,  gentleman,  aged  80  and  above,  saith 
"  that  he  and  Laurens  Starkie  came  ridinge  home  frome 
London  to  gether  and  in  a  feld  of  thisside  Rigley  townes 
ende  he  said  unto  the  said  Laurens  Starkie,  '  I  herd  say  ye 
most  be  maried.'  And  he  answerd  hym  and  said,  '  I  ame 
maried  to  a  doughter  of  Sir  Thomas  Butler.'  And  that  he 
said  he  hade  made  sure  all  his  landes  that  he  hade  or  myght 
have  to  the  heires  of  hym  and  her,  man  or  woman,  except 
fyve  poundes  to  dispose  at  his  plesure."  He  heard  say 
that  Symkinson  fetched  writings,  but  in  what  place  he 
knoweth  not  nor  where  they  came  afterward. 

1  Duchy  of  Lane.  Deps..  xxxv.,  N  2. 


Lancaster  Jottings  201 

Sir  William  Cayton,  priest,  aged  40,  saith  he  heard 
Laurens  Starkie  say  in  Winmerlee  chapel,1  afore  his  mistress 
Alice  Ratcliffe,  that  he  had  given  all  his  lands  in  feoffrnent 
(except  five  pounds)  to  the  heirs  of  his  body  which  he  had 
by  Butler's  daughter  his  wife  ;  and  that  five  pounds  he 
\vould  be  ordered  by  his  mistress  Alice  to  the  use  of  Olyver 
Starkie  his  bastard  son.  The  custom  of  Lancaster  is  that 
the  child  shall  have  the  third  part  of  his  father's  goods. 

John  Standish  of  Lancaster,  gentleman,  aged  60  and 
above,  saith  that  he  heard  say  that  "  levery  and  season  " 
were  made,  but  whether  it  was  to  the  use  of  his  wife  or 
not  he  knoweth  not  ;  and  that  possession  was  taken  in 
his  chief  house  at  Lancaster,  but  to  what  person  or  what 
use  he  knoweth  not.  The  custom  of  Lancaster  is  that  the 
child  shall  have  the  third  part  of  his  father's  goods. 

Richard  Newton,  gentleman,  aged  56,  saith  he  heard 
say  that  Laurens  Starkie,  then  being  the  receiver  of 
Lancaster,  did  make  a  feoffment  to  certain  cofeoffees  of 
all  his  lands  and  tenements  within  the  realm  of  England, 
except  five  pounds  for  the  performance  of  his  last  will,  to 
the  use  of  the  issue  lawfully  begotten  between  the  said 
Laurens  and  the  daughter  of  the  said  Sir  Thomas  Butler. 
He  hath  heard  say  that  the  said  Lawrens  had  delivered 
possession  unto  the  use  aforesaid.  He  heard  say  that  he 
was  of  a  great  substance  and  that  he  was  sore  indebted 
unto  the  king's  grace.  The  child  shall  have  the  third  part 
of  the  goods  after  the  custom  of  the  country. 

Christopher  Standish,  aged  46,  saith  that  he  heard 
Lawrens  Starkie  in  his  own  house  at  Lancaster  say  that  he 
had  made  a  deed  of  feoffment  to  his  wife  and  unto  the 
heirs  of  his  and  her  bodies  lawfully  begotten.  He  hath 
heard  say  that  possession  was  delivered  in  all  his  lands. 
He  was  in  company  with  one  William  Symkinson  in 
Broughton  church  after  the  death  of  Laurens  Starkie,  and 
there  he  said  that  the  heirs  that  he  had  by  Butler's  daughter 
should  have  all  his  lands.  And  Symkinson  said,  Nay,  she 
must  but  have  but  the  one  half.  And  he  said  again  there 
was  a  feoffment  that  would  give  her  the  whole.  And 
Symkinson  said  again  that  that  feoffment  would  not  come 
to  light.  And  further  the  said  deponent  saith  that  the 
said  Symkinson  said  that  "  there  was  a  feoffment  and  I 
did  see  it  since  my  master  died,  but  I  think  it  shall  never 
come  [to]  light  again." 

1  This  chapel  is  not  otherwise  known.  Probably  it  was  a  domestic 
one. 


202  Lancaster  Jottings 

Thomas  Ward  of  Lancaster,  aged  50,  saith  that  he  hath 
heard  say  that  there  was  a  feoffment  made,  but  to  what 
use  nor  whether  livery  and  seisin  thereof  were  made  he 
knoweth  not. 

Thomas  Wilson,  aged  57,  being  household  servant  and 
cook  to  Laurens  Starkie,  saith  that  upon  a  Friday  about 
xij  of  the  clock  he  fetched  all  the  people  out  of  the  north 
side  of  the  New  Hall  at  Lancaster,  and  then  he  saith  that 
"  my  maister  dyd  giffe  the  reigne  of  the  dore  to  Sir  George 
Gillebrand  priest  to  giffe  possession  to  my  maister,"  but 
to  what  intent  he  knoweth  not.1 

Thomas  Bradshaye,  servant  to  Sir  Thomas  Butler,  kt., 
aged  60,  saith  that  he  heard  Laurens  Starkie  say  that  he 
would  make  a  feoffment  of  his  lands,  but  whether  he  did 
or  not  he  knoweth  not. 

Edward  Barker,  aged  42,  saith  that  he  hath  heard 
Laurens  Starkie  say  that  he  had  made  his  lands  by 
feoffment  as  surely  as  could  be  devised  to  Sir  Thomas 
Sothworth,  Sir  Thomas  Langton,  Sir  William  Laylond, 
the  old  parson  of  Werington  and  Sir  George  Gelebrand,  to 
the  use  of  himself  and  Anne  his  wife  and  the  longer  liver 
of  them  and  to  the  heirs  of  their  two  bodies  lawfully 
begotten  ;  but  whether  livery  and  seisin  thereof  was  made 
or  not  he  knoweth  not.  He  heard  say  that  Sir  George 
Gelebrand  took  the  deed  in  the  one  hand  and  the  ring  of 
the  door  in  the  other  hand,  and  took  possession.  He 
heard  William  Symkinson  say  that  he  read  the  feoffment 
that  was  made  betwixt  him  and  Anne  his  wife,  and  after 
the  decease  of  Master  Starkie  when  William  Symkinson 
had  been  at  London  shortly  after  the  death  of  the  said 
Laurens,  "  I  askyd  hym  how  the  land  shuld  be  devided 
now  when  my  maister  was  deade  ;  and  Symkinson  said 
that  he  hade  made  sure  that  she  shuld  have  bot  the  one 
halfe." 

Alexander  Branthwait,  aged  50  and  above,  late  house- 
hold servant  to  Starkie,  saith  he  hath  heard  his  master  say 
that  he  would  make  all  his  lands  sure,  except  a  certain 
[part]  which  he  would  not  name,  to  the  use  of  him  and  his 
wife  and  to  the  heirs  of  their  two  bodies  lawfully  begotten, 
but  whether  he  did  it  or  not  this  deponent  knoweth  not. 
He  heard  Henry  Banister  of  the  Whitwell  say  that  he  read 
a  deed,  which  (as  he  said)  was  to  the  use  of  the  said  Lawrens 
and  Anne  his  wife  and  the  heirs  of  their  two  bodies  law- 
fully begotten. 

'The  north  door  would  be  the  principal  entrance,  in  Church  Street. 


Lancaster  Jottings  203 

For  the  Defendant. 

James  Clough  of  Lancaster,  late  servant  to  Lawrens 
Starkie,  aged  50,  saith  he  hath  heard  say  that  Humfrey 
Newton  hath  offered  money  to  certain  persons  to  be  witness 
for  him,  but  never  none  to  him.  A  man  of  Rowland  told 
him  that  the  said  Humfrey  did  offer  him  money  for  to  be 
one  of  his  witness,  but  his  name  he  knoweth  not. 

William  Symkinson,  servant  to  defendant,  aged  30, 
saith  that  the  said  Laurens  Starkie  did  purchase  all  his 
lands  during  the  time  of  his  first  wife,  mother  of  the  said 
Margaret  Banister,  except  his  lands  and  tenements  in 
Amoundernesse,  which  he  purchased  of  one  Singleton, 
and  which  amount  to  the  sum  of  iiij.  li.  or  thereabouts.  He 
hath  heard  say  that  the  said  Newton  did  offer  the  house 
that  [he]  dwelled  in  to  Thomas  Colthirst  to  be  a  witness 
for  him. 

EDWARD  FYTTON  K. 

JOHN  HOLCROFT. 

FRANCES  FROBISER. 

An  order  was  made  that  the  Newtons  should 
have  a  moiety  of  the  lands,  without  let  by 
Margaret  Banaster.1 

Depositions  on  behalf  of  the  Newtons  were 
taken  in  Cheshire  also,  as  appears  by  the  following 
Inspeximus  on  the  Recognizance  Roll  of  33  and 
34  Henry  VIII.  [19  Dec.,  1541].'  They  are 
interesting  as  recording  Lord  Mounteagle's  opinion 
of  the  marriage  arrangements. 

Interrogatories. 

1. — Whether  Lawrence  Starky,  in  consideration  of  his 
marriage  with  Anne  daughter  of  Sir  Thomas  Butteler, 
gave  to  feoffees  all  his  lands  (except  parcels  of  the 
total  rent  of  £5  a  year),  to  the  use  of  Lawrence,  Anne 
and  their  issue. 

2. — Whether  the  deed  of  feoffment  was  duly  executed. 

3. — What  goods  had  Lawrence  at  his  death  ? 

4. — Whether  any  of  the  feoffees  had  been  heard  to  say 
they  were  present  at  the  New  Hall  in  Lancaster  when 
possession  was  taken. 

1  Duchy  of  Lanes.  Decrees  and  Orders,  vii.,  105d. 

2  Roll  205,  m.  2.     The  "  interrogatories  "  are  not  printed  in  full. 


204  Lancaster  Jottings 

Depositions 

taken  at  Chester  before  Sir  Rees  Manxell  kt.,  Chamberlain 
of  Chester,  in  the  Exchequer  there  the  xvij.  day  of  November 
in  the  xxxiij.  year  of  the  reign  of  our  most  dread  sovereign 
lord  Henry  the  VIII  [1541]  ....  concerning  a  matter  in 
traverse  depending  betwixt  Humphrey  Newton  and  Ethlrede 
his  wife  plaintiffs,  and  Margaret  Banester,  defendant. 

Geoffrey  Deyne  of  Astley  in  the  county  of  Lancaster, 
yeoman,  of  the  age  of  Iviij.  years,  sworn  and  examined  upon 
the  holy  Evangelists  upon  the  interrogatories  foresaid, 
upon  his  oath  saith  to  the  first  article  that  he  the  said 
deponent  was  servant  to  Anne  daughter  of  Sir  Thomas 
Butteler  kt.,  the  said  Anne  then  being  wife  to  George 
Adderton,  and  continued  her  servant  after  marriage  had 
betwixt  the  said  Anne  and  Lawrence  Starky  during  all  the 
lifetime  of  the  said  Anne  ;  which  Anne  died  about  xxij. 
years  past.  And  also  saith  that  Lawrence  Starky  upon  a 
Friday  about  xij.  of  the  clock  of  the  same  day  delivered 
feoffment  to  Sir  George  Gylibrounde  priest  (in  the  name 
of  Sir  Thomas  Longton,  Sir  Thomas  Southworth,  Sir  Richard 
Delves  parson  of  Waryngton  and  others1)  of  all  his  lands 
and  tenements  except  lands  of  five  pounds  by  the  year, 
which  the  said  Lawrence  reserved  to  do  his  pleasure  withall, 
to  the  use  of  the  same  Lawrence  Starky  and  Anne  his  wife 
and  to  the  heirs  of  the  said  Lawrence  begotten  of  the  body 
of  the  said  Anne  whether  it  were  male  or  female  :  which 
feoffment  was  taken  at  the  New  Hall  in  Lancaster  at  the 
north  door  by  the  ring  of  the  same  door  ;  at  which  time 
this  deponent  was  present.  And  also  saith  that  one  other 
time  Sir  Richard  Delves,  uncle  to  the  said  Anne,  did  take 
like  feoffment  of  all  the  lands  of  the  said  Lawrence  Starky 
in  the  names  of  the  feoffees  foresaid,  reciting  the  said  use  : 
which  feoffment  was  likewise  taken  at  the  north  door  at 
the  New  Hall  in  Lancaster  by  the  ring  of  the  same  door. 
And  divers  times  this  deponent  hath  heard  the  said  Lawrence 
Starky  say  unto  this  deponent  and  other  his  servants  that 
he  had  delivered  feoffment  of  all  his  lands  except  five  pounds 
to  the  intent  aforesaid.  And  also  saith  that  the  said  Sir 
George  Gilibrounde  showed  this  deponent  that  he  [had] 
taken  possession  to  the  uses  aforesaid.  And  also  saith  that 
the  said  Lawrence  Starky  commanded  one  Thomas  Wylson, 
then  being  cook  and  servant  to  the  said  Lawrence,  to  cause 
the  house  called  the  New  Hall  to  be  avoided,  as  well  of  the 

1  The  other  feoffees  were   Sir  William   Leyland   and   Gilibrounde 
himself. 


Lancaster  Jottings  205 

blind  man  which  the  said  Lawrence  kept  for  alms  as  all 
other,  at  the  time  of  the  feoffment  given  and  delivered  to 
the  said  Sir  George  Gilibrounde.  And  as  unto  the  deeds 
this  deponent  doth  not  remember  that  he  saw  any.  To 
the  second  article  he  saith  that  he  this  deponent  was 
present  when  that  the  same  estate  and  feoffment  was 
executed  according  to  the  uses  beforesaid.  To  the  iij.  and 
iv.  articles  he  nothing  can  say. 

Thomas  Rymyngton  of  Preston  in  the  county  of  Lancaster, 
of  the  age  of  Ivij .  years  or  thereabouts,  sworn  and  examined 
upon  the  holy  Evangelist  upon  the  interrogatories  foresaid, 
upon  his  oath  saith  to  the  first  article  that  he  this  deponent 
was  servant  unto  the  Lord  Mountagle  that  died  last  and 
fellow  in  household  with  Lawrence  Starky  and  of  counsel 
with  the  said  Lawrence  concerning  the  marriage  between 
the   said    Lawrence    and   Anne   daughter   of   Sir   Thomas 
Butteler  kt.     And  saith  of  a  truth  that  he  this  deponent 
heard  the  said  Lawrence  show  the  said  lord  then  his  master 
that  he  could  not  obtain  the  marriage  of  the  said  Anne 
unless  he  the  said  Lawrence  did  make  a  feoffment,     unto 
the  said  Anne  and  unto  such  issue  as  the  [said]  Lawrence 
should  lawfully  beget  of  the  body  of  the  said  Anne,  of  all 
his  lands  except  five  pounds  :    which  the  said  lord  advised 
him  to  do,  and  said — Else  he  the  said  Lawrence  was  not 
worthy  to    have  her ;    and    said  his    cousin    Sir  Thomas 
Butteler  was  none  such  child  without  assurance  of  the  lands 
to  agree  to  the  marriage.     And  further  saith  that  he  this 
said  deponent  was  present  when  Sir  George  Gilibroande  did 
deliver  [sic]  feoffment  at  the  north  door  of  the  New  Hall 
in  Lancaster  by  the  ring  of  the  same  door  in  the  name  of 
Sir  Thomas  Longton,  Sir  Thomas  Southworth,  Sir  William 
Leylond  kts.,  and  Sir  Richard  Delves,  parson  of  Waryngton, 
to  the  uses  and  intents  as  the  said  Geoffrey  Deyne,  the 
first  deponent,  before  hath  deposed  and  said.     And  saith 
in  everything  concerning  the  feoffment  taken  and  delivered 
by  the  said  Sir    George    Gilibrounde    priest  as    the    first 
deponent    hath   said.     And    further   saith    that    Lawrence 
Starky   showed   this    deponent    divers    times    that    he    the 
said  Lawrence  had  delivered  feoffment  of  all  his  lands  and 
tenements  to  the  feoffees  before  named  to  the  uses   and 
intents  before  specified,  and  at  the  executing  of  the  said 
feoffment  certain  deeds  were  read  declaring  the  uses  before 
named.     To  the  second  article  he  saith  as  he  in  the  first 
article  hath  saith,   and  in  every  other  thing  as  Geoffrey 
Deyne  the  first  deponent  hath  deposed  and  said.     To  the 


206  Lancaster  Jottings 

iij.  article  he  saith  that  the  said  Lawrence  at  the  time  of 
his  death  was  well  plated  and  had  substance  to  the  estimation 
of  the  deponent  to  the  value  of  three  hundred  marks.  To 
the  iiij.  article  he  nothing  can  say. 

William  Warde  of  Monkesheth  in  the  county  of  Chester 
gent.,  of  the  age  of  xlvij.  years  or  thereabouts,  sworn  and 
examined  upon  the  holy  evangelists  upon  the  said  interro- 
gatories upon  his  oath  saith  that  about  two  or  three  years 
past  this  deponent  then  being  at  London  in  company  with 
one  Humphrey  Newton,  the  same  Newton  desired  this 
said  deponent  to  go  with  him  to  hear  the  saying  of  one  Sir 
George  Gylibrounde  priest,  then  being  at  Saint  Katherine's 
besides  the  Tower  of  London.  And  according  to  his  request 
this  deponent  and  the  said  Newton  went  to  the  said  Sir 
George  ;  at  which  time  the  said  Newton  said,  "  Sir  George, 
you  were  priest  and  servant  to  Lawrence  Starky  my  father- 
in-law  and  were  privy  to  the  feoffment  made  in  consideration 
of  the  marriage  had  betwixt  my  father-in-law  and  my 
mother-in-law,  daughter  to  Sir  Thomas  Butteler  kt.,  which 
feoffment,  as  I  am  credibly  informed,  ye  did  take  and  receive 
in  the  name  of  Sir  Thomas  Langton,  Sir  Thomas  South- 
worth,  and  Sir  William  Leyland  kts.,  and  of  Sir  Richard 
Delves,  parson  of  Warrington,  and  others  to  the  use  of 
Lawrence  Starky  and  Anne  his  wife  and  to  the  heirs  of  their 
two  bodies  lawfully  begotten."  Whereunto  the  said  Sir 
George  answered  and  said,  "  I  do  not  perfectly  remember 
the  use  thereof "  ;  saying  further,  "  I  remember  that 
Lawrence  Starky  delivered  me  feoffment,  in  the  name  of 
the  said  Sir  Thomas  Langton  kt.,  and  the  others  his 
cofeoffees,  by  the  ring  of  the  hall  door  in  Lancaster, 
according  to  the  use  and  intent  mentioned  in  the  deeds 
made  thereof."  And  more  therein  this  deponent  knoweth 
not. 

The  result  is  narrated  in  the  following  petition 
by  Wilfrid  Banaster.  A  division  had  been  made, 
each  of  the  parties  receiving  a  moiety,  as  appears 
by  the  Starkey  inquisition  above.  Wilfrid  himself, 
after  his  mother's  death,  became  the  king's  ward 
until  he  came  of  age  and  livery  was  granted  to 
him  on  20  March,  1 555-6. l  As  Sir  Robert 
Rochester  died  28  Nov.,  1557,  this  petition  must 
have  been  sent  in  to  the  Duchy  Chancery  about 

1  Deputy  Keeper's  Report,  xxxix.,  550. 


Lancaster  Jottings  207 

that  time,  for  the  petitioner  states  that  he  had 
held  his  mother's  moiety  "  for  two  years  past." 

To  the  Rt.  Hon.  Sir  Robert  Rochester  kt.  Comptroller 
of  the  King  and  Queen's  household  and  Chancellor 
of  the  Duchy  of  Lancaster. 

Complaint  by  Wilfrid  Banaster,  Robert  Dyconson, 
Thomas  Smythe,  Thomas  Rigmaden  and  George  Wynder. 
Humphrey  Newton  had  exhibited  a  bill  of  complaint  against 
William  Banaster  now  deceased,  father  of  Wilfrid,  alleging 
that  Lawrence  Starkey  deceased  had  enfeoffed  Sir  William 
Leyland  kt.  and  others  in  his  lands  at  Lancaster,  etc.,  to  the 
use  of  the  said  Lawrence  and  Anne  his  wife  and  their  issue, 
the  issue  being  a  daughter  Etheldrede  wife  of  Humphrey. 
William  Banaster  had  replied,  defending  the  right  of  his 
wife  Margaret,  the  other  daughter  and  co-heir  of  Lawrence. 
After  the  Newtons'  reply,  commissions  were  issued,  evidence 
taken,  and  the  whole  matter  discussed  thoroughly  by  the 
chancellor  and  counsel.  It  was  adjudged  that  as  Humphrey 
Newton  had  not  been  able  to  prove  any  such  feoffment  as 
he  alleged,  the  estate  must  go  to  the  two  daughters  as 
co-heirs,  and  a  partition  between  them  was  made  of  the 
New  Hall  in  Lancaster.  William  Banaster  and  Margaret 
died  seised  of  one  moiety  of  the  estate,  and  a  commission 
in  the  nature  of  a  Diem  clausit  extremum  was  issued,  whereby 
it  was  found  that  Margaret  had  died  seised  of  a  moiety  and 
that  Wilfrid  Banaster  was  her  son  and  heir.  Being  under 
age  he  became  the  king's  ward,  but  in  time  sued  his  livery 
and  had  enjoyed  his  mother's  moiety  for  two  years  past. 
"  And  nowe  so  yt  ys,  if  yt  please  your  honorabill  mastershepe, 
that  the  said  Humfray  Newton  ys  and  of  longe  tyme 
hayth  byn  servant  and  doth  weare  the  cote  and  lyvere  of 
one  Sir  Edmund  Trafforth  knyghte,  whoo  ys  nowe  sheriffe 
of  the  saide  countye  of  Lancastre,  and  in  hoope  of  suche 
frendeshepe  and  unlawfull  favor  as  he  shall  fynde  in  the 
said  sheriffe,  beyng  his  maister,  and  other  of  his  frendes 
dwellynge  within  the  said  countye  of  Lancaster,  and  also 
for  that  he  knoweth  the  said  Willffride  Banaster,  one  of 
your  said  oratours,  whoe  ys  sole  tenant  of  the  said  moyte 
of  the  premisses,  to  be  a  poore  yonge  man  and  to  have  fewe 
frendes  within  the  said  countye  of  Lancaster,  the  said 
Humfray  Newton  and  Etheldride  his  wiffe  in  Lent  last 
past  arrayned  one  assise  of  novell  dissin  agaynst  your  said 
orators  before  the  kyng  and  quene's  justic  of  assise  at 
Lancaster  concerning  such  parte  and  porcion  of  the  premisses 


208  Lancaster  Jottings 

lyeng  and  beynge  within  the  said  countye  of  Lancastre  as 
dothe  apperteyne  unto  the  said  Willffride  Banaster  and 
whereof  hee  ys  nowe  seased  :  Whereunto  your  said  oratours 
have  appered  and  pleaded  in  barre.  Which  assise  ys  yet 
dependyng,  where  youre  said  orator  ys  lyke  to  be 
condempned  by  the  frendesheppe  of  the  said  sheriffe  and 
by  the  mayntenance  and  bearynge  of  divers  other  persons 
within  the  said  countye  of  Lancaster,  whoo  doo  greately 
favour  the  said  Humfray  Newton  and  Etheldride  his  wiffe. 
And  for  as  myche  as  the  tytylls  of  both  the  saides  parties 
have  heretofore  byn  throwly  and  delyberately  harde  and 
determyned  in  this  honorabill  courte  in  maner  and  forme 
aforesaid,  yt  may  therefore  please  your  honorabill  master- 
shepe  to  graunt  the  kynge  and  quene's  heighnes  writt  of 
iniuncion  to  be  dyrected  unto  the  said  Humfray  Newton 
and  Etheldride  his  wiffe  theire  counselors  and  attorneys 
comandyng  and  enyoynyng  theme  and  every  of  theme 
upon  a  certen  payne  therein  to  be  lymyted  no  further  to 
procede  in  the  said  assise  against  your  said  orators  nor 
agaynst  any  of  theme." 

The  injunction  was  granted  and  proceedings 
stayed,  but  at  the  beginning  of  Elizabeth's  reign 
(in  February,  1558-9)  Banaster  was  called  upon 
to  show  cause  why  the  injunction  should  not  be 
dissolved.1  Soon  afterwards  Humphrey  Newton 
and  Etheldrede  his  wife  petitioned  Sir  Ambrose 
Cave  as  chancellor,2  reciting  a  feoffment  made 
on  Lawrence  Starkye's  marriage  with  Anne  the 
mother  of  Etheldrede,  whereby  all  Lawrence's 
lands  were  to  descend  to  the  issue  of  this  marriage, 
except  some  to  the  value  of  £5  a  year.  The 
deed  of  feoffment  had  been  lost  and  had  come 
into  the  hands  of  Wilfrid  Banaster,  who  was 
trying  to  dispossess  the  complainants.  All  the 
feoffees  were  dead  except  Sir  Thomas  Langton, 
now  very  aged  and  not  able  to  travel  to  the 
court.  They  therefore  ask  that  a  commission  be 
issued  for  the  taking  of  his  evidence  in  the  matter, 

1  Duchy  of  Lancaster  Order  Books,  xii.,  92. 

*  Duchy  of  Lane.  Pleadings,  xlvi.,  N  5.     There  is  no  date  on  the 
petition,  but  the  Ducatus  ascribes  it  to  2  Eliz. 


Lancaster  Jottings  209 

and  of  any  other  testimonies.  They  have  a  suit 
depending  at  the  assizes  at  Lancaster,  and  their 
whole  claim  rests  upon  the  feoffment  referred 
to. 

In  their  petition  to  Sir  Ambrose  Cave, 
Chancellor  of  the  Duchy,  in  Hilary  term  3  Eliza- 
beth [1560- 1],1  his  poor  and  daily  orators  Wilfrid 
Banaster,  Robert  Diconson,  Thomas  Smythe, 
Thomas  Rigmaden  and  George  Winder  state  that 
Humphrey  Newton  and  Etheldride  his  wife  had 
exhibited  a  bill  of  complaint  against  Margaret 
Banaster,  mother  of  Wilfrid,  concerning  lands 
in  Lancaster,  Bolton,  etc.,  and  that  inquiry  had 
been  made  and  the  result  returned  to  the  court. 
Margaret  had  died  seised  and  Wilfrid  on  entering 
into  his  inheritance  as  son  and  heir,  had  demised 
parcels  to  Diconson  and  the  other  complainants. 
But  now  the  Newtons  were  trying  to  dispossess 
them  and  had  "  offered  a  great  part  of  the 
premisses  unto  divers  men  of  the  said  county  for 
their  favour  and  aid  in  that  behalf,"  and  had 
received  "  such  comfort  of  the  obtaining  of  their 
ungodly  purpose  "  that  they  were  now  actively 
prosecuting  a  suit  at  the  assizes  which  they  had 
entered  as  long  ago  as  Lent  3  and  4  Philip  and 
Mary  (1557). 

This  petition  delayed  proceedings  for  a  time, 
but  in  June,  1561,  the  plaintiffs'  case  was  dis- 
missed with  costs.2  The  Newtons  may  have 
succeeded  in  establishing  their  claims,  for  in 
1561  they  sold  their  lands  in  Lancaster  to  Sir 
Richard  Shireburne  of  Stonyhurst,  and  he  died 
in  1596  in  possession  of  the  New  Hall.3  Soon 
afterwards  it  seems  to  have  been  acquired  by 
Henry  Porter,  vicar  of  Lancaster,  1582-1609, 

1  Duchy  of  Lane.  Pleadings,  xliv.,  B  21. 

2  Duchy  of  Lane.  Order  Books,  xiii.,  56. 
3V.C.H.  Lanes.,  viii.,  40. 


210  Lancaster  Jottings 

for  from  a  Chancery  suit  of  16841  it  appears  that 
the  New  Hall  near  the  Castle  Hill  in  Lancaster 
descended  to  his  grandson  Henry,  a  leading  man 
in  the  town  and  district  in  the  middle  of  the 
seventeenth  century.2 

From  the  depositions  in  this  suit  it  appears 
that  he  married  Anne,  daughter  of  Henry 
Ashhurst  of  Ashhurst  near  Wigan,  and  died  in 
1666.  His  widow,  who  had  the  New  Hall  as 
part  of  her  jointure,  lived  for  a  time  at  Ashhurst 
and  Ormskirk,  but  returned  to  Lancaster  and 
died  at  the  New  Hall.  Henry  Porter  had  a  son 
of  the  same  name  (born  1635),  who  died  "  when 
the  great  plague  was  in  London."  He  had  been 
admitted  to  Gray's  Inn  in  1657.  He  married 
Margaret,  daughter  of  Bryan  Taylor  of  Mythop, 
about  June,  1654,  and  left  two  children — Henry 
and  Anne.  The  son  died  in  1682,  before  attaining 
his  majority,  and  the  daughter  became  heir. 
She  had  been  baptized  in  Gray's  Inn  Chapel  in 
1659  and  married  Ralph  Livesey,  gentleman.' 
The  depositions,  which  are  very  long,  give  many 
details  about  the  family  and  estates.  Henry 
Porter,  grandfather  of  Anne,  had  purchased  a 
house  in  Cheney  Lane,  Lancaster,  but  his 
"  ancient  lands  "  had  belonged  to  his  grandfather 
the  vicar. 

THE  MILL  AT  BULK. 

The  following  petition*  refers  to  the  decay  of 
the  mill  in  Bulk,  which  has  long  ceased  to  exist. 
There  is  no  date  on  the  document  itself,  but 
the  calendar  places  it  in  12  Elizabeth  (1569-70). 

1  Pal.  of  Lane.  Chancery  Depositions,  bdles.  109  and  111. 

2  See  pedigree  in  Dugdale's  Visitation  (Chet.  Soc.),  234. 

a  Anne's  surname  is  not  recorded  in  the  Livesey  pedigree  in  Croston's 
Baines,  iv.,  37.     The  eldest  son  was  named  Porter. 

*  Duchy  of  Lancaster  Pleadings   (P.R.O.),  Ixxxiii.,   N  1. 


Lancaster  Jottings  211 

To  the  right  Honorable  Sir  Raphe  Sadler  knight 
one  of  the  Quenes  ma'tes  moste  Honorable  Pryvie 
Counsell  and  Chauncelour  of  her  Duchie  of  Lancaster. 
IN  MOSTE  humble  wise  complaynynge  shewith  unto 
your  Honour  your  suppliantes  and  Daylie  oratours  Brian 
Newton  maior  of  the  Towne  of  Lancaster  and  Burgesses 
of  the  same  Towne  That  where  there  hath  ben  an  aunciente 
Water  mylne  standing  uppon  the  water  of  Loyne  commonly 
called  Loyns  mylne  nere  to  the  saide  Towne  which  is  nowe 
altogether  thorough  the  great  Radge  of  waters  utterly 
decayed  and  that  there  hath  ben  a  certaine  yerelie  Rent 
of  Power  poundes  or  thereaboutes  goinge  oute  of  the  saide 
mylne  and  paied  to  the  Chauntrie  preste  there  in  tymes 
past  untill  the  Dissolucion  of  Chauntries  And  sithens  that 
tyme  Hath  ben  paied  to  the  Quenes  highnes  and  her  noble 
progentours  in  the  right  of  the  Duchie  of  Lancaster,  And 
that  the  proffittz  of  the  same  mylne  over  and  beside  the 
same  Rente  have  ben  of  Long  tyme  used  to  be  paied  and 
bestowed  uppon  a  Scholemaster  to  teache  a  Schole  at 
Lancaster  aforesaide  and  bring  upp  Chylderne  and  youth 
in  Lernynge  and  vertu  But  so  it  is  if  it  maye  please  your 
honour  that  nowe  of  Late  the  said  mylne  and  the  Damme 
and  Were  belongynge  to  the  saide  mylne  by  reason  of 
Extreeme  Floodes  are  become  Royenous  and  in  suche 
great  Decaye  that  no  proffittz  at  all  neither  to  the  Quenes 
highnes  nor  to  the  Schoole  canne  be  taken  or  had  of  the 
saide  mylne  And  that  the  repaier  and  makinge  of  the  said 
Were  and  Damme  and  of  the  saide  mylne  will  coste  one 
hundreth  poundes  at  the  Least  before  any  proffitt  can 
Arryse  or  come  of  the  same  or  that  the  Rentes  thereof 
canne  be  paied :  Wherefore  your  said  oratours  moste 
humblie  praie  your  honour  to  take  order  either  to  buylde 
and  repaier  the  saide  mylne  agayne  in  suche  sorte  as  it 
hathe  ben  heretofore,  For  the  Ease  and  Commoditie  of 
the  saide  Towne  that  the  said  Schoole  master  thereby  maye 
have  som  relief  or  els  to  remitt  the  saide  Rente  of  Power 
poundes  And  to  geve  Libertie  and  Licence  to  your  saide 
Oratours  to  buylde  and  repayer  the  saide  mylne  and  Damme 
and  that  they  maye  take  and  have  the  proffittz  of  the 
same  to  the  mayntenance  fynding  and  kepinge  of  the  saide 
Free  Schoole  within  the  same  Towne  without  any  Rente, 
And  your  saide  Oratours  will  uppon  theire  owne  Charges 
buylde  repaier  and  mayntayne  the  same  to  the  only 
use  of  the  saide  Schoole.  IN  CONSIDERACION  whereof  the 
premisses  tenderlie  considered  and  for  that  the  said  Towne 


212  Lancaster  Jottings 

is  Fair  from  any  Schoole  or  place  of  Lernyng  Male  it  please 
your  honour  to  take  suche  Order  and  direction  towchinge 
the  premisses  as  to  your  honour  shall  seme  meteste  to 
stande  with  the  greateste  commoditie  of  a  common  welth 
and  bringyng  well  upp  of  youth  in  those  partes.  And  your 
saide  Oratours  shall  Daylie  praie  unto  God  for  the 
preservacion  of  your  honour  in  helth  and  honour  Longe 
to  contynewe. 

CHYSNALL. 

Endorsed  with  address — 

Your  honours  Humble  peticioners 
the  Maior  and  Burgesses  of  the 
Towne  of  Lancaster. 

SOUTHWORTH    OF   HlGHFIELD. 

In  a  petition  to  the  vice-chancellor  of  Lancaster 
in  1647  Thomas  South  worth  of  Highfield, 
gentleman,  gave  the  following  account  of  his 
descent  in  making  a  claim  to  lands  in  Ashton 
and  Bolton  Holmes :  he  was  eldest  son  and 
heir  of  George  Southworth,  eldest  son  of  Thomas, 
eldest  son  of  George  Southworth  of  Highfield, 
esq.,  whose  wife's  name  was  Anne.  (Pal.  of 
Lancaster  Chancery  Bills,  18,  No.  194.)  The 
claimant  died  in  1673.  There  is  an  account  of 
the  family  in  V.C.H.  Lancashire,  viii.,  37. 

THE  VICARAGE  OF  LANCASTER  IN  THE  CIVIL 
WAR  TIME. 

The  following  pleadings  give  important  in- 
formation as  to  the  succession  in  the  vicarage 
during  the  Civil  War  period.  Dr.  Wildbore  was 
appointed  in  1631  and  held  his  position  until 
expelled  as  a  Royalist,  though  his  presentation 
had  been  opposed  at  the  beginning.  It  appears 
that  this  opposition  was  renewed  and  carried 
to  a  successful  issue  during  the  predominance 
of  the  Parliament.  At  the  Restoration  the 
judgment  was  ignored  and  Dr.  Marshall's 
successor  was  appointed  in  1660  as  to  a  vacancy 


Lancaster  Jottings  213 

caused  by  the  death  of  Dr.  Wildbore.  The  Mr. 

Strickland,    whose   short   incumbency  separated 

those   of   Barnett   and   Marshall,    has  not   been 
identified. 

(Pal.  of  Lane.  Bills  23,  No.  112). 

Petition  to  John  Otway,  vice-chancellor,  dated  4  Sept., 
1662,  from  Samuel  Barker  of  South  Luffenham,  gent.,  and 
Elizabeth  his  wife,  only  child  of  Augustine  Wildbore,  D.D., 
late  vicar  of  Lancaster,  deceased,  and  administratrix  of  his 
goods. — Dr.  Wildbore,.  said  the  petitioners,  was  vicar  of 
Lancaster  in  May,  1641,  and  was  expelled  in  February 
1642[-3]  for  his  loyalty  to  the  king,  and  the  profits  of  the 
vicarage  were  sequestrated  by  the  then  late  powers. 
Nehemiah  Barnett  was  appointed  by  them  as  vicar  and 
received  the  tithes,  etc.,  for  six  years  in  Wildbore's  lifetime 
and  died  in  possession  about  October,  1648.  He  made  a 
will,  appointing  George  Toweleson  and  Henry  Porter, 
esqs.,  executors.  William  Marshall  was  appointed  to 
succeed  him  by  the  said  late  powers  in  1648  or  1649,  and 
received  the  profits  for  five  or  six  years  in  Wildbore's  life- 
time. On  25  Dec.,  1646,  the  Committee  of  Plundered 
Ministers  ordered  that  Dr.  Wildbore's  children  should 
have  a  clear  fifth  part  of  the  tithes,  rents,  glebelands  and 
Easter  Book  for  their  maintenance.  After  his  death  in 
April,  1654,  the  petitioner  Elizabeth,  his  only  child,  was 
duly  appointed  administratrix,  and  she  ought  to  have 
received  the  said  fifth  part  accruing  during  his  lifetime, 
such  fifth  part  being  worth  £60  a  year.  Thus  £360  was 
due  during  the  time  Barnett  held  the  vicarage  and  the 
same  for  the  time  Marshall  held  it  up  to  her  father's  death. 
Porter  (Barnett's  surviving  executor)  and  Marshall  having 
refused  to  pay  anything,  redress  is  asked  for. 

(Pal.  of  Lane.  Answers.  39,  No.  18). 

The  answer  of  William  Marshall,  Doctor  of  Phisick,  to  the 
complaint  of  Samuel  Barker  and  Elizabeth  his  wife. — 
After  Wildbore  had  been  instituted  a  writ  of  Qitare  impedit 
was  brought  against  Wildbore,  the  late  bishop  of  Chester, 
and  Thomas  Farrington,  gent.,  by  Tobias  Knipe,  Arthur 
Garner,  John  Kellett  the  elder  and  John  Kellett  the  younger 
in  the  Court  of  Pleas  of  Lancaster  and  in  Lent  1647  Knipe 
and  Garner  had  judgment  in  their  favour,  recovering  the 
presentation.  John  Kellett  the  elder  was  then  dead,  and 
the  other  had  withdrawn.  Wildbore  had  therefore  never 
been  lawful  vicar.  Such  judicial  proceedings  had  been 


214  Lancaster  Jottings 

confirmed  by  a  recent  act  of  Parliament.  George  Tolnson 
of  Lancaster  purchased  the  advowson  from  the  said  Toby 
Knipe  and  William  Knipe  his  son,  and  first  presented  one 
Mr.  Strickland  to  the  vicarage,  and  on  his  resignation 
presented  this  defendant  (William  Marshall),  who  entered 
on  possession  in  June,  1649,  and  received  the  profits.  He 
had  never  heard  of  the  alleged  order  by  the  Committee 
of  Plundered  Ministers,  and  he  himself  received  the  profits 
not  by  any  sequestration  but  as  lawful  incumbent, 
presented  by  the  right  patron,  and  instituted  by  those 
then  exercising  the  government  of  the  nation,  although 
by  usurpation.  The  yearly  value  of  the  vicarage  while  he 
held  it  was  £200  a  year. 

(Ibid.,  No.  26.) 

The  answer  of  Henry  Porter. — He  denied  the  validity 
of  Wildbore's  appointment  on  the  same  ground  as  Marshall. 
Tobias  Knipe  and  William  his  son,  having  vindicated  their 
right  as  lawful  patrons,  presented  Nehemiah  Barnett  in 
1646  or  1647  ;  he  was  duly  instituted  and  received  the  profits 
till  his  death  in  October  1647.  He  had  been  appointed  to 
serve  the  cure  in  1643,  but  did  not  receive  the  whole  profits 
of  the  vicarage  until  he  was  duly  presented  as  stated.  This 
defendant  (Porter)  does  not  think  Barnett  had  more  than 
£100  a  year  during  that  earlier  period,  for  pensions  were 
paid  also  to  those  who  officiated  at  Stalmine,  Orton 
[Overton],  Wyersdale  and  Gressingham,  chapelries  in  the 
parish.  After  he  became  vicar,  defendant  does  not  believe 
his  profits  were  more  than  £100  a  year,  owing  to  the  dis- 
turbed state  of  the  nation,  "  all  goods  and  commodities 
in  that  country  being  at  so  low  values  as  that  some  of  the 
profits  of  the  vicarage  were  farmed  and  set  at  almost  half 
the  rate  they  have  been  set  for  at  other  times."  Defendant 
does  not  remember  what  the  whole  estate  of  Barnett  came 
to,  but  after  debts,  etc.,  were  paid,  only  about  £230  of 
personal  estate  remained,  of  which  defendant,  who  was 
only  one  of  the  executors,  received  about  £80  ;  he  kept 
for  a  year  one  of  Barnett's  three  young  children,  and  paid 
the  £80  to  the  other  executor.  He  pleaded  for  the  benefit 
of  the  act  of  Oblivion. 


ABSTRACTS  OF  DEEDS  RELATING  TO  THE 

SALE  OF  PEWS  IN 
ST.  NICHOLAS'S  CHURCH,  LIVERPOOL.. 

By  Henry  Peet,  M.A.,  F.S.A. 


In  January,  1912,  when  the  parish  offices, 
Brownlow  Hill,  Liverpool,  were  being  overhauled, 
I  found  a  number  of  deeds  relating  to  the  sale 
of  pews  in  the  parish  church,  together  with  many 
other  ecclesiastical  documents  for  which  the  Poor 
Law  authorities  had  no  use,  and  which  were 
about  to  be  discarded  and  probably  burnt. 
Many  of  these  documents  have  already  been 
printed  in  the  Appendix  to  the  Vestry  Books,  and 
the  originals  are  now  in  the  safe  at  St.  Nicholas's 
Church.  The  conveyance  deeds  of  the  pews,  of 
which  abstracts  are  here  printed,  are  not  only 
interesting  to  the  antiquary,  but  may  be  of  great 
use  to  the  genealogist,  as  the  references  to 
Liverpool  families  of  the  17th  and  18th  century 
are  very  numerous,  and  contain  details  of  their 
histories  not  to  be  found  elsewhere. 

I. 

Indenture  made  2  June  1687  between  the  Worshipfull 
Peter  Bold,  Esquire,  Maior  of  Leverpoole,  and  the  Aldermen 
of  the  sd.  Burrough  on  the  one  part  and  William  Blundell 
of  Leverpoole,  marriner,  of  the  other  part,  Reciteth,  That 
whereas  John  by  divine  permission  late  Ld.  Bishopp  of 
Chester  by  his  grant  bearing  date  23  February  1681  hath 
given  licence  and  leave  to  the  sd.  maior  and  aldermen  to 
build  a  loft  or  gallerie  on  the  south  side  of  the  Chappell 
of  Leverpoole  to  be  seated  and  disposed  of  by  the  sd.  maior 
&c.  as  they  should  think  most  convenient  ;  Now  witnesseth 
that  the  sd.  maior  &c.,  in  consideration  of  the  great  charges 


216    Abstracts  of  Deeds  relating  to  the  Sale  of 

and  expence  which  the  said  William  Blundell  hath  laid 
out  in  building  of  the  said  loft  or  gallerie  and  a  seate  therein, 
Have  given  and  granted  unto  the  said  William  Blundell 
his  heirs  and  assignes  All  that  seate  by  him  erected  on  the 
said  gallerie,  containing  foure  foote  in  breadth  to  the  front 
and  in  length  southward  seaven  foote  and  sixe  inches, 
and  in  possession  of  the  said  William  Blundell  or  his 
assignes,  adjoyning  unto  Mr.  James  Prescots  seat  on  the 
east  side  and  to  George  Griffiths  seat  on  the  west  side  ; 
To  have  and  to  hold,  etc.,  the  said  seat  unto  the  said  William 
Blundell,  etc. 

Witnesses  :  Robt.  Seacome,  Rich.  Windell,  Edw. 
Tarleton,  James  Barton,  Thomas  Sandiford. 

II. 

Sale  of  the  moiety  of  two  seats  in  the  north  east  gallery 
by  the  Mayor  and  Aldermen  to  Joseph  Briggs,  mercer,  8 
July,  1696.  Printed  in  full  in  Liverpool  Vestry  Books, 
ii.,  488.  The  corresponding  deed  to  Reynolds  is  recited  in 
No.  V.  below. 

III. 

Peregrine  Gastrell,  Esqre.,  official  principal  &c.  to 
Samuel  Ld.  Bishop  of  Chester  :  Whereas  in  a  business  of 
Assignation  and  Confirmation  of  a  certain  seat  or  pew 
situate  in  the  East  Gallery  of  the  parochiall  Chapel  of 
St.  Nicholas  in  Liverpoole,  containing  in  length  three 
yards  and  a  half  and  in  breadth  one  yard  and  a  half  and 
next  adjoining  to  a  seat  or  pew  of  William  Webster, 
Alderman,  southwards,  to  a  seat  or  pew  of  Mrs.  Edward 
Tarleton  eastwards,  and  to  a  new  gallery  lately  erected  by 
the  Corporation  northwards  ;  which  cause  was  lately 
promoted  by  Bryan  Blundell  of  Liverpoole,  Alderman, 
against  all  persons,  &c.  We  did  decree  the  said  pew  or 
seat  to  him  the  said  Bryan  Blundell  as  by  our  Act  of  Court 
on  26  Nov.,  1730.  We  do  now  assign  and  confirm  the  said 
seat  or  pew  unto  the  said  Brian  Blundell,  &c.  Dated  at 
Chester,  11  December,  1730. 

IV. 

This  Indenture  made  29  August  1737  between  Elizabeth 
Evered  widow,  relict  and  sole  executrix  of  the  last  will  of 
Joseph  Briggs  late  of  Liverpoole,  mercer,  deceased,  her 
former  husband,  and  the  Rev.  Henry  Briggs,  D.D.,  Rector 
of  Holt  in  the  county  of  Norfolk,  clerk,  and  Grace  his  wife, 
who  is  daughter  and  sole  heir-at-law  of  the  said  Joseph 
Briggs,  of  the  one  part  and  Benjamin  Anyon  of  Liverpoole, 
ship-wright  of  the  other  part  :  Whereas  by  a  Deed  or 


Pews  in  St.  Nicholas's  Church,  Liverpool   217 

Grant  dated  8  July  1696  [Deed  II.  above]  made  between 
Thomas  Johnson  junior,  esquire,  then  Mayor  of  Liverpoole 
and  the  Aldermen,  of  the  one  part  and  the  said  Joseph 
Briggs  of  the  other  part  reciting  a  certain  general  grant 
made  by  John,  Lord  Bishop  of  Chester,  dated  23  February 
1681  to  the  Mayor  and  Aldermen  to  build  a  gallery  in  the 
north-east  end  of  the  parochial  chappell  of  Liverpoole  to 
be  disposed  of  by  the  said  Mayor  and  Aldermen  as  they 
should  think  most  convenient  (which  said  gallery  was  built 
and  seated  accordingly)  and  that  the  said  Joseph  Briggs 
did  at  his  own  expense  erect  and  build  the  moiety  of  the 
seats  herein  granted  ;  They  the  said  Mayor  and  Aldermen 
by  virtue  of  the  aforesaid  general  Grant  and  for  the 
considerations  before  mentioned  Did  give  and  grant  unto 
the  said  Joseph  Briggs  and  his  assigns  one  moiety  or  half 
of  all  that  and  those  two  several  seats  then  erected  and 
to  be  erected  by  the  said  Joseph  Briggs  and  one  William 
Reynolds  since  deceased  on  the  loft  or  gallery  adjoining 
on  the  east  side  to  the  seat  then  in  possession  of  Alderman 
Thomas  Tyrer  or  his  assigns  and  now  of  Alderman  George 
Tyrer,  and  on  the  west  side  to  the  seat  then  in  possession 
of  Hugh  Langford  and  now  of  Henry  Gamon,  tallow 
chandler,  the  front  seat  containing  in  length  seven  foot 
and  in  breadth  seven  foot,  the  passage  seat  thereto  con- 
taining in  length  seven  foot  and  in  breadth  three  foot 
one  inch,  To  hold  one  moiety  or  half  of  the  said  two  several 
seats  unto  the  said  Joseph  Briggs  and  his  assigns  for  ever, 
etc.  And  whereas  the  said  Elizabeth  Evered  and  the 
said  Henry  Briggs  and  Grace  his  wife  are  now  possessed 
of  the  said  moiety  of  the  said  two  seats  and  have  agreed 
to  sell  the  same  to  the  said  Benjamin  Any  on  for  the  sum 
of  Twenty  one  pounds.  Now  this  Indenture  witnesseth, 
etc. 

[Signed]    ELIZABETH  EVERED  X  her  mark. 

HENRY  BRIGGS. 

GRACE  BRIGGS. 
Witnesses  :  William  Briggs,  Eliz.  Bridges. 

V. 

This  Indenture  made  13  October  1739  between  Peter 
Rainford  the  younger  of  Liverpoole,  gardiner  and  Catherine 
his  wife,  formerly  called  Catherine  Reynolds,  widow  and 
relict  of  Hugh  Reynolds  late  of  Liverpoole  mariner 
deceased,  and  administratrix  of  William  Reynolds  son 
and  heir  of  the  said  Hugh  Reynolds,  of  the  one  part  and 
Benjamin  Anyon  of  Liverpoole,  shipwright,  of  the  other 


218    Abstracts  of  Deeds  relating  to  the  Sale  of 

part  :  Whereas  by  a  certain  deed  or  grant  dated  8  July 
1696  made  between  Thomas  Johnson,  junior,  esquire  then 
Major  of  Liverpoole  and  the  Aldermen  of  the  said  Burrough 
of  the  one  part  and  William  Reynolds,  then  of  Liverpoole, 
mariner,  of  the  other  part  reciting  that  whereas  John,  Lord 
Bishop  of  Chester,  had  given  licence  dated  23  February 
1681  to  the  said  Mayor  and  Aldermen  to  build  a  loft  or 
gallary  in  the  north  east  end  of  the  chappell  of  Liverpoole 
to  be  disposed  of  as  they  should  think  most  convenient 
(which  said  gallary  was  built  accordingly)  :  They  the  said 
Mayor  and  Aldermen  by  virtue  of  the  aforesaid  grant  did 
give  and  grant  unto  the  aforesaid  William  Reynolds  and 
his  assigns  one  moiety  or  half  of  all  that  and  those  two 
seats  erected  by  the  said  William  Reynolds  and  Joseph 
Briggs  late  of  Liverpoole,  mercer,  deceased  on  the  said 
loft  or  gallary  adjoining  on  the  east  side  then  in  the 
possession  of  Alderman  Thomas  Tyrer  and  now  of  Alderman 
George  Tyrer,  and  on  the  west  side  of  the  seat  then  in 
possession  of  Hugh  Langford  and  now  or  late  in  possession 
of  Henry  Gamon,  tallow  chandler,  the  front  seat  containing 
in  length  7  ft.  and  in  breadth  7  ft.,  the  passage  seat  there 
containing  in  length  7  ft.  and  in  breadth  3  ft.  1  in.  :  To 
hold  one  moiety  or  half  part  of  the  said  two  severall  seats 
unto  the  said  William  Reynolds  and  his  assigns  forever  ; 
Whereas  the  said  Peter  Rainford  and  Catherine  his  wife 
are  possessed  of  a  moiety  of  the  said  two  seats  and  have 
agreed  to  sell  the  same  to  the  said  Benjamin  Anyon  for 
£21  now  this  indenture  witnesseth  etc. 

[Signed]    PETER  RAINFORD, 

KATHERINE  RAINFORD. 

Witnesses  :   Thomas  Calley,  J.  Prior  Clayton. 

VI. 

Indenture  made  21  March  1746  between  Sarah  Worthing- 
ton  of  Ormskirk,  widow,  Richard  Barton  of  the  same 
place,  Malster,  and  Elizabeth  his  wife,  (which  sd.  Sarah 
and  Elizabeth  are  daughters  of  Elizabeth  Livesey  late  of 
Liverpool  but  afterwards  of  Ormskirk,  widow,  deceased 
and  also  together  with  Thomas  Livesey  her  son  executors 
and  devisees  under  her  last  Will)  of  the  one  part  and  William 
Whalley  of  Liverpool,  merchant,  of  the  other  part  : 
Whereas  the  sd.  Elizabeth  Livesey  widow  being  possessed 
of  a  certain  seat  or  pew  in  the  East  Gallery  of  the  Chappell 
of  Liverpool  (comanally  called  the  old  church)  heretofore 
erected  at  the  equal  expense  of  Sir  Thomas  Johnson  and 


Pews  in  St.  Nicholas's  Church,  Liverpool    219 

Mr.  Edmund  Livesey  deceased,  being  situate  between  the 
pew  or  seat  late  of  Mr.  John  Wareing  deceased  and  the 
pew  late  of  John  Lyon,  marriner  deceased,  and  Anne 
Williamson  widow  did  by  her  last  Will  in  writing  bearing 
date  on  or  about  13  December  1743  give  and  dispose  of 
the  sd.  seat  or  pew  to  her  sd.  son  and  daughters  Thomas, 
Sarah  and  Elizabeth  each  a  fourth  part  and  to  the  children 
of  her  son  Edward  another  fourth  part,  as  by  the  sd.  in 
part  recited  Will  it  doth  more  fully  appear,  And  the  sd. 
William  Whalley  having  come  to  an  agreement  with  the 
sd.  Richard  Barton  for  the  purchase  of  his  sd.  wife's  sd. 
fourth  part  and  also  with  the  sd.  Sarah  Worthington  for 
her  fourth  part  at  the  rate  of  £10  10s.  each  share,  Now  this 
Indenture  witnesseth,  &c. 

[Signed]    SARAH  WORTHINGTON. 

RICD.  BARTON. 

ELIZ.  BARTON. 
Witnesses  :   Thos.  Radcliff,  Staw.  Gill. 

VII. 

This  Indenture  made  17th  November  1756  between 
Thomas  Antrobus  of  Liverpoole,  surgeon,  and  Katherine 
his  wife  (which  said  Katherine  is  executrix  of  the  last  Will 
of  Isabell  James  late  of  Liverpoole,  widow  deceased,  who 
was  the  sole  executrix  of  the  last  Will  of  Ann  Williamson 
late  of  Liverpoole  widow  deceased,  formerly  Ann  Moon, 
widow,  and  which  said  Katherine  is  surviving  devisee  in 
the  sd.  last  Will  of  the  sd.  Ann  Williamson  of  the  premises 
hereinafter  mentioned)  of  the  one  part  and  Thomas  Ward 
of  Liverpoole,  marriner,  of  the  other  part  :  Whereas  the 
sd.  Thomas  Antrobus  and  Katherine  his  wife  are  now 
lawfully  possessed  unto  a  moiety  or  half  of  the  seat  or 
pew  hereinafter  mentioned  by  virtue  of  a  Grant  made  by 
the  mayor  and  bailiffs  of  the  Bgh.  and  corpn.  of  Liverpoole 
unto  William  Litherland  late  of  Liverpoole,  mercer,  deceased 
bearing  date  on  or  about  15  October  1683  and  ofseverall 
mesne  grants  or  assignments  derived  under  the  sd.  original 
grant,  whereby  the  sd.  moiety  became  legally  granted  and 
assigned  over  unto  the  sd.  Ann  Williamson  deed.  ;  And  they 
the  said  Thomas  Antrobus  and  Katherine  his  wife  have 
agreed  to  sell  the  sd.  moiety  unto  the  sd.  Thomas  Ward 
for  £40  :  Now  this  Indenture  witnesseth  ....  agree  to 
sell  the  westardmost  moiety  or  one  half  of  all  that  seat 
or  pew  in  the  gallery  over  the  north  chancell  at  the  east 
end  of  the  church  or  parochiall  chappell  in  Liverpoole, 
on  the  east  side  of  the  seat  there  late  belonging  to  Alderman 


220    Abstracts  of  Deeds  relating  to  the  Sale  of 

Thomas  Johnson  and  now  to  William  Whaley,  containing 
ten  foot  in  length  and  four  foot  six  inches  in  breadth,  and 
all  right,  title,  &c. 

[Signed]    THO.  ANTROBUS. 

CATHERINE  ANTROBUS. 
Witnesses  :    Edwd.  Rimer,  Robt.  Richmond. 

VIII. 

This  Indenture  made  17  April  1759  between  Nicholas 
Christian  of  Ramsey  in  the  Isle  of  Man,  merchant,  and 
Catherine  his  wife  of  the  one  part  and  John  Brownell  of 
Liverpoole,  gentleman,  of  the  other  part.  In  consideration 
of  the  sum  of  Thirty  one  pounds  ten  shillings  to  the  said 
Nicholas  Christian  paid  by  the  said  John  Brownell  they  the 
said  Nicholas  Christian  and  Catherine  his  wife  have  sold, 
etc.,  to  the  said  John  Brownell  all  that  seat  or  pew  situate 
in  the  west  gallery  in  the  chapel  of  St.  Nicholas  in  Liver- 
poole, eastwards  adjoining  to  a  seat  formerly  of  one  Mary- 
Gibson,  westward  to  a  seat  of  Jane  Harper  widow,  north- 
ward to  the  north  wall  and  southward  to  the  south  isle 
of  the  said  gallery  ;  in  length  eleven  feet  and  in  breadth 
3  feet  ;  and  now  in  the  possession  of  the  said  Nicholas 
Christian  or  undertenants  ;  which  was  formerly  granted 
by  Faculty  dated  17  June  1727  to  John  Christian  late  of 
James  Street  in  Liverpoole  deceased  and  by  him  devised 
to  the  said  Catherine  Christian  along  with  all  his  real  estate 
there,  who  hath  levyed  a  fine  of  the  said  premises  and 
declared  the  uses  to  the  said  Nicholas  Christian  in  fee  and 
all  the  estate,  &c.,  of  them  the  said  Nicholas  Christian 
and  Catherine  his  wife  or  either  of  them  to  the  said  seat  ; 
To  have  and  to  hold  the  said  seat,  &c.,  unto  the  use  of 
him  the  said  John  Brownell  &c. 

[Signed]    NICHOLAS  CHRISTIAN. 
CATHERINE  CHRISTIAN. 
Witnesses  :  Thomas  Callow,  G.  W.  Procter. 

IX. 

Samuel  Peploe,  official  Principal  &c.  of  Edmund,  Lord 
Bishop  of  Chester  :  Whereas  in  a  certain  cause  of  confirming 
a  certain  seat  or  pew  situate  in  the  West  Gallery  of  the 
Chapel  of  St.  Nicholas  in  Liverpoole  adjoining  eastward 
to  a  seat  heretofore  of  Mary  Gibson  and  now  of  Edward 
Dean,  westward  to  a  seat  heretofore  of  Jane  Harper,  widow 
and  now  of  Richard  Harper,  northward  to  the  north  wall 
and  southward  to  the  south  isle  or  alley  of  the  said  gallery, 
containing  in  length  eleven  feet  and  in  breadth  three  feet, 


Pews  in  St.  Nicholas's  Church,  Liverpool    221 

Promoted  by  John  Brownell,  gentleman  a  parishioner  and 
inhabitant  of  the  said  parish  against  all  manner  of  persons 
in  general  &c,,  and  Lawrence  Brannigan  for  his  interest 
specially  intervening,  the  Revd.  Abel  Ward,  clerk,  M.A., 
our  lawful  surrogate,  did  decree  the  said  seat  or  pew  to  be 
continued  to  him  for  the  purpose  hereafter  mentioned  as  by 
the  Act  of  Court  made  on  Thursday  12  July  1759.  We 
therefore  confirm  the  said  seat  to  the  said  John  Brownell 
and  his  family  so  long  only  as  they  continue  parishioners 
and  inhabitants  of  the  said  parish.  Dated  at  Chester 
31  July  1759. 

HUGH  SPEED,  Dep.  Reg. 
Thos.  Store,  proctor. 

X. 

Indenture  made  1st  June  1767  between  Richard  Golightly, 
shipwright  and  Thomas  Golightly,  wine  merchant  ;  All  that 
pew  situated  on  the  north  side  of  the  middle  gallery  at  the 
east  end  of  the  Parochial  Chapel  of  Our  Lady  and  St. 
Nicholas  and  at  the  top  higher  end  or  most  eastwardly 
part  of  the  same  and  next  to  the  wall  at  the  top  higher 
end  or  most  eastwardly  part  of  the  north  side  of  the  middle 
gallery,  containing  in  breadth  from  east  to  west  five  feet 
(the  window  there  excluded)  or  thereabouts,  and  in  length 
or  depth  from  north  to  south  eight  feet  five  inches  and  now 
occupied  by  Mr.  Golightly  or  by  Mrs.  Cobham  of  Liverpool, 
widow,  as  his  undertenant,  &c.  In  consideration  of  the 
sum  of  sixty  pounds,  &c. 

[Signed]    RICHARD  GOLIGHTLY. 
THOMAS  GOLIGHTLY. 
Witnesses  :    Wm.  Pickance,  Jno.  Lawson. 

XI. 

Sale  of  a  Pew  by  Dr.  Charles  Morton  to  Mrs.  Susannah 
Metcalf,  1  February  1773.  Printed  in  full  in  our 
Transactions,  Ixxi,  44. 

XII. 

This  Indenture  made  13th  July,  1773,  between  Jonathan 
Ward  of  Liverpool,  bricklayer,  and  Mary  his  wife  of  the 
first  part,  Jane  Ball  widow  of  Liverpool  of  the  second  part, 
and  Charles  Ward  of  Liverpool,  gentleman,  son  of  the  said 
Jonathan  Ward  and  Mary  his  wife  and  nephew  of  the  said 
Jane  Ball,  of  the  third  part  :  Whereas  the  said  Jonathan 
Ward  in  right  of  his  wife  and  the  said  Jane  Ball  are  now 
seized  to  the  seat  or  pew  hereinafter  described  for  the 
joint  lives  of  them  the  said  Mary  Ward  and  Jane  Ball  and 
after  the  death  of  the  shortest  liver  the  survivor  of  them 


222    Abstracts  of  Deeds  relating  to  the  Sale  of 

will  be  absolutely  entitled  to  the  inheritance  thereof  in 
fee  ;  and  being  unwilling  to  let  the  said  pew  go  out  of 
their  family  but  being  desirous  that  the  same  shall  continue 
therein,  have  agreed  to  convey  the  same  to  the  said  Charles 
Ward  ;  Now  in  consideration  of  the  natural  love  etc.  and 
also  in  consideration  of  the  sum  of  5s.  apiece  to  them  paid 
by  the  said  Charles  Ward  they  the  said  Jonathan  Ward 
and  Mary  his  wife  and  Jane  Ball  have  sold  and  transferred 
by  these  presents  all  that  seat  or  pew  situate  in  the  north 
gallery  of  the  Chapel  of  St.  Nicholas  and  Our  Lady  the 
Blessed  Virgin  Mary,  being  one  of  the  front  seats  of  the 
said  gallery,  bounded  on  the  east  end  by  the  pew  of  Mr. 
Farrington,  on  the  west  side  by  the  pew  of  [blank]  and  at 
the  back  by  the  aisle  or  passage  leading  along  the  said 
north  gallery  ;  which  pew  is  now  in  the  possession  of  them 
the  said  Jonathan  Ward  and  Jane  Ball  etc. 

[Signed]    JONATHAN  WARD  his  mark. 
MARY  WARD. 
JANE  BALL. 
Witnesses  :    John  Oddie,  Thos.  Rideing,  Thos.  Bailey. 

XHIa. 

This  Indenture  made  14th  January  1782  between  Charles 
Ward  of  Doncaster,  plasterer,  only  acting  executor  of  the 
last  will  of  Charles  Ward  late  of  Liverpool,  gentleman, 
deceased,  of  the  one  part  and  William  Edwards  of  Liverpool, 
gentleman,  of  the  other  part  :  Whereas  by  Indenture 
bearing  date  13th  July  1773  made  between  Jonathan 
Ward,  then  of  Liverpool,  bricklayer,  and  Mary  his  wife, 
both  since  deceased,  of  the  first  part,  Jane  Ball,  then  of 
Liverpool  widow,  also  since  deceased,  of  the  second  part 
and  Charles  Ward  deceased  of  the  third  part  [recites  the 
transfer  of  the  pew  and  its  position  as  in  Deed  No.  XII.]  : 
Whereas  the  said  Charles  Ward  deceased  by  his  last  will 
dated  on  or  about  8  September  1778  bequeathed  unto  the 
children  of  his  son  the  said  Charles  Ward  the  party  hereto 
and  of  his  cousin  Mary  Fogg  of  Liverpool  his  seat  in  the 
north  gallery  of  St.  Nicholas  Church  amongst  them  all 
share  and  share  alike  to  take  as  joint  tenants  and  of  his 
said  will  the  said  Charles  Ward  nominated  his  said  son 
Charles  Ward  the  party  and  his  wife  Alice  Ward  his  sole 
executor  and  executrix ;  and  whereas  the  said  Charles 
Ward  departed  this  life  after  the  making  of  his  said  will 
without  altering  the  same  And  he  the  said  Charles  Ward 
the  party  hath  alone  proved  the  said  will  in  the  Consistory 
Court  at  Chester  And  whereas  the  children  of  the  said 


Pews  in  St.  Nicholas's  Church,  Liverpool    223 

Mary  Fogg  departed  this  life  before  the  death  of  him  the 
said  Charles  Ward  the  testator,  whereby  the  estate  and 
interest  of  the  said  children  of  the  said  Mary  Fogg  in  the 
said  pew  became  lapsed  and  the  same  vested  only  in  the 
children  of  the  said  Charles  Ward  ;  And  whereas  the  said 
Charles  Ward  the  party  as  the  father  of  his  children  these 
devisees  under  the  said  will  hath  come  to  an  agreement 
with  the  said  William  Edwards  of  Liverpool  for  the  sale 
to  him  of  the  said  pew  for  the  sum  of  £60  :  Now  this  Inden- 
ture witnesseth  etc.  that  in  consideration  of  the  sum  of 
£60  paid  by  the  said  William  Edwards  to  him  the  said 
Charles  Ward  to  be  by  him  the  said  Charles  Ward  applied 
for  the  use  of  all  his  children  (the  pew  is  now  in  the  actual 
holding  or  possession  of  Mr.  William  Naylor  as  undertenant)  ; 
And  lastly  the  said  Charles  Ward  hereby  appoints  in  his 
place  and  stead  Thomas  Rideing  and  Henry  Penington, 
both  of  Liverpool,  gentlemen,  his  true  and  lawful 
attorneys,  etc. 

[Signed]    CHARLES  WARD. 
Witness  :    Thomas  Rideing,  Hy.  Penington. 

Xlllb. 

Bond  of  Indemnity,  dated  14  Jan.  1782,  Charles  Ward 
to  William  Edwardes,  bound  in  the  sum  of  £120  against 
claim  any  of  the  children  of  Charles  Ward  may  make  on 
his  Pew. 

XIIIc. 

Deed  appointing  and  authorizing  power  of  attorney 
(dated  14  Jan.  1782)  appointing  William  Lyon,  Joseph 
Lyon,  John  Manley,  Henry  Townley  Ward,  Richard 
Shaw  and  Thomas  Hutton  Attornies  of  his  Majesty's  Court 
of  King's  Bench,  jointly  and  severally  or  to  any  other 
Attorney  of  the  same  court  to  appear  for  him  (Charles 
Ward  of  Doncaster  plaisterer)  in  an  action  for  debt  at  the 
Suit  of  William  Edwards  of  Liverpool. 

XIV. 

Sale  of  a  Pew  by  Mrs.  Susannah  Metcalf  to  Nicholas 
Crook  and  Ellis  Lorimer,  Churchwardens  of  the  Parish  of 
Liverpool,  15  August  1798.  Printed  in  full  in  Vestry 
Books,  ii.,  489. 

XV. 

WILL  OF  JOHN  CHRISTIAN,  1739. 

John  Christian  of  Liverpoole  gent.  I  give  unto  my  niece 
Catharine  Corlett,  the  eldest  daughter  of  my  sister  Catharine 
wife  of  Patrick  Corlett  of  the  Isle  of  Man,  my  copyhold 


224   Pews  in  St.  Nicholas's  Church,  Liverpool 

messuages  lands  and  tenements  situate  in  West  Derby  in 
or  near  Clubmoor  and  Pilch  Lane  her  heirs  and  assigns 
for  ever.  I  give  unto  Catharine  Corlett  the  eldest  daughter 
of  my  said  sister  all  my  messuages  etc.  in  Liverpoole  during 
my  estate  therein  (the  interest  of  my  wife  during  her  life 
to  be  allowed  her)  ;  subject  nevertheless  and  I  do  hereby 
charge  the  several  messuages  etc.  in  West  Derby  and 
Liverpoole  (except  that  my  estate  of  Clubmoor  afore- 
mentioned) with  the  payment  of  the  clear  sum  of  £10 
yearly  to  be  paid  unto  my  said  sister  Catharine  Corlett 
during  her  life  and  also  with  the  payment  of  £10  unto 
Bryan  Blundell  gent,  for  the  use  of  the  poor  children  in 
the  charity  school  in  Liverpoole  and  also  with  the  payment 
of  £10  to  Elizabeth  wife  of  Robert  Edwards  of  Liverpoole 
I  also  give  unto  my  niece  Ann  Corlett  the  second  daughter 
of  my  said  sister  Catharine  Corlett  and  her  heirs  all  my 
copyhold  messuage  etc.  in  Thomas  Lane  in  West  Derby 
I  further  give  unto  the  said  Ann  all  my  houses  and  gardens 
situate  in  Douglas  in  the  Isle  of  Man,  paying  40s.  yearly 
unto  Margaret  my  half-sister  during  her  life  and  the  sum 
of  £40  at  the  death  of  the  said  Margaret  to  her  eldest  son 
provided  he  lived  to  the  age  of  21  years  otherwise  no  pay- 
ment of  the  said  sum  to  be  made.  Also  I  give  to  my  niece 
Margaret  Corlett,  third  daughter  of  my  said  sister  Catharine 
Corlett,  and  her  heirs  all  my  messuage  &c.  in  Little 
Woolton.  I  also  give  unto  my  dear  and  loving  wife  all 
the  wrought  plate  of  which  she  was  possessed  before  her 
marriage  to  me,  together  with  my  best  feather  bed  and 
also  two  standing  beds  which  belonged  to  her  before  our 
marriage.  And  the  remainder  of  my  real  and  personal 
estate  after  payment  of  my  debts,  legacies  and  funeral 
expenses,  I  give  unto  my  said  niece  Catharine  Corlett. 
The  Rev.  Anthony  Halsall  of  Great  Crosby,  clerk,  and  the 
said  Patrick  Corlett  of  the  Isle  of  Man  to  be  executors  ; 
he  gives  them  £5  a  piece.  Directs  that  his  nieces  shall  not 
marry  without  the  consent  and  approbation  of  his 
executors. 

Dated  6  January  1738-9.  Proved  at  Chester  24  February, 
1738-9. 

Notes  on  back  of  the  Will :  Cath.  baptized  27  Oct.  1728. 
Ann,  baptized  21  February  1729-30.  Margt.  baptized  16 
February  1731-2.  Ann  married  1749  to  Joseph  Richmond 
of  Liverpool.  Margt.  unmarried. 


THE  LOST  MANOR  OF  THIRNBY. 
By  W.  H.  ChippindalL 


WHEN  the  Domesday  Survey  was  made,  in 
the  year  1086,  the  manor  of  Thirnby  appears 
as  dependent  on  the  lordship  of  Whittington,  and 
with  other  late  possessions  of  Tostig  was  in  the 
king's  hand.  After  this  date  no  more  is  heard 
of  this  manor.  Yet  some  slight  evidence  regard- 
ing it  has  come  to  notice  lately  and  the  following 
attempt  to  locate  it  is  founded  thereon. 

The  possession  of  a  manor  would  give  rise  to  a 
family  name  and  a  family,  of  "  de  Thirneby  "  has 
been  discovered  in  the  township  of  Lowther, 
where  they  seem  to  have  settled  late  in  the  12th 
century,1  probably  receiving  lands  there  in  com- 
pensation for  the  loss  of  their  lordship  in  Thirnby, 
as  on  the  formation  of  the  county  of  Westmorland 
the  manors  of  Middleton,  Barbon,  Casterton  and 
a  part  of  Thirnby  were  included  in  that  county 
and  taken  away  from  what  had  been  known  as 
Amounderness.  The  other  part  of  Thirnby  was 
added  to  the  manor  of  Whittington. 

If  a  large  scale  map,  showing  the  boundaries  of 
the  townships  of  Kirkby  Lonsdale  and 
Whittington,  be  examined,  it  will  be  seen  that  the 
boundary  line  from  the  river  Lune,  westward, 
proceeds  in  a  series  of  straight  lines  up  to  a  point 
about  400  yards  west  of  Biggins  Park  fence, 
cutting  across  the  ancient  fields  so  as  to  leave 
parts  of  those  fields  in  Westmorland  and  parts 

1  Cumberland  and  Westmorland  A.  &  A.  Soc.  Transactions, 
N.S.  xvi.,  113. 


226  The  Lost  Manor  of  Thirnby 

in  Lancashire.  Now  all  ancient  boundaries 
followed  some  natural  feature  or  ancient  fence  or 
dike,  curving  and  bending  as  the  particular 
feature  necessitated  ;  hence  it  may  be  assumed 
that  this  straight-lined  boundary  is  a  modern  one 
and  arose  through  the  necessity  of  marking  out 
the  division  of  the  ancient  manor  of  Thirnby. 

The  family  of  "  de  Thirneby  "  ended  in  three 
co-heiresses1  who  married  c.  1220-1230  as  follows  : 
Isabel  married  Robert  de  Alneto  [Dawney],  Sarra 
married  Henry  de  Haverington,  and  Alice  married 
Richard  de  Copeland,  all  bearing  names  asso- 
ciated with  the  holding  of  land  in  Whittington 
and  Kirkby  Lonsdale  townships.  Further,  in  the 
inquest  on  the  death  of  William  de  Lindsay 
in  1283,*  we  find  "  David  de  Haverington  and 
Ralph  de  Patton  hold  Thirnby  and  render 
66s.  Sd.  yearly  ;  it  is  worth  10/."  Also  "  Alan  de 
Coupeland  holds  the  fourth  part  of  Kirkby 
Lonsdale  and  renders  \2d.  yearly  ;  it  is  worth 
100s."  But  before  this,  in  Hilary  term,  14  Henry 
III.,  1230,  there  had  been  a  plea  between  John 
de  Kirkby  and  Richard  de  Copeland  as  to  how 
much  land  Richard  de  Copeland  held  in  the  vill 
of  Kirkby  Lonsdale.3  The  result  of  the  trial  is 
not  on  record  but  is  evident  from  the  above- 
quoted  inquest  on  William  de  Lindsay  ;  and  it 
is  submitted  that  this  fourth  part  of  the  vill  of 
Kirkby  Lonsdale  is  the  Westmorland  part  of  the 
old  manor  of  Thirnby. 

The  land  lying  along  both  sides  of  the  boundary 
here  was  known  as  "  Thirnby  "  until  the  end  of 
the  seventeenth  century  if  not  later,  and  is 
mentioned  in  the  will  of  John  Hudson  of  Kirkby 

1  Ibid. 

»  Lanes.  Inq.  and  Ext.  (Record  Soc.).  i.,  256. 

1  Farrer,  Cockersand  Chartul.  (Chetham  Soc.),  913». 


The  Lost  Manor  of  Thirnby  227 

Lonsdale,  dated  22  or  24  April,  1615,1  proved  at 
Kirkby  Lonsdale  on  the  6  July  following,  in 
which  he  leaves  to  his  son  John  Hudson  "the 
lands  and  tenant-right  in  Thyrneby  which  [I 
devised]  unto  him  before  as  mentioned  in  a] 
dede  beringe  date  the  xixth  day  of  April  1615 
lyeinge  jointly  toge[ther  and  in  the  occupation  of] 
William  Harryson  and  Edward  Bainbrigge 
whereof  s[ome  part]  of  the  saide  ground  in 
Thyrneby  aforesaide  lyeing  and  d  .  .  .[?  being] 
[wi]thin  the  countye  of  Westmorland]  and  the 
[other  part  within  the]  countye  of  Lancaster 
which  was  bought  of  the  right  [wor]shipfull  Lady 
Elizabeth  Curwen." 

There  is  also  a  reference  to  Thirnby  in  the 
Kirkby  Lonsdale  Court  Leet  Rolls  on  22  April, 
1667,  viz.  :  '  We  find  Mr.  John  Foxcroft  dead 
since  last  Court  and  Jane  Foxcroft  his  daughter 
next  heir  to  his  customary  estate  in  Thirnby  of 
the  yearly  rent  of  4d."  This  John  Foxcroft  was 
a  lawyer,  and  acted  as  steward  of  the  manor  of 
Kirkby  Lonsdale  in  1666  ;  he  lived  at  Holme 
House  opposite  Sellet  Mill  in  Whittington  town- 
ship. In  the  same  court  rolls,  under  date  28 
February  1669-70,  is  recorded  a  surrender  by 
Richard  Bayliffe  of  Biggins  to  his  son  Edward 
Bayliffe  of  various  fields  "  and  a  close  called  Little 
Thirneby." 

Nowadays  Thirnby  Wood,  overlooking  Sellet 
Mill  from  the  north,  and  Thirnby  Well  (the 
source  of  the  mill  stream  for  Sellet  Mill)  are  the 
only  names  left  to  indicate  the  position  of  this 
ancient  manor,  and  I  am  inclined  to  believe  that 
Sellet  Mill  and  Holme  House  are  all  that  is  left 
of  the  ancient  hamlet  of  Thirnby  ;  but  the  outer 
boundaries  of  this  manor  appear  to  be  hopelessly 
lost. 

1  The  will  is  mutilated  and  the  words  within  square  brackets  are 
an  attempted  restoration. 


STRAY    NOTES. 

THE  HARRINGTON  ESTATE  IN  LIVERPOOL. — Ralph  Peters, 
gentleman,  aged  39,  in  1715  deposed  that  about  a  year 
before  he  had  purchased  from  Edmund  Taylor  and  James 
Chadwick  the  reversions  of  houses  in  Pool  Lane  and  Redcross 
Street  and  an  opening  out  of  John  Street  into  Harrington 
Street,  being  of  the  inheritance  of  John  Harrington,  esq.,  or 
Charles  Harrington  or  Dorothy  his  mother.  The  depositions 
were  taken  at  the  "  Golden  Lion,"  an  inn  kept  by  John 
Seacombe.  (Pal.  of  Lancaster  Chancery  Depositions,  bdle. 
145).  In  a  different  suit  in  the  following  year  James 
Chadwick  of  Liverpool,  yeoman,  aged  52,  deposed  concern- 
ing a  purchase  of  bricks  for  the  late  John  Cleveland  ;  this 
time  the  depositions  were  taken  at  a  house  called  the 
"  Woolpack,"  kept  by  John  Lathom.  (Ibid.,  147.)  This 
house  was  Jane  Wrench's  in  1725.  (Ibid.,  155.) 

SLITTING  MILLS  AT  BIRKACRE. — In  1754  John  Chadwick 
of  Croxteth,  gentleman,  and  Thomas  and  James  his  sons, 
stated  that  John  and  Thomas  had  for  some  years  been 
partners  in  the  trade  or  mystery  of  manufacturing  pig-iron 
into  bars,  hoops,  rods,  etc.,  at  slitting  mills  near  Chorley 
called  Birkacre  mills  ;  and  about  May  1747  and  later  they 
sent  to  William  Houlcroft  of  Liverpool,  white-cooper, 
parcels  of  hoop-iron,  etc.,  to  be  disposed  of  on  commission, 
to  the  value  of  £300  and  more.  John  Chadwick  had 
recently  made  over  his  moiety  to  his  son  James,  who  thus 
became  partner  with  his  brother  Thomas.  They  had  long 
wanted  Houlcroft  to  come  to  an  account  with  them,  but  he 
had  put  the  matter  off,  and  had  died  intestate  ;  and  they 
now  therefore  made  a  claim  for  the  amount  due  to  them  from 
the  estate  against  his  widow  and  son,  Alice  Houlcroft  and 
James  Houlcroft,  who  had  come  into  possession.  In  the 
following  year,  John  Chadwick  having  died,  the  plaint  was 
renewed  by  the  executors  of  his  will — his  widow  Ellen,  and 
his  sons  Thomas  and  James  Chadwick.  (Pal.  of  Lancaster 
Chancery  Bills,  vol.  80.)  The  connection  of  these  Chadwicks 
with  Croxteth  is  further  shown  by  the  fact  that  one  of 
the  "  lives  "  in  a  Molyneux  lease  of  1746  was  John  son  of 
John  Chadwick  of  Birkacre,  aged  18  (Claughton  Chapel 
deeds). 


Stray  Notes  229 

CURATES  OF  HALE  CHAPEL. — William  Sherlock  of  Farn- 
worth,  clerk,  aged  70,  in  1633  deposed  that  he  knew  Hale 
chapel  in  Childwall.  He  had  known  Edward  Baguley,  who 
was  curate  at  Hale,  and  succeeded  him  about  47  years 
previously,  continuing  as  curate  for  12  or  13  years,  during 
all  which  time  he  administered  the  sacraments,  married, 
buried  the  dead,  and  performed  all  things  pertaining  to  a 
church  or  parochial  chapel.  He  also  knew  Thomas  Lydiate, 
Mr.  Hall,  Mr.  Janyon,  William  Sherlock  (his  own  son),  Mr. 
Kenwrick  and  George  Barlowe  (plaintiff  in  the  case) 
among  others  who  in  their  several  times  were  curates  at 
Hale.  He  himself  had  been  placed  there  by  George  Ireland, 
esq.,  and  Mr.  Kenwrick  by  Sir  Gilbert  Ireland.  Another 
witness  (aged  80)  remembered  William  Crosse,  Edward 
Baguley,  William  Sherlock  the  elder,  Robert  Swan,  John 
Janion,  Thomas  Lydiate,  Mr.  Hall,  William  Sherlock  the 
younger  and  Edward  Kenwrick.  Yet  another  remembered 
Mr.  Whitfield,  before  Crosse.  Another  said  a  Mr.  March 
came  between  Baguley  and  Sherlock.  (Pal.  of  Lane. 
Depositions,  bdle.  30.)  This  is  an  important  addition  to 
the  list  of  curates  in  V.  C.  H.  Lancashire,  iii.,  149. 

BLUNDELL  OF  LITTLE  CROSBY. — Henry  Blundell,  who  was 
in  possession  of  the  manor  1421  to  1456,  had  two  brothers, 
John  and  Robert.  The  former  seems  to  be  the  John 
Blundell  of  Crosby  who  with  Katherine  widow  of  Ellis  de 
Formeby  (probably  his  wife)  claimed  a  debt  of  70s.  from 
Thomas  Lathom,  a  drover,  and  Robert  Lathom  in  1442-3 
(Chester  Plea  Roll  148,  m.  34.)  John's  son  Thomas  became 
vicar  of  Brackley,  1462-1489  ;  and  was  also  rector  of  Eydon 
1469-1489,  and  vicar  of  Stotesbury  1473-1486,  all  in 
Northamptonshire.  (Baker,  Northants.,  i.,  505,  575,  691.) 
See  V.  C.  H.  Lanes.,  iii.,  88,  note  2. 

THE  KIRKBY  FONT. — The  following  is  one  of  the  alterna- 
tive interpretations  (see  p.  99)  of  the  carvings  on  this 
interesting  font.  On  one  side  appears  the  Temptation  and 
Fall,  with  the  cherub  with  his  flaming  sword  driving  Adam 
and  Eve  from  the  paradise  of  pleasure.  The  other 
side  is  occupied  chiefly  with  a  group  of  seven  "  priests," 
telling  of  Redemption  by  the  preaching  of  the  gospel. 
These  figures  naturally  have  St.  Peter  in  the  centre  ;  his 
brother  apostle  St.  Paul  stands  on  his  right,  being  indi- 
cated by  the  sword  and  the  book  of  epistles,  and  on  St. 
Peter's  other  side  is  the  local  apostle  St.  Paulinus  (or  St. 
Chad),  vested  with  the  pallium  as  Archbishop  of  York.  The 
front  pendant  of  the  pallium  hangs  down  almost  to  the 


230  Stray  Notes 

point  of  the  chasuble.  A  local  devotion  to  St.  Paulinus  is 
shown  by  the  dedication  at  Walton  (Trans.,  Ixxi.,  91).  The 
remaining  four,  judging  by  their  number,  may  be  the 
four  evangelists  ;  three  seem  to  carry  their  gospel  books,  and 
the  other,  who  has  first  place,  may  be  meant  for  St. 
Matthew,  handling  his  bag  of  tax-money.  The  last  figure 
may  indicate,  by  its  diminutive  size,  the  youth  of  St.  John. 
The  series  of  seven  ends  with  a  representation  of  St. 
Michael's  victory  over  the  serpent,  through  whose  lying 
mouth  he  thrusts  his  spear.  As  the  carvings  go  completely 
round  the  font,  St.  Michael  and  the  cherub  come  next  to 
one  another,  though  they  are  at  the  opposite  ends  of  the 
story. 

WIGAN  CHURCH  c.  1580. — In  one  of  Erdeswicke's  MSS. 
is  the  following  brief  note  :  "  Mr.  Stokes  told  me  that 
Wiggan  in  Lancashyre,  the  Churche  therof  was  of  thre 
sundry  buyldings  and  repayrings  :  as  was  to  him  by 
anncyent  men  proved  :  who  had  seen  in  the  last  repayring 
therof,  fragments  of  idols,  some  of  the  Romayn  fetures  and 
symmetry,  some  of  the  Saxons  :  etc."  (Harl.  MS.  473, 
fo.  2.). 

LONGWORTH  OF  ORMSKiRK. — John  Longworth  of  Orms- 
kirk,  gentleman,  was  a  man  of  some  prominence  in  the 
district  in  the  first  half  of  the  eighteenth  century.  A 
plea  by  James  Magrath  of  Aughton  in  1759  and 
later  gives  information  as  to  his  descendants,  he  hav- 
ing died.  The  first  defendants  were  his  son  John 
Longworth  and  grandson  John  (eldest  son  of  John).  In 
1761,  however,  another  grandson,  James  Longworth, 
became  defendant,  for  John  the  son  had  died  on  1  May, 
1761,  and  John  the  grandson,  who  was  of  tender  years,  had 
followed  on  24  June,  his  heir  being  his  brother  the  said 
James.  Somewhat  later  were  added  Mary  Longworth 
widow  of  the  senior  John  (who  had  had  a  first  wife 
Margaret)  ;  the  executors  of  John  the  son,  viz.,  Trifosia 
Longworth  his  widow  and  William  Aspinall  ;  and  Catherine, 
Margaret,  Betty,  Nancy,  Jane,  Bella  and  Mary,  other 
children  of  John  Longworth  the  son.  (Pal.  of  Lancaster 
Chancery  Bills,  80,  nos.  13,  41,  48.) 

ROCHDALE  GLEBE. — In  a  disputed  case  in  1670  a  deposi- 
tion was  made  by  Robert  Bathe,  clerk,  lately  vicar  of 
Rochdale,  aged  65.  He  had  been  incumbent  of  the  benefice 
for  about  23  years,  and  said  in  his  time  the  tenants  of  the 
glebe  had  been  accustomed  to  alienate,  assign  or  exchange 


Stray  Notes  231 

their  tenements,   the   ancient   rents  being  paid.     (Pal.   of 
Lancaster  Chancery  Depositions,  bdle.  84.) 

DR.  KUERDEN. — Richard  Keurden,  doctor  in  Physick, 
aged  55,  was  deponent  in  a  Chancery  suit  in  1679,  stating 
that  he  paid  a  rent  of  Id.  called  the  "  Jerusalem  rent  "  to 
Lord  Molyneux  for  lands  in  Cuerden,  formerly  paid  to  the 
Order  of  Jerusalem.  Many  others  in  Cuerden  also  paid 
Jerusalem  rents.  (Pal.  of  Lancaster  Chancery  Depositions, 
bdle.  99.) 

HAMBLETON  CHAPEL. — Roger  Sherburn,  clerk,  aged  40, 
was  in  1653  described  as  preacher  at  this  chapel,  the  history 
of  which  is  obscure.  (Pal.  of  Lancaster  Chancery  Deposi- 
tions, bdle.  49.) 

PHILIP  BENNET. — One  William  Bennet  was  rector  of 
Brindle  from  1603  to  1629,  when  he  died.  His  wife  had 
been  buried  there  in  1617.  In  1688,  James  Gerard,  the 
sexton,  then  aged  66,  said  that  he  remembered  Mr.  Bennet's 
burial  ;  he  was  then  a  schoolboy,  seven  or  eight  years  old. 
He  knew  also  Philip  Bennet  his  son,  and  John  Bennet,  a 
younger  brother  of  William.  As  Philip  is  unusual  as  a 
Christian  name  it  seems  not  unreasonable  to  identify  him 
with  the  Philip  son  of  William  Bennet  of  Lancashire, 
educated  at  Rivington  School,  who  entered  Christ's  College, 
Cambridge,  in  1625,  and  took  the  B.A.  degree  in  1629  ;l 
and  further  to  identify  him  with  the  Philip  who  was  minister 
of  Ulverston  in  1646  and  of  Cartmel  in  1649,  being  ejected 
from  this  cure  in  1662  for  nonconformity.  (Pal.  of 
Lancaster  Chancery  Depositions,  bdle.  117.)  In  1654  he 
was  attacked  by  two  Quakers,  Edward  Burroughs  and 
Francis  Howgill,  in  their  "  Answers  to  Several  Queries  put 
forth  ...  by  P.  Bennett,"  "  who  calls  himself  a  minister 
of  Christ,  but  is  found  a  deceiver." 

EARLY  RECTORS  OF  WOODCHURCH. — In  a  suit  between 
John  Griffin  senior  and  John  Dounvill  the  elder  in  1343 
concerning  the  presentation  to  this  rectory,  the  following 
statement  of  the  patrons  and  rectors  was  put  in.  Ran  die 
de  Praers  was  seised  of  the  advowson  in  the  time  of  Henry 
III.,  and  presented  Randle  de  Meynwaryng  ;  Randle's  son 
Thomas  de  Praers  in  the  same  reign  presented  Ralph  de 
Caldwelle.  He  was  succeeded  in  the  time  of  Edward  I. 
by  Richard  de  Thicknes,  presented  by  Randle  son  of  the 
above  Thomas  de  Praers.  This  Randle  also  presented 

1  J.  Peile,  Christ's  College  Register,  i.,  368. 


232  Stray  Notes 

John  le  Teu  in  the  same  reign,  but  dying  without  issue 
he  was  succeeded  as  patron  by  his  brother  Richard,  who 
presented  Adam  de  Wetenhale  in  the  time  of  Edward  I. 
(This  is  an  error  ;  it  should  be  Edward  II.)  The  vacancy 
was  caused  by  Adam's  death.  Griffin  claimed  by  gift  of 
Thomas  de  Praers,  brother  and  heir  of  Handle  son  of  the 
Richard  first  named,  and  his  claim  is  supported  by  a  deed 
in  the  Recognizance  Rolls,  dated  1338,  by  which  he  was  to 
exercise  the  patronage  until  Thomas's  death,  which 
happened  in  1349.  Plaintiff  accordingly  recovered. 
(Chester  Plea  Roll  55,  m.  Id.) 

CHESHIRE  MEN  IN  THE  SCOTTISH  EXPEDITION  OF  1544. 
— In  a  case  in  the  Exchequer  Court  of  Chester  in  1584 
(Starkie  v.  Yonge  and  others,  concerning  Knight's  Grange) 
one  George  Dickyns,  gent.,  of  Chorleye  in  Cheshire,  aged  63, 
deposed  that  in  the  latter  end  of  April  and  after  a  good 
piece  of  Lent  was  spent  in  35  Henry  VIII.,  he  was  at  the 
New  Castell  uppon  Tyne  as  they  journeyed  toward 
Scotland  to  Lyethe  and  Edenburghe  ;  and  there  then  did 
see  in  the  said  town  Edmund  Trafford  deceased,  then 
esquire  and  after  made  knight  at  Liethe,  who  (deponent) 
did  then  serve  William  Ratclief,  Edmund  Savage  deceased, 
then  esquires  and  after  made  knights  also  at  Liethe  with 
examinate's  master.  Alexander  Massie  was  in  Newcastell 
at  the  time  aforesaid,  who  there  was  deponent's  chamber- 
fellow.  And  he  thinketh  that  John  Domvile  and  Robert 
Shawe  did  then  attend  upon  the  said  William  Ratcliffe. 
To  his  remembrance  and  as  he  thinketh  the  said  persons 
and  every  of  them  did  then  make  their  abode  in  Newcastell 
aforesaid  by  the  space  of  one  month  together  or  thereabouts. 
(Exchequer  Bills,  Chester,  bundle  12.)  The  English  army 
appears  to  have  assembled  at  Newcastle  in  March  and 
April,  1544,  sailing  for  Scotland  about  the  1st  May. 

SPORTING  RIGHTS. — A  petition  of  John  Oldton  in  October, 
1583,  to  Robert  earl  of  Leicester,  chamberlain  of  Chester, 
complains  of  a  breach  of  the  statute  of  23  Elizabeth  against 
hunting  and  hawking  over  lands  on  which  corn  is  standing 
or  growing.  "  So  it  is,  right  honorable  lord,  that  one  William 
Mynshull,  gent.,  the  said  statute  nothing  regarding,  hath 
diverse  and  sundry  times  since  the  feast  of  St.  John  Baptist 
last  past  (the  certain  days  whereof  your  orator  doth  not 
perfectly  remember)  hawked  and  hunted  with  a  hawk 
and  spaniels  in  a  certain  closure  of  land  of  your  poor 
orator  lying  in  Mynshull  .  .  .  then  sown  with  oats  and 
the  same  therein  growing,  to  the  great  destruction  and  spoil 


Stray  Notes  233 

not  only  of  your  said  orator's  corn  and  grass  therein 
growing,  but  also  thereby  your  orator's  hedges  were  broken 
down  and  the  gates  of  the  said  field  thrown  open  to  the 
lanes  and  highways,  whereby  sheep  and  cattle  depasturing 
in  the  said  lanes  and  highways  entered  into  your  orator's 
corn  and  grass  to  the  great  hindrance  and  damage  of  your 
poor  orator.  And  your  said  orator  very  gently  required 
the  said  William  Mynshull  to  desist  and  leave  off  his  said 
misdemeanours  and  thereupon  showed  him  the.  said 
statute .  .  .  Yet,  that  notwithstanding,  right  honorable 
lord,  the  said  William  Mynshull  of  his  perverse  malice  and 
very  despite,  accompanied  with  divers  other  persons — 
that  is  to  say,  Elinor  Mynshull  wife  of  Thomas  Mynshull 
of  Erdesweeke,  esq.,  Gertrude  Mynshull  wife  of  the  said 
William  Mynshull,  Richard  Mynshull  brother  of  the  said 
William  Mynshull,  John  Walker  gent.,  and  one  William 
Rylandes  yeoman  .  .  . — did  upon  Tuesday  the  tenth  day 
of  September  last  past  eftsoons  enter  into  your  orator's 
said  closure  of  ground  wherein  the  said  oats  were  then  growing, 
and  therein  the  said  William  Mynshull  did  then  hawk  and 
hunt  with  a  sparrowhawk  and  a  great  number  of  spaniels 
.  .  .  .  And  albeit  the  said  Elinor  Mynshull,  Richard 
Mynshull,  John  Walker  and  William  Rylandes  be  ready  and 
willing  to  compound  and  make  full  satisfaction  .  .  .  yet 
the  said  William  Mynshull  and  Gertrude  his  wife  wilfully 
standing  in  their  evil  doing,  do  as  yet  utterly  refuse  and 
deny  to  pay  to  your  said  orator  the  said  forfeiture  of 
40s.  .  .  .  although  they  have  been  sundry  times  gently 
reminded  .  .  .  ".  The  complainant  therefore  asked  for  a 
subprena  against  Mynshull.  The  accused  denied  that  he 
was  "  culpable  of  the  supposed  matters."  (Chester 
Exchequer  Bills,  bdle.  11.) 


REPORT  FOR  THE  YEAR  1921. 
PRESENTED  JANUARY  19,  1922. 


The  table  annexed  exhibits  the  Society's  membership  on 
January  1st,  1922. 

MEMBERSHIP. 


Annual. 

Life. 

Associate. 

Honorary. 

Total. 

1st  Jan.,  1921   .... 

187 

10 

— 

8 

205 

1st  Jan.,  1922  .... 

177 

8 

— 

10 

195 

Gain         







2 



Loss         

10 

2 

— 

— 

10 

Having  regard  to  the  increased  subscription,  the  finan- 
cial difficulties  through  which  the  country  is  passing  and 
the  numerous  deaths  among  our  members,  no  less  than 
eight,  it  is  matter  for  congratulation  that  our  numbers  are 
so  well  maintained. 

The  Council  desires  to  express  regret  for  the  deaths  of 
the  following  members,  viz.  :  Mr.  John  Hargreaves,  Senior, 
Mr.  T.  T.  Wainwright,  Mr.  J.  W.  Alsop,  B.A.,  Mr.  W.  T. 
Rogers,  Mr.  J.  T.  Thompson,  Mr.  T.  W.  Blundell,  Mr.  E.  H.W. 
Butterworth,  and  for  that  of  Miss  Watt,  a  most  generous 
contributor  to  the  funds  of  the  Society. 

During  the  past  year  fourteen  new  members  have  been 
elected  and  in  this  period  nine  meetings  were  held.  The 
first,  the  Annual  General  Meeting,  included  a  fine  series  of 
lantern  slides,  illustrative  of  items  of  archaeological  interest, 
while  the  fifth  was,  by  kind  permission  of  the  Library, 
Museums  and  Arts  Committee  of  the  Corporation  of  Liver- 
pool, held  at  the  Reference  Library,  when  a  remarkable 
series  of  old  local  play-bills  was  exhibited. 


Report,  &c.  235 

No  discoveries  of  archaeological  interest  have  been  reported 
during  the  past  year. 

Volume  72  of  the  Society's  Transactions  is  now  in  the 
hands  of  the  members,  and  though  somewhat  less  in  size 
than  recent  numbers  it  contains  several  papers  of  con- 
siderable local  interest.  It  is  hoped  that  the  next  volume  of 
the  Transactions  will  be  of  more  normal  size. 

The  first  summer  meeting  of  the  Session  took  place  on 
25th  June,  when  the  members  visited  Leasowe  Castle, 
Bidston  Church,  and  Bidston  Hall.  At  Leasowe  Castle, 
a  former  home  of  the  Earls  of  Derby,  the  date  stone  1593, 
with  the  Three  Legs  of  Man,  carved  over  a  doorway  in  the 
tower,  and  the  oak  said  to  be  from  the  Star  Chamber,  West- 
minster, with  the  heraldic  badges  of  Henry  VII.,  and 
Henry  VIII.  aroused  much  interest.  Afterwards  the 
members  visited  Bidston  Church,  where  the  Vicar  (the  Rev. 
T.  M.  Standring,  M.A.)  kindly  showed  them  the  Church, 
the  registers,  and  Churchwardens'  books.  A  visit  was  also 
paid  to  Bidston  Hall,  which  was  erected  by  the  6th  Earl 
of  Derby  about  1620,  and  was  for  some  time  one  of  the 
Stanleys'  residences. 

The  second  summer  meeting  took  place  on  23rd  July, 
when  the  members  went  from  Liverpool  by  motor,  via 
Warrington,  Stretton,  Great  Budworth,  and  Holmes  Chapel, 
to  Moreton  Old  Hall,  the  finest  example  of  black  and  white 
work  in  Cheshire.  Next  a  visit  was  paid  to  Astbury  Church, 
which  is  a  splendid  example  of  perpendicular  architecture. 
After  visiting  Congleton,  the  quaint  half-timbered  building 
of  Marton  Church,  with  its  squat  tower,  was  viewed,  and  a 
visit  was  paid  to  the  black  and  white  church  at  Siddington, 
part  of  which  belongs  to  the  Tudor  period.  The  return 
journey  was  made  via  Redesmere,  Capesthorne  Hall,  Monks 
Heath,  Knutsford,  and  Warrington  to  Liverpool. 

The  Society  wishes  to  return  thanks  to  the  Editors  of  the 
following  papers  for  their  kindness  in  inserting  notices  of 
the  various  meetings  held  by  the  Society  : — Birkenhead 
and  Cheshire  Advertiser,  Birkenhead  News,  Chester  Courant, 


236  Report,  &c. 

Cheshire    Observer,   Liverpool  Courier  and  Liverpool   Daily 
Post. 


LIST  OF  NEW  MEMBERS  ELECTED,   1921. 

MEMBER.  PROPOSER. 

Edwin  Haigh,  C.C.  Hon.  Secretary. 

F.  E.  Priestley.  Hon.  Secretary. 

Francis  Caldwell,  J.  P.  Rylands. 

C.B.E.,  M.V.O. 

E.  H.  Rideout,  B.Sc.  E.  Cuthbert  Woods. 

F.  P.  Dodgson.  F.  L.  Cheers. 

Geo.  R.  Norris.  S.  Saxon  Barton,  Junior. 

A.  C.  Livesey,  A.M.I.E.E.         Jno.  Livesey. 

A.  E.  Watson,  L.D.S.  F.  W.  Bailey. 

Thos.  White.  G.  T.  Shaw. 

R.  Wardman.  R.  Stewart-Brown. 

G.  K.  Bell.  F.  C.  Beazley. 
D.  L.  Pilling.  F.  C.  Beazley. 
Rev.  Fredk.  Blundell,  C.  R.  Hand. 

O.S.B.,  F.S.A.  Scot. 
Geo.  W.  Crowden.  R.  Hyde  Linaker. 


PAPERS   READ,    1921. 

Jan.    20    Lantern  Evening. 

(Arranged  by  the  Photographic  Committee). 

Feb.     10     "  Early    Coaching    in    Liverpool."     By    A.    H. 
ARKLE,  O.B.E.     (Second  Part). 

„       24     "  Mediaeval  Carvings  illustrating  every-day  life 

in  England."     By  F.   H.  CROSSLEY,  F.S.A 

Mar.     10     "  The  Carvings  of  Mediaeval  Musical  Instruments 

at    Manchester    Cathedral."     By    The    Rev. 

HENRY   A.   HUDSON,   M.A.,   F.S.A. 

„  24  "  The  Palimpsest  of  Liverpool  :  Part  I.  Intro- 
duction, Rivers,  Brooks  and  Watersheds." 
By  F.  C.  LARKIN,  F.R.C.S. 


Report,  &c.  237 

Apl.       7     "  The  Corporate  Seal  of  Liverpool."     By  ROBERT 
GLADSTONE,    B.C.L.,    M.A. 

"  An  English  Alabaster  Statuette  of  the 
Blessed  Virgin,  of  the  14th  Century."  By 
PHILIP  NELSON,  M.D.,  F.S.A. 

Oct.     28    "  Old  Liverpool  Play-bills."     By  G.   T.   SHAW. 

Nov.  10  "  Isaac  Greene,  a  Lancashire  Lawyer  of  the 
18th  Century."  By  R.  STEWART-BROWN, 
M.A.,  F.S.A. 

„      24     "  An  English  Mediaeval  Alabaster  Panel  of  St. 
Erasmus."     By  PHILIP  NELSON,  M.D.,  F.S.A. 
"  Some    Old    Local    Windmills."         By 
C.  R.  HAND. 

Dec.  8  "  The  Vanished  Screens  of  the  Nave  and  the 
Quin  Parcloses  in  Manchester  Cathedral." 
By  the  Rev.  HENRY  A.  HUDSON,  M.A.,  F.S.A. 


238  Report,  &c. 


REPORT  OF  THE  HON.   LIBRARIAN 
FOR  THE  YEAR   1921. 

During  the  past  session  the  library  of  the  Society  has 
been  used  extensively  by  members  at  the  Society's  meetings. 
51  volumes  have  been  issued,  and  68  volumes  and  parts 
have  been  added.  No  binding  has  been  done  since  1914, 
and  it  is  very  important  that  binding  be  re-commenced. 

The  thanks  of  the  Society  are  tendered  to  the  following 
for  their  very  kind  donations  of  books  to  the  library  : 

F.   C.   Beazley,   Esq.,   F.S.A.,   Vice- President — 

Proceedings   of  the   Society   of  Antiquaries,   London, 

vol.  xxxii. 

Archcelogia,  vol.  Ixx. 

The  Antiquaries'  Journal,  parts  i,  ii,  iii,  iv,  for  1921. 
F.   C.   Larkin,   Esq.,   F.R.C.S.   Eng.,  Vice-President — 
The  Cheshire  Sheaf,  3rd  series,  vol.  xiv.,  Jan.-Dec., 
1917. 

F.  H.   Crossley,   Esq.,   F.S.A.— 

History  of  St.  Peter's  Church,  Chester,  by  F.  Simpson. 

G.  T.  Shaw,  Esq. — 

The  Chester  Archceological  Journal,  vol.  xiii.,  N.S., 
1902. 

J.  J.  Lewis,  Esq. — 

Catalogue    of   English    Historical     Embroideries     in 
Victoria  and  Albert  Museum. 

The  Hon.  Librarian — 

Lancashire,  by  F.   H.  Cheetham,   F.S.A. 


REGINALD  THRELFALL  BAILEY, 
Hon.  Librarian. 


19th  January,  1922. 


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INDEX 


Names  and  Places  mentioned  more  than  once  on  a  page  are  indexed 
only  once. 


Place-names  are  printed  in  italics. 


-,  17 


ABRAM, 

"  Abstracts  of  Deeds  relating  to  the 

sale  of  pews  in  St.   Nicholas's 

Church,  Liverpool . ' '     By  Henry 

Peet,   M.A.,   F.S.A..  215 
Adam,  "  loriner  "  of  Wigan,   160 
Addingham,  near  Penrith,  52 
Adlington,  co.  Chester,   153 

co.  Lane.,   172,   186 

Adlington,  Thomas,  9 
.dEthelfrith  of  Northumbria,  49 
Ainsworth,  John,   187 
Alabasters,   149 — 152 
Alan,  fuller  of  Wigan,  159 
Aldcliffe  (Auclyff),  nr.  Lancaster, 

193 
"  Almoricson."     See  Crosse,  John, 

161 

Alneto,  De.     See  Dawney 
Alnwick,  32 

Alsop,  J.  W.,  B.A.,  234 
Alt,  river,  95 
Althorp,   129 
"  Amoryson."     See  Crosse,  John, 

160 

Amounderness,  203 
Amsterdam,   133 
"  Ancient  Clothing,"  59 

Anderson, ,   19,  22 

Anderton,       James,       179,       180 

(Cleaton) 

Andleser,  Richard,   177 
Angers,  Ulger,  bishop  of,  76 
Annan,  29 
Antrobus,    Katherine,  219,  220 

-  Thomas,  219,  220 
Anyon,    Benjamin,  216,  217,  218 
Appleton,  co.  Chester,   198 
Aquileia,  8 


Arkle,     A.    H.,    O.B.E.,    "Early 

Liverpool  Coaching,"   1 
Ashawe,    Alice,   176 

Lawrence,   176 

Margaret,   176 

Roger,   176 

Thomas,   177 

Ashbourne,   18 

Ashhurst,  nr.  Wigan,  210 

Ashhurst,  Anne,  210 

Henry,  210 

Ashton  (near  Lancaster),  212 
Aspinall,  William,  230 
Assheton,    Alice,   176 

Ralph,   176,   177 

Astley,  co.  Lane.,  204 
Atherton,   194 

Atherton  (Adderton),  Anne,   194, 
199,  204 

Frances,   187 

George,  194,  204 

John,   187,   188 

Aughton  (near  Ormskirk),   12,  29, 

153,   181,  230 

Axminster  (Exmaster),   1,  2 
Aylesbury,  28 
Aymary,  Richard,   160 

"  BACHUL  "  of  Moloc,  80 
Bagganley  Hall,  Chorley,   186 
Bagpipes,   102,   108,   109 
Baguley,  Edward,  229 
Bailey,  Thomas,  222 
Bainbridge  (Bainbrigge),  Edward, 

227 
Ball,  Humphrey,   171 

-  Jane,  221,  222 

-  Letitia,   171 
Bamber,   John,   181 


241 


242 


Index 


Banastre    (Banister),    Alexander, 
172 

Alice,   182 

Henry,    159,    170,    172,    181, 

198,   199,  202 

Isabel,   193« 

-  Joan,   170,   172,  173 

Juliana,   181 

Margaret,   193,195-200,203, 

204,  207,  209 

Matilda   (or  Maud).   159 

Nicholas,  172 

-  Richard,   170 

Robert,   154 

Roger,   199 

Thomas,   172 

Wilfrid.     193,     193w,     196, 

206-209 

William,  193,  195,  197-199, 


207 
Banbury,  27 
Bangor-is-y-Coed,  49 
Bankhall,  Kirkdale,   177 
Bank,  in  Croston,  co.  Lane.,  170, 

181 
Banks,  John,   179,   182 

Banner  ,   17 

Barber   (Barbor),   Charles,  38 

Richard,   168 

Barbon,  Westml'd.,  225 
Barker,  Edward,  202 

Elizabeth,  213 

Samuel,  213 

Barlow,    George,    229 
Barnett,    Nehemiah,    213,    214 
Barton,  Elizabeth,  218,  219 

James,  216 

Richard,  218,  219 

Bates, ,17 

Bath,  6,  14,  15,  18,  20-22,  31,  32 

Bathe,   Robert,  230 

Bawtry,   1,  2 

Bayeux,  Odo,  bishop  of,  79 

tapestry,  52,  91 

Bayliffe,  Edward,  227 

—  Richard,  227 
Beards,  57,  58 
Beazley,    F.   C.,   F.S.A.     See 

Stewart-Brown,  R. 
Bebington,  Lower,  1 1 
Becket's  chasuble,  62,  63  ;  mitre, 

76 

Beconsall,    Robert,     128-9 
Belgians,   Leopold,   King  of  the, 

135 

Bennet,    John,    231 
-  Philip,  231 


Bennet,  William,  231 
Bernshall,   Richard,   188 
Berwick,  3,  32 
Betchton  (Becheton),  Alice  de,  128 

-  Anilia  de,   128 

-  Ellen  de,   128 

-  William  de,   128 
Beverley,  Minster,   110,   116,     118 
Bewsey,   194 

Bicker  staff e,   177 

Bidston,   130 

Biggar,  30 

Biggins  (Lonsdale),  227 

-  Park,  225 
Bird,  Henry,   146 

Birkacre  (near  Chorley)  Mills,  228 
Birkenhead,   1 1 

Pool,   11 

-  Priory,   127 

Birmingham,  6,  15,  18-23, 28,  31-2 
"  Saracen's  Head,"  27 

Blackburn,  29-31,   187 

Black  Rock,  Liscard,   136-7 

"  Blacks   and   Mouldmeats,"    179 

Blackstock,  Edward,  37 

Blandford,   1,  2 

Blenheim,   141 

Blois,   Bishop   Henry  of,   77 

Bloodworth,  Elizabeth,   176 

George,   176 

Blundell,  Brian,  216,  224 

-  Henry,  229 

John,  229 

Katherine,  229 

Robert,   180,  229 

T.W.,  234 

William,  216 

of  Little  Crosby,  family,  229 

Bold,  Peter,  215 

Bolland  (Bowland),  203 
Bologna,   122 
Bolton,  20,  30 
Bolton,  William,   163 
Bolton  Holmes,  212 
Bolton  (le-Moors),  20,  30,   186 
Bolton-le-Sands,   192,   195,  209 
Boode,  Lewis  W.,   133,   135 

Margaret,   133-4 

Mary  Anne,   134-5 

Miss,   138 

Booth,  springs,  36 

Bootle   (Botehyll.   Botyll),   Agnes 
(Alice,    Annis   or   Avis),   162 

-  Hugh,   165-6 

Bordeaux,   church  of  St.   Seurin, 

152 
Boscherville,   124 


Index 


243 


Brachley,  Northants.,  229 
Bradford,   19,  30 
Bradshaw,  Thomas,  202 
Brannigan,   Lawrence,  221 
Branthwait,  Alexander,  202 
Brassey,   J.,   11 
Breac  Moedog,  90-1 
Breadsall,  Derby,   151 
Breres  (Brears,   Briers),  Blanche, 
170,   174-5 

Roger,   170,   182 

Br essay  (Shetlands),  77w.  80w 
Br  ether  ton,   183 
Bretherton,    -  — ,    22, 
Bartholomew,  20,  26-7,  32 

Daniel,  27 

Francis,  26-7,  31 

Joseph,  27 

Peter    20,  26,  29,  30 

Thomas,  27 

family,  20-1 

Bridge  House,  30 
Bridges,  Elizabeth,  217n 

See  Briggs 

Bridgewater,  Duke  of,  6 
Bridlington,  30 

Bridport,  (Barput,  Burput),  1,  2 
Briggs,  Elizabeth,  216 

Grace,  216,  217 

Henry,  D.D.,  216,  217 

Joseph,  216,  218 

William,  217 

See  Bridges 

Brighton,   16 

-  font,  58,  67,  76,  78,  96 
Brindle,  231 
Brindley,  James,  6 
Bristol,  3,  15,  18,  20-3,  31-2,  11  In 
Brittany,  149 
Brittany,   Joan,  duchess    of,    149 

-  John,  duke  of,   149 
Brixworth,  church,  91 
Brodlands,  Lines.,   156« 
Bromborough  Pool,   10 

village,   11 

Broster,  Richard,   181 
Broughton   (near  Preston),  192, 

195,  201 
Browne,  James,   185 

-  John,   175 
Laurence,   178 

Brownell,  John,  220-1 
Brownlow,  Bridget,   177 

-  John  Cust,  earl,   134 

-  Laurence,   177-9 
- — -  Lord,   134,   142 
Buckingham,  28 


-,  7 


Budworth, 
Bulk,  mill,  210 
Bulloke,   John,   168 
Burgh  St.  Peter,   165 
Burgon,  Thomas,   198 
Burnett,  Archibald,  35 
Burnley,  31 

Burroughs,   Edward,  231 
Burscough,   12,   17,  28-9 
Burton  in  Lonsdale,  29 
Burton,  in  Wirral,   159 
Burton-on-Trent,  97 
Bury,  20,  30-1 

Butler,  Anne,  194,  199-201,  203-5 
Sir    Thomas,    194,    199-206 


Butterworth,  E.  H.  W.,  234 

Buxton,  31 

Byrom,  Henry,   178 

Cadillac-sur-Garonne,   152 
Calcott,   Joan,   162 
Richard,    162 


Caldwell,   Ralph  de,  231 

Galley,  Thomas,  218 

Callow,  Thomas,  220 

Cambridge,  Christ's  Coll.,  231 

Canterbury,  58 

Canterbury,  Cuthbert,  abp.  of,  94 

St.  Thomas  of,  62,  63,   76, 

79,  80 

Theodore  of  Tarsus,  abp.  of, 


97 

Cantsfield  (Cansfeld),  John,  191 
Capel  Curig,  "  Lord  Penrhyn  New 

Inn,"  25 
Capel  Garmon,  91 

Capstick,  ,   17 

Car  left.     See  Eastham 

Carlips,  35 

Carlisle,   17,  20,  22,  29-32 

Cartmel,   191,  231 

"  Carvings   of   Mediaeval   Musical 

Instruments   in   Manchester 

Cathedral."        By   Rev.   H.   A. 

Hudson,   M.A.,   F.S.A.,    100 
Caster  ton,  Westml'd.,  225 
Castile,    107 
Caton,    195 

Cave,  Sir  Ambrose,  208,  209 
Cayton,   Sir  William,  201 
Chad  croft,   Kirkby,  45 
Chad,  St.,  44,  67,  84-87,  96,  97 

229 

—  his  shrine,  92 
Chadwick,   James,  5,   228 

-  John,  228 
Thomas,  228 


244 


Index 


Chalk  Hill,  21 
Chambers,  R.,  24 
Chandler,  Alderman,   14 
Chapels,  of  ease,  45 
Charlinch  (near  Bridgewater),  156 
Charteris,  Christopher,  2 
Chasuble,  60-68,  95,  96 
Cheeseman,  Edward,   171 

Eleanor,   171 

Cheltenham,  32 

"  Cheshire  Men  in  the  Scottish 
Expedition  of  1544,"  232 

Chester  ( Westchester) ,  2,  3,  10. 
11,  18,  21,  23-25,  31,  32,  49, 
127,  162,  171,  189,  204,  221-2, 
224,  232-3 

chamberlain  of,  232 

inns — "  Golden         Talbot," 

10  ;      "  Pied  Bull,"  Northgate 
Street,  11 

Chester,  Bishop  of,  213 

Edmund,  bishop  of,  220 

John,   bishop  of,   215,   217, 

218 

Samuel,  bishop  of,  216 

Chester  Hall,  29 
Chickester,  3 

cathedral,  75 

Childwall,  25,  26 

Norreys  Chapel,  169 

Chippindall,  W.  H.  :    "  The  Lost 

Manor  of  Thirnby,"  225 
Chippingdale  (Chippindale),      195 
Chirk,  23,  25 
Chorley,  Alice,   178,   179 

Bridget,   182 

Richard,   179,   182 

William,   178 

Chorley,  2,  31,  153,  169-172,  175- 
186,  228,  232 

Bagganley  Hall,   186 

Crosse  Hall,   176,   177,     184 

Chowbent  (Cholbent),   194,   199 
Christian,  Catherine,  220,  223 

John,  220,  223 

-  Margaret,  224 

Nicholas,  220 

Christian  Priestly  Dress,  74 
Clarence  Fields,  29 

Claughton, ,   194 

Clavicymbal,   102,   113 
Clayton-le-Woods    (Cleaton,    Clay- 
ton),  179,   180 

Clayton  (Cleyton),  Anne,   186 

-  J.  Prior,  218 

-  Thomas,   186 
Cleveland,  John,  228 


Clinton,  Roger  de,  98 
Clonmacnoise  crosier,  80 
Clough,   James,  203 
Coaching,   1 

Cobham,  ,  221 

Cockermouth,  31 
Coke,  Henry,   163 

Coleman, ,  27 

Collingwood,  George,  35 

Collom  Bridge.    See  Cowan  Bridge 

Colne,  31 

Colthurst,  Henry,   199 

-  Thomas,  203 
Colwich,  27 
Colyn,  Thomas,   149 
Con,  29 

Congleton,  28  ;"  Red  Bull  "  inn, 

27 

Conway,  Ferry,  25 
Conyngsby,  Master,   191 
Cooper,  Thomas,   19,  20 

.  ,   17 

Copeland    (Coupeland),    Alan   de, 

226 

Alice  de,  226 

-  Richard  de,  226 
Coppull,   172,   175,   179 
Corlett,  Ann,  224 

Catherine,  223,  224 

Margaret,  224 

Patrick,  223 

Cornwall,  2 
Cort,  Robt.,  46 
Cotton,  Samuel,   147 
Coventry,  2 
Coventry,  James,   147 

-  William,   146 

Cowan  Bridge     (Collom     Bridge), 

190,   192 

Crawford  (Crowford),  29,  30 
Crook  (Crouke),  John,   163 

Nicholas,  223 

Crosbie,  John,  6 
Crosby,  Great,  224 

Little.  229 

Crosiers,  80.  81 

Crosse  (Cross,  De    la    Croyz,    De 
Cruce),  Adam,   160 

-  Adam  del,   154,   157-9 

Agnes,   163 

-  Agnes  (Alice,   Annis   or 
Avis).   162 

Agnes  del,   159 

-  Alexander,   184 

-  Alice,   160,   164,   176-7 

-  Alison,   162 

-  Almoric  or  Aymory,  159,  160 


Index 


Crosse,  Ann,   177,   184-5 

-  A  vice,   166 

-  Blanche,   170,   175 
—  Bridgett,   177 

-  Christopher,   176 
Dorothy,   185 

Edmund,     161,     162,     169, 


170,  174-5,  177 
—  Eleanor,  177 
Elizabeth,  164, 


167,      169, 


176-8,   181,   183-5 

-  Ellen,   163 

—  Ellen  del,   159 

—  Emma  del,   158-9 

—  Frances,   181-3,   185 

—  George,   171.   184 

—  Gilbert  del,   159 

—  Henry,   160,   162 

—  Henry  del,   159 

—  Hugh  del,   158-160 

—  Humphrey,   167,   170,   174 

—  Imayne  del,   159 

—  Isobel,   160 

—  Isolda  del,   158 

—  James,   168,   170,   174-6 

—  Jane,   184 

—  Joan,   162,   170,   175,   185 

—  John,  154-5,  156w,  160-185 

-  John  atte,   159 

—  John  del,   158-9 

—  Juliana,   181-5 

—  Katherine,   160-1,   171.    174 

—  Katherine  del,   158 

—  Latimer,   156w 

—  Laurence,   169 

—  Letitia,   171 

-  Margaret.  161,  167.  169,  170, 
175-6 

—  Margery  del,   158-9 

—  Matilda  (or  Maud)  del,   159 

—  Mary,   167,   169,   177,   186 

—  Nicholas,   161 

—  Richard,     161-170,      176-8, 
180-5 

—  Richard  del.   157-160 

—  Robert,   170,   177,   179,   180, 
182-3 

—  Robert  del,   157-8 

—  Roger,   162,   170-1,  173-5 

—  Thomas,   156w,   176,   181-6 

—  Thurstan,   160-1 

—  Thurstan  del,   158 

-  William,  160,  162,  164,  169, 
170,   172-3,   175,   177-9,   181-3, 
229 

-  William  del,   185-9 

-  alias  Amoryson,   John,    160 


Crosse  family,   of  Charlinch  (near 
Bridgewater),   156 

, ,  of  Lathom   (near 

Ormskirk),   157-8 

-,    of    Shaw    Hill,   186w 


"  Crosse  Family  of  Wigan,  Chorley 
and  Liverpool."  By  R. 
Stewart-Brown,  M.A.  F.S.A., 
and  F.  C.  Beazley,  F.S.A.,  153 

Crosse  Hall,  Chorley,  161,  176-7, 
182-5 

Lanes..   156 

Liverpool.   170,   172,   175-7, 

184-5 

Crosses,  52 

Croston,  co.  Lane.,   181 

Crowland,  St.  Guthlac  of,  77 

Croxteth,  228 

Croyz,  de  la.     See  Crosse 

Cruce,  de.     See  Crosse 

Cuerden,   182,  231 

Cunscough  (in  Melling),   181 

Curates  of  Hale  Chapel,  229 

Curdworth,  co.  Warwick,  53,  61«, 

68  ;   font,  96 
Curwen,  Giles,   191 

—  Lady  Elizabeth,  227 
Cust,  Brownlow,   134 

-  Sir  Charles,   143 

-  Col.  Edward,   134-5 

-  Sir  Edward,  136,  138,  141-3 

John,   134 

-  Lady,   138 

-  Sir  Leopold,   135,   143 

Mary  Anne,   134-5 

motto,   136 

Dacre  Hill  (Bebington),   11 

Dalveen.  30 

Dannett,  Margaret,   133 

-  Rev.  Thomas,   133 
Darby,  Joan,   189 

Roger,   189 

Darcy,  Lord,   190 
Darlington   (Darneton),  2,  31 
Davenport,  Richard,   12 
Daventry,  28 

Dawney  (De  Alneto),  Isabel,  226 

— ,  Robert,  226 
Dean    (Deane,    Deyne),    Edward, 

220 

—  Geoffrey,   204-5 

-  John,    147 

Jonathan,   146—7 

-  Joshua,    146 

-  Thomas,   146-7 
Dee,  river,  25 


Index 


Deerhurst,  co.  Glouc.,  52 
Delves,  Sir  Richard,  204-6 
Deodand.  24 
Derby,   18,  31-2 

West.     See  West  Derby 

Derby,  Earl  of,  36 

-  Edward,  earl  of,   172 
Ferdinando,    earl    of,     127, 

129,   130 

Henry,  earl  of,   127,   129 

James,  earl  of,   132 

Thomas,  earl  of,   128 

William,  earl  of,   129-131 

Dicconson  (Dyconson),  John,  180 

—  Robert,  207,  209 
Dickins,  George,  232 
Ditchfield     (Dichefield),     Juliana, 
184 

-  Robert,    184 

William,   172 

Ditton,    172 
Dobson,   John,  36-7 
, .  39,  40 

Domvile  (Dounvill),   John,  231-2 
Doncaster,   1,  2,  222-3 
Doom  pictures,"  48 
Dorchester,  2 
Dorff,   John,   168 
Douglas,  I.O.M.,  224 
Dover,  3 
Dowse,   Richard,   174 

William,   173,   175 

Dress,   Priestly,  74 
Drummond,   Alexander,  35 
Dublin,  23,  90 

Duckworth, ,  22 

Dulcimer,   102,   119 
Dumfries,   17,  29-31 

Dummy     bookcase     in     Leasowe 

Castle,   138,   145-6 
Dunbar,  32 
Dunchurch,  28 
Dunstable,  21 
Durham,  2,  31 

-  cathedral,   151 

EARLE,  Thomas,  37 

Early  Liverpool  Coaching."    By 

A.   H.   Arkle,  O.B.E.,   1 
"  Early  Rectors  of  Woodchurch," 

231 

Easington   (Ksyngton),   199 
Easlham  (Estom  or  Carlett)  Ferry, 

10,   11 

East  Meon,  Hants.,  54 
Eaton,  co.  Chester,  155 
Eaves  Hall,  Chorley,  161 


Eccleston,   John,   179 

-  Ralph,   180 

Richard,   180 

-  Thomas,   167 
Eccleston,  Little.   Hall,   185 
Edinburgh,  2,  3,  15.  19,  22,  29-32, 

232 

Edmundson,   Benjamin,   185 
Edward  the  Confessor,  58 
Edwards,  Elizabeth,  224 

Robert,  224 

-  William,  222,  223 
Egerton,  Sir  John,   129 

—  of     Egerton     and     Oulton, 
family,   129w,   133 
Elfnoth,  abbot,  66 
Ellestnere,  25 
Ely,  cathedral,   118 
Erdeswick,  233 
"  Etna,"  steamer,   10,  26 
Eudoxia,  empress,  71 
Euxton,  co.  Lane.,   185 
Evans,  William,   147 
IQ    22 

Evered.  Elizabeth,  216,  217 

Evett.  ,  27 

Executions  at  Liverpool,  35 
Exeter,   1,  2,   15,   21-2,  31 
— ,  cathedral,   103«,   105 
Exmaster.     See  Axminster 
Eyam,  co.   Derby,   52 
Eydon,  Northants.,  229 
Eyes,  Charles,  40 
Eyvis,  Thomas,   163 

FACETIOUS  Book  Titles  at  Leasowe 

Castle,   145-6 
Fairhurst,  Oliver,   180 
Faithwaite  (Fayrthwayte)     Park, 

co.   Lane.,   190 
Fall  Well,  Liverpool,  39 
Falmouth,   107 

Farrington, .   222, 

,  Thomas,  213, 

William,  36w 

Farringlon's  Mill,  37,  39,  40 
Farnworth,  229 

Farn worth,  Dorothy,   185 

Edward,   185 

Fazakerley,   165-6,   169,   170,   179 
Fazakerley,   Roger,   165 
Ferrybridge,   1,  2 

Ferryhill,'  2 

Ferry  House  (Tranmere),  24 

Fetiplace      (Feteplace),   Edmund, 

174-5 
Fielden,  Henry,   188 


Index 


247 


Fithele,   102,   123 

Fitton  (Fytton),  Sir  Edward,  200, 

203 

Fitz-James,   Richard,    115 
Fitzwilliam,  Sir  William,    196 
Flaw  ford,  Notts.,  church,   151-2 
Fleetwood,   John,   175 

Richard,    163 

Fletcher  (Fleccher,  Flecher),  John, 

163-6 

Robert,   180 

Flookborough  (Flokborowe),   195 
Flying  Waggons,   13 

Fogg,  Mary,  222-3 
Formby,  Ellis  de,  229 

Katherine  de,  229 

Fossor,  John,   151 

Fourteenth     century       English 
Alabaster      of      the       Blessed 
Virgin."        By    Philip    Nelson, 
M.D.,  F.S.A.,   149 
Fox,   Imayne,   159 

John,   159 

—  Thomas,   129;z 

Foxcroft,  Jane,  227 

John,  227 

France,  James,  7 

Joan,   185 

John,   185 

Friskney,  co.  Line.,   156« 
Frobisher   (Frobiser),    Francis, 

200,  203 

Gallows    Mill    (Liverpool),    33-5, 

37-40 
Gamon,  Henry,  217,  218 

Gardiner,  ,   194 

Garner,  Arthur,  213 
Garstang,  2,  29,  184 
Garston,  George,  170 

Margaret,    170,    174-5 

Gastrell,  Peregrine,  216 
Gerard,   Agnes,    162 

— —  Humphrey,    162 

James,  231 

— —  Joseph,  37 

Germanus   (St.)   of  Auxerre,  9! 
Ghost  Room  in  Leasowe  Castle 
138-140 

Gibbin, ,  27 

Gibson,   Mary,  220 
Gillibrand    (Gelebrand,     Gyli- 
brounde),   Edmund,    169 

-  George,   202,   204-6 

-  Margaret,    169 

-  Richard,    169 
Gillingham,   Kent,   51 


Gisbum,  29 
Glasgow,  22-3,  29-32 
Gloucester,   15,  31 
Gobnet's  Stone,  St.,  80n 
Golborne,  par.  Winwick,   172,  175 
Gold  well,  George,   173 
Golightly,   Richard,  221 

-  Thomas,  221 
Goosnargh,   182 

-  Barnsfold,   188 

Gorden,  ,   146 

Gore,  John,  40 
Goring  Priory,   173 
Gosforth,  cross,  54 
Gothard,  — — ,  27 

Grange  Lane,   Birkenhead,   1 1 
Grantham,  2,   135, 

Gray,  ,  35,  46 

Gray's  Inn,  210 
Grazier  (?),  30 
Greenwich,  East,   178 
Gressingham,  214 
Griffin,   John,  231-2 
Griffith,  George,  216 
Guychard,   John,   149,   150 
Gwynedd,  Owen,    154 

H adding ton,  32 
Hadley,  Middx.,   171 
Haggerston,  Northumb.,   182 
Haggerston,  Alice,   182 

-  Thomas,   182 
Haghton,  Evan,   165 
Halberstadt,     Burchard,     bishop 

of,  74 
Hale,  25-6 

chapel,  229 


Halghton,   195 
Halifax,  2,   19,  30,  32 
Hall,  Alan  del,   127 'n 
Mary  del,   127« 

-  Robert  del,   127w 

— ,  ,  229 

Hallowes,  ,    179 

Halsall,  Anthony,  224 
Halton,  Ches.,  Honor,    128 
Hambleton  Chapel,   231 
Hamilton,  30 

Hampetonne.     See    Southampton 
Hand,  Charles  R.  :    "  Three  Local 

Windmills,"  33 
Hardham,  Sussex,  54 

-  church,  82 
Hardys,   Humphrey,    169 
Harebrowne,  Thomas,    163 

-  William,   163 
Hargreaves,   John,  234 


248 


Index 


Harold,  58 
Harp,   102,   117 
Harper,  Jane.  220 

-  Richard,  220 
Harrington,  Toxteth,  41 
Harrington  (Haverington),  David 

de,  226 
-  Henry  de,  226 

-  John,   179,   180.   182,  228 

-  Robert.   182 

-  Sara  de,  226 
Harrington   Estate   in   Liverpool, 

228 
Harris,  M.,   19 

-  .  -  ,  17 
Harrison,  Robert,   133 

-  William,  227 
Harrogate,  30 
Harvey,  John,   146 
Haster,  John,   174n 
Hatlex  (Haklackes).    195 
Hayward,  L.,  41 

Healey,  161.  175-6,  179,   182 
Heath  Charnock,   172,   175,   185 

-  Hall  of  the  Hill.  176-7 
Helperby,  2 

Henley  -on-Thames,   192,   196 
Henshaw,  W.,   18 
Hereford.   15,  31 
Hermit  of  Crowland.  77 
Hesketh,  29 
Hewitt,  --  ,  28 
Hey  sham  (Hyesham),  52,  195 
Higginson,  Jonathan,  9 


Higkfield,  Lancaster,  212 
Hill,  John,   146 

-  Thomas,   146 
Hillard,  PhcEbe.  146 
-  ,  --  ,   147 
Hindley,  The  Lowe,   177-8 
Hinnington.     See  Honiton 
Hockliffe,  21 

Hodgson    (Hoggeson),    John,    174 
-  Roger,   174 
Holcroft  (Houlcroft),  Alice,   228 

-  Ellen,  228 

-  John,  200,  203 

-  William,  228 
Holden,  Lawrence,   188 
Holewell.  Thomas.   149 
Holme,  John,   187 

-  Thomas,   187-8 

Holme   House,    Whittington,    227 
Holt,  co.  Norfolk,  216 
Holyhead,  3,  14,  15,  23-5,  32 
Holy  well,   Henry,    174 


Honiton  (Hinnington),    1,  2 

Hoole,  29 

Hoole  (Houle),  Henry,   179 

Hornby.   189 

Horndon,  West,  Essex,   173 

Hose  (Hoes)   Side,   Wallasey.    146 

Hough ,   147 


John  del,   147,   160 
Katherine  del,   160-1 
Thomas  del,   160-1 


Houghton,  William  de,   161 

Houston, ,  36 

Howgill,  Francis,  231 

Hoyle,   J.,   18 

Hucks,  29 

Huddersfield,  30 

Hudson,  Rev.  H.A..  M.A.,  F.S.A. : 
"  Carvings  of  Mediaeval  Musical 
Instruments  in  Manchester 
Cathedral,"  100 

-  John,  226-7 
Hull.   18,  22,  30 
Hulse,  Joseph,  9 
Hunter,  James,   181 

-  John,  35 

Huntroyde,  Padiham,   189 
Hurdy-gurdy,   102.   124 
Hutt  (Hale),  co.  Lane.,   178 
Hutton,  Nether.   195 
Hutton,  Thomas,  223 
Huyton,   182-3 

Huyton  Hey,   179,   182 

INCE,  Emma  de,   159 
—  Thomas  de,   159 
Ireland,   14 
Ireland,  Ann,   177-8 
George,   178,  229 

-  Sir  Gilbert,   179,  229 

Laurence,   167.   177 

Irish,  Matthew,  24 
Irish  Bagpipe.   102,   108 
Ivo  of  Chartres.  73 
Ivory  Mace,   136 

JACKSON,  Richard,   146 
Jacobites  executed   at  Liverpool, 

35,  39 
James,   Isabel,  219 

Nicholas,   179 

Janion,  John,  229 

"  Jerusalem  rents,"  231 
Jewish  Priestly  Dress,  74 
Johnson,  Thomas,  218,  220 

-  Sir  Thomas,  218 
Jones,  Samuel,  36w 

Juvene  (Young),  Richard  le,    158 


Index 


249 


KEIGHLEY,  Henry,  172 
Kellett,   John,  213 
Kendal,  2,  17,  20-1,  29,  31 

"  White  Lion  "  inn,   12 

Kent,  Duchess  of,   135 

George,  earl  of,   155-6 

Kenwrick,  Edward,  229 
Kenyon,  Adam  de,   160-1 

Joshua,   147 

•  Katherine  de,   160 

Matthew  de,   160 

"  Kersey  prooffe,"   179 
Keswick,  31 

Key,  ,  27 

Keys,  forms  of,  70 
Kilmarnock,  31 

King's  Mill  at  West  Derby,  42 
Kirkburn,  font,  82« 
Kirkby,  Colonel,   184 

John  de,  226 

"  Kirkby  Font."  By  F.  Charles 
Larkin,  F.R.C.S.,  44.  See  also 
229 

Kirkby,  in  Wallasey  (Walley), 
127  n,  128-9 

Kirkby  (in  Walton),  44-99 

Kirkby  Lonsdale,  225-7 

Kirkby  Walley,  Alice  de,   128 

John  de,   128 

Robert  de,   128 

Kirkdale,   179 
Kirkham,   185 

Kitchen  (Kechyn),   John,  200 
Knight's  Grange,  nr.  Over232 
Knipe,  Tobias,  213,  214 

William,  214 

Knocktorum,   178-9 
Knutsford,   18,  28 

Kuerden  (Keurden),  Dr.  Richard, 
231 

LAKE,  William,   165 

Lambeth  Palace,  81 

Lanark,  29 

Lancaster,  2,  18,  20,  22,  29,  31-2, 

191-2,   195,   197,   199-203,  209, 

211 
—  Castle  Hill,  210 

Cheney  Lane,  210 

-  Church  Street,    189 

Free  School,  211,  212 

inns — "  King's  Arms,"   12  ; 

"  New,"   17 

mayor,   190-1,   193,  200 

New  Hall,   189,  200,  202-7, 


209,  210 
—  New  Street,   189 


Lancaster,  St.  Mary's  Street,   189 

school,  211,  212 

Vicarage  in  Civil  War  period, 

212-214 

Lancaster,   Richard,   172*33 
"  Lancaster  Jottings,"  189 
Langford,  Hugh,  217,  218 
Langton  (Longton),  Ann,   177-8 

Jane,  177 

Philip,  178 

Robert,  177-8 

Thomas,   172 

Sir  Thomas,  202,  204-6,  208- 

Larkhill  Lane,  West  Derby,  43 

mill,  43 

Larkin,  F.  Charles,  F.R.C.S.  : 
"  The  Kirkby  Font,"  44 

Lastingham,  67 

Lathom  (near  Ormskirk),  128, 
153-4,  157-8,  169 

Lathom,  John,  228 

Robert,  229 

Thomas,  229 

Latimer  (Lattymer),  Edith    156 

Sir  Nicholas,   156 

Robert,   156w,   175 

Lavendon,  Bucks.,  abbey,   168 
Lawson,   John,  221 

"  Leasowe  Castle  ;  its  owners  and 
history."  By  E.'  Cuthbert 
Woods,  L.D.S.,  127 

Ledsham,  co.  Chester,   176 

"  Ledrybuskynnus  '  (Leather 
buskins),  163 

Leeds,  2,  15,  18,  19,  21-2,  24,  30 

Leek,  Staffs.,  18,  52 

Leet,   Simon,   12 

Legh,  family,   153 

of  Adlington,  family,    I86n 

Leicester,   18,  32 

Leicester,  Robert,  earl  of,  232 
Leigh,  George,   197 
Leith  (Lyethe),  232 
Lever,  Great,   176-7 

Lewis,  ,   17 

Leyburn  (Layborne),    Sir   James, 

197-8 
Leyland   (Laylond),   Sir  William, 

196,  202,  204w,  205-7 
Leyland,   185 
Leylandshire ,    172 
Lichfield,  2,  1,  8,  28 

cathedral,  97 

—  Hedda,  bishop  of,  Tin 
-  St.  Chad's  Well,  97 

Lightwood,  William,   163,   165-6 

Lillyman,  W.  C.,  28 


250 


Index 


Limerick,  76 

Limoger,  91 

Lincoln,  Geoffrey,  bishop  of,   79 

Lindsay,  William  de,  226 

Linley,  ,  22 

Liscard,   128,  146,   148 
Litherland,  Henry,   128 

John,   128« 

William,  219 

Liverpool,  1-43,  69,  133,  153.  160- 
2,  165-7,  169,  171-4,  178-9, 
181,  183-7,  189,  216,  218-224, 
228 

Bluecoat  Hospital,     39 

Chantry   of   St.    Katherine, 

164,   166-7,   171 

Chapel  of  St.  Mary  del  Quay 

(Key),   154,   163-4 

Charity  School,  224 

churches — St.    George,    39  ; 

St.  Nicholas,  154-5.  162-4,  168, 
171.    177,    179.    181,    215  ;    St. 
Peter,  39 

cross,   163 

Crosse  Hall,  170.  172.  175-7, 

184-5 

exchange.  39 

executions  in    1715,   35,   39 

Fall   Well.  39 

Friendship     Coffee     House, 


12 


171 


Gallows    Mill.    33-5,    37-40 
Grammar  School   155,     164, 


Gregson's  Well,  35 

inns—"  Angel,"  18,  27,  182; 

"   Barley  mow,"  37  ;      "   Black 
Horse  and   Rainbow,"    12,    17, 
19  ;    "  Black  Bull,"  7,  10,  18 
"    Coach    and    Horses,"    22 
"  Cross  Keys,"  17,  18;  "  Crown,' 
19,  20,   26-7,  31   ;     "   Gallows 
Mill,"  34,  40  ;     "  George,"    9 
"  Golden   Fleece,"    7,    17  ; 
"  Golden  Lion,"  7.   16,   17,  26 
30,      37  ;         "  Grapes,"      25 
"  London     Tavern,"     17-19 
"  Nag's  Head,"  9  ;     "   Punch 
Bowl,"  7  ;    "  Saracen's  Head,' 
27,  32  ;    "  Talbot,"  6,  9,  17-19 
22.  27  ;    "  Wheat  Sheaf,"  20 

White     Horse,"     27,     31 
'    Woolpack,"    228 
—  mayors,    129,     155,     160-3, 

—176-7,  215,  217,  218 

Moss  Lake,  34-5 

museum,  69,  91 


Liverpool,  Norris's  Mill,  35 

plans,  40 

Pool,  33-4 

Our  Lady  House,   167 

post  office,  14 

rector,   133 

streets — Audley  Street,  39  ; 

Blandford  Street,  40  ;    Brown- 
low  Hill,  215  ;    Camden  Street, 
34  ;   Canning  Place,  14  ;   Castle 
Street,  28  ;   Dale  Street,  Sn,  10, 
14.  16-18,  20,  26-7,  30-32,  37, 
163    ;       Daulby    Street,    34    ; 
Falkner    Street,    41    ;       Finch 
Street,  40  ;    Gildart  Street,  34  ; 
Harrington  Street,  228  ;   High 
Street,    10,    12.    17,    19,    41    ; 
James  Street,  220  ;  John  Street, 
228  ;    John  Street  (North),  14  ; 
Kempston  Street,  40  ;    London 
Road,    33-4,    39,    40    ;       Lord 
Street,   16,   18,  22  ;  Low  Hill, 
37  ;    Mill  Street,  41-2  ;  Monu- 
ment  Place,    34    ;      Pembroke 
Place,  34  ;     Pool  Lane,  228  ; 
Princes  Street,   14  ;     Redcross 
Street,   19,  20,  26-7,  31,  228  ; 
Stafford    Street,    34,    39.    40    ; 
Strand   Street,    12   ;      Victoria 
Street,   14  ;     Warwick  Street, 
41-2  ;    Water  Street,  9,  18,  27  ; 
Whitechapel,  22,  38  ;    William 
Brown  Street,  5n  ;    Williamson 
Street,  25  ;  Workhouse  Lane,  9 

windmills,  33 


Liverpool,  Adam  de,   J58,   160 

John  de,   160 

Richard  de,   160 

William  de,   158,   160 

Livesey,  co.  Lane.,  187 
Livesey,  Anne,  210 

Edmund,  219 

Edward,  219 

Elizabeth,    218,    219 

John  :  "  Tockholes  Chapel," 


187 


Porter,  21  On 
Ralph,    187,  210 
Sarah,  218,  219 
Thomas,  218,  219 


Llanarmon,  91« 

Llaniestyn  (Anglesey),  church,  81 

Lloyd.  Englefield,  11 

Loftus,  Ann,  185 

-  William,   185 

Logic  Drummond's  3rd   Regt.  of 
Foot,  35 


Index 


251 


London,  164,  167-8,  175,  179,  180, 
193,  200,  202,  206 

Charterhouse,   189 

Churches  —  St.       Martin-le- 

Grand,  165  ;  St.  Mary-at-Hill, 
115;  St.  Nicholas-in-the- 
Shambles,  154-5,  165,  166 

Hill  Street,  Berkeley  Square, 

134 

Inns —  "  Axe,"     Alderman- 
bury,  9  ;   "  Bell,"  Wood  Street, 
8 ;        "  Blossoms,"      Laurence 
Lane,  18  ;    "  George,"  Holborn 
Bridge,  2  ;    "  George,"  without 
Aldersgate,         1  ;          "  Hart's 
Horns,"    West    Smithfield,    2  ; 
"  Saracen's  Head,"  Snow  Hill, 
28 

Jermyn  Street,  143 

St.    Katherine's,    near    the 

Tower,  206 

Scalding  house,  164,  168 

Whittington's  College,    168, 


170 
London,      Richard      Fitz-James, 

bishop  of,  115 

Long,  ,   15 

Longbakke,  Joan,  163 
Longmoor,  95 
Longworth,  Bella,  230 

Betty,  230 

Catherine,  230 

— —  James,  230 

Jane,   184,  230 

John,  230 

Margaret,  230 

Mary,  230 

Nancy,  230 

Ralph,   184-5 

Trifosia,  230 

of  Ormskirk,  family,  230 

Lorimer,  Ellis,  223 

"  Loriner,"   160 

"  Lost  Manor  of  Thirnby."      By 

W.  H.  Chippendall,  225 
Lostwithiel,   135 
Low  Hill,  Everton,  37 
Lowood  School,    190 
Lowther,  225 
Luffenham,  South,  213 
Lune  (Loyne),  river,  211,  225 
Lunt,  Richard,  179,  180 
Lupus  (St.)  of  Troyes,  91 
Lute,   102,    121 
Lydiate,  12,  27,  177 
Lydiate,  Thomas,  229 
Lyon,  John,  219 


Lyon,   Joseph,  223 
William.  223 


Lyons,  cathedral,  83n 

Macclesfield,   18 
Magrath,  James,  230 
Mainwaring  (Meynwaryng),  John, 
177 

Randle,  de,  231 

Man,  Isle  of,  223-4 

Manchester,  2,  9,   10,   14,   15,    18, 

19,  21-2,  31-2,  34,   179 

"  Bull's   Head  "    inn,    7 

cathedral,    100 


Manley,  John,  223 
Manxwell,  Sir  Rees,  204 
Maps,  dating  of,  41 
Marbury,  Richard,  197 

March,  ,  229 

Marlborough,  21 

Marney,    Sir    Henry,    Lord,    190, 

193 

Marshall,   Dr.  William,  212-214 
Marylebone,  church,  134 
Mary  port,  31 
Mason,  Peter,  151-2 
Massie,  Alexander,  232 
Mather's  Dam,  41-2 
Mellor,  co.  Lane,,  181-3 
"  Menistir,"  90 
Meoles,  John  de,  127 
Meols,  W.,  132 
Meols,  Great,  127 
Mermaids,  136-7 
Mersey,  river,  10,  25 
Metcalfe,  George,   195-6 

Susannah,  221,  223 

Mickleham,  Surrey,  173 
Middleton,  Westmorland,   225 

Cheney,  Northants.,  184 

Middlewich,  21 

Milan,  79 
Milford  Haven,  15 
Miller,  Alice,  132 
Minshull,  232 
Minshull,  Elinor,  233 

Gertrude,  233 

Richard,  233 

Thomas,  233 

William,  232-3 

Mitres,  73,  75 

Mockbeggar     Hall     and      Wharf, 

Wallasey,  132 

Moedoc,  St.,  his  reliquary,  71 
Moffat,  29 

Molaise,  St.,  of  Devenish,  91 
Molyneux,  Alexander,   180 


252 


Index 


Molyneux,   John,  146 

Lord,  231 

Sir  Richard,  179 

Thomas,   180 

,  ,  228 

Monk's  Heath   (Monkesheth),   co. 

Chester,  206 

Monks  of  Bangor-is-y-Coed,  49 
Monmouth,  Duke  of,   130 
Moon,  Ann,  219 
Moore  (More),  Alice,   177 

Sir  Cleave,  36 

John,  177 

Judith,  179 

Richard,  179 

Rev.  Thomas,  44 

William,   165,  178 

estates,  36 

Moor  Hall,  Aughton,   181 
Mordaunt,  Edith,   156 

John,  155, 169,  173-5 

Sir  John,  155-6,   165,  173-5 

John,  Lord,   155,    170,    175 

Morpeth,  32 

Morton,  Dr.  Charles,  221 
Moulsoe    (Mulsho),    Bucks.,    155, 

171,   173-4 

Mountain,  ,  28 

Mounteagle,  Lord,  189,  190,  192, 

203,  205 

Mulls,  George,  147 
Mural  painting,  54 

Murphy,  ,  38 

Musical  Instruments,  100 
Mythop,  210 

NAKER,   or   kettledrum,    104 
Nantes,  149 

Nantwich  (Namptwich),  2 
Naylor,  J.  A.,   188 

William,  223 

Nelson,  Philip,  M.D.,  F.S.A.  : 
"  A  Fourteenth  Century  English 
Alabaster  of  the  Blessed  Virgin" 
149 

Neston,  24-5 

Nevern,  co.  Pembroke,  52 

Neville  of  Raby,  John,  Lord,  151 

Newark,  2 

Newby,  ,  22 

Newcastle-on-Tyne,  2,  18,  19,  21, 
30-32,  232 

Newcastle,  Staffs.,   198 

New  Ferry,  11 

"  New  Hall  (Lancaster),  and  its 
Owners,"  189 

Newsham,  Edward,  37 


Newton,  co.  Chester,  195 
Newton,  Brian,  211 

-  Etheldreda,   195-200,     204, 
207-9 

Humphrey,  195-200,  203-4, 

206-9 

Richard,  201 

Noctorum.     See    Knoctorum 
Norreys,  Ah' son,   162 

Letitia,   171 

Richard,  171 

Thomas,  171 

William,  162 

Sir  William.  169 

Norris,  W.,   180 

Norris's  Mill,  Liverpool,  35 

Northallerton,  2 

Northampton,   18 

Northwich,  21 

Norwich,  15 

Nottingham,  15,  24,  32,  151-2 

St.  Mary's  Street,  151 

Ockhampton  (Ockinton),  2 

Oddie,  John,  222 

Ogham  Stone,  77«,  80n 

Ogilby,  John,  3 

Ogle,  John,   167 

Oldton,   John,  232 

Organistrum,   124 

Orleton,  font,  58 

Ormskirk,   12,  22,   159,  210,  218, 

230 
Osbaldeston,  Alexander,   187 

Osborne  (Orsbourn),  ,  28 

Oswestry,  25 
Otley,  29 
Otterspool,  42 
Otway,   John,  213 
Oulton,   129w,   133 
Overton  (Orton),  214 
Oxford,  6,  21-2,  31,  154,  165 

Brasenose  College,  168,  174, 


184 


Hart  Hall,   183 
Lincoln  College,   173 
Magdalen  College,   168 
St.  John's  College,  129 


Padua,  79 

Palmer,   John,   14,   15 

Parker,   Edward,   191 

James,   186 

Mary,   186 


Parkgate,   10 

Parr  (near  St.  Helens),  26 

Parsons,   John,   188 


Index 


253 


Parwich,  co.  Derby,  56w 

Pate,  Master,   168 

Patten,  Rev.  Robert,  35 

Patton,  Ralph  de,  226 

Paulinus,  St.,  229 

Pavia,  79 

Peacock,  ,  22 

Peel  (I.  of  Man),  91n 

Peet,  Henry,  M.A.,  F.S.A.  : 
"  Abstracts  of  Deeds  relating 
to  the  sale  of  pews  in  St. 
Nicholas's  Church,  Liverpool," 
215 

Pemberton,  Elizabeth,   164,      167 
-  family,   156 

Pengwern  (Shrewsbury),  97n 

Penington,  Henry,  223 

Penrith,   17,  20,  29,  31 

Penwortham,  12 

Peover  Hall,   133 

Peploe,  Samuel,  220 

Percy,  Eleanor,   110,   116 

Perry, ,  40-1,  43 

Perugia,  79 

Peters,   Ralph,   188,  228 

Pews  (Gallery)  in  St.  Nicholas's, 
Liverpool,  215 

Pickance,  William,  221 

Pickering  (Pykeryng),  Sir  Chris- 
topher, 191 

Fix,   181 

Plant, ,  27 

Plantagenet,  Henry,  99 

Pleasington,   187 

Plumbe,  Henry,   163 

Plymouth,  2,  3,  21-2 

Pola,  79 

Pont  Cysyllte,  25 

Poole,  John,   179 

Poppehowe,  Thomas,   149 

Portative  Organ,   102,   114 

Porter,  Anne,  210 
—  Henry,  209,  210,  213,     214 

Margaret,  210 

Porton   (?  Portorn),  Wilts.,    165-6 

Port  Patrick,  31 

Postlethwaite,  Robert,   147 

Pattern    (Portorn),  Wilts.,     165-6 

Poulett,  George,   198 

Poulton,   177 

Poulton,  Wirral,  127-8,  147 

St.  Luke's,  50 

Pownall,  co.  Chester,   195 
Powys,  Salop,  97w 
Praers,   Randle  de,  231-2 

Richard  de,  232 

Thomas  de,  231-2 


Praetorius,  Michael,   109 
Prescot,  4,  5,  6,  9,  12,  35-8,  40 

inns — "  Angel,"  9  ;  "  Bull," 

9  ;    "  Legs  of  Man,"  7,  9 
Lane,  39 


Preston,  2,  17,  19,  20,22,29,  31-2, 
34-5,  39,  171,  182-4,  186-7, 
192,  195-6,  205 

Battle  of,  35 

"  George  "  inn,  12 

Procter,  G.  W.,  220 
Psaltery,   102,   118 

QUAKERS,  231 

Quick  (Quike,  Quykk),  Eugene 
(Ewin),  173,  175 

RACING  on  the  Wallasey  Leasowes, 

130-1 
Radcliffe  (Ratcliffe),  Alice,  201 

Anne,   194 

John,   194« 

-  William,  232 
Radcliffe  Tower,   194n,   199 
Rainford  (Raynesford.Raynforth), 

Catherine,  217,  218 

Elizabeth,   146 

—  George,   165 

John.   146 

Peter,  217,  218 

Thomas.   165-7,   169 

family,   156 

Rainhill,   111 
Ramsey,  I.O.M.,  220 
Randies,   John,  9 
Ratisbon,  64 
Rawcliffe,   Upper,   184 

"  Rays,"  modes  of  representing, 

85 

Recorder,   102,   106 
Redburn,  28 
Reily,   Ann,   146 
Relics,  80,  90-1 
Reynolds,  ,  7 

Catherine,  217 

Hugh,  217 

—  William,  217,  218 
Rhuddlan,   154 
Ribble,  river,  8 
Richardson,  Elizabeth,   147 

-  Robert,   147 
Richmond,  Joseph,  224 

Robert,  220 

—  S.,   188 
Rideing,  Thomas,  222-3 
Rigley,  Lanes.,  200 
Rigniaden,  Thomas,  207,  209 


254 


Index 


Rimer,  Edward,  220 
Rimington,  Thomas,  205 
Ripon,   11  In 
Rivington,   162 

School,  231 

Roads,  Trunk,  of  Britain,  3 
Roberts,  W.,  24 
Robinson,  Daniel,   146-7 

John,   136 

Joshua,   147 

Thomas,   146 

Rochdale,   19,  20,  30 

glebe,  230 

Rochester,  Sir  Robert,  206-7 
Rock  House,  Rock  Ferry,  10 
Rogers,  Thomas,   146 

W.  T.,  234 

Rome,  79 

St.  Peter's  ad  Vincula,  71 

Rood  Screens,  49 

Rose,  William,  37 

,  ,  28 

Ruffin,  86 

Runcorn,  26 

"  Rupert's  drop,"  39 

Rushton,  co.  Chester,   155 

Rylands,  William,  233 

SADLER,  Sir  Ralph,  211 

St.  Albans,   171 

St.  Bees,  54 

St.  David's,  Pembroke,  92« 

St.  Helens,  5,  31 

St.     John  of  Jerusalem,   lands  of 

Hospital  of,  172,  231 
St.  Neot's,   165 

St.   Werburgh's,   Chester,   86,    128 
Salesbury,   193tt 
Salisbury,   1,  2 

cathedral,  65 

Samson,  Richard,   128 
Sandiford,  Thomas,  216,  217 
Sandbach,  21,  27 
Sanquhar,  31 

Santiago,   124 

Sark  Bridge,  29 

Savage,  Edmund,  232 

Scarborough,   18,  30 

Scalding  House,   164,   168 

Scarisbrick,   169 

Sclater,  William,   191 

Scotford,   195 

"  Scots'  tonsure,"  67 

Scottish  bagpipe,   102,   109 

Seacombe,   127-8,   147 

Seacombe   (Secum),    Robert,    216 

William,   177 


Sebastopol,   141 
Seed,  Nicholas,   147 
Sefton,   185 

-  church,   163 
Selby,  30 

Sellet  Mill,  227 

Sens,  62,  76-7 

Shap,  29,  31 

Shaving  of  the  clergy,  57-8 

Shaw,  Richard,  223 

-  Robert,  232 
Shaw  Hill,  Chorley,   153 
Shawm  or  Oboe,   102,   110 
Sheffield,  31 

Sherlock,  William,  229  (two) 

Shields,  30 

Shirburn     (Shireburne),     Sir 

Richard,  209 

Roger,  231 

Showley,  co.  Lanes.,   181-3 
Shrewsbury,    15,    21,   23-5,   31-2, 

97« 

St.  Mary's,  113 


Sicily,  Roger,  count  of,  74 
Simkinson,  William,   195-6,  200- 

203 

Simpson,  Thomas,   18,   19 
Singleton   (Syngilton),   George, 

192-4 

John,  200 

Margaret,   192,   194 

-,  203 


Skipton-in-Craven,  29,  30 
Slack   (Slake),   George,    168 
Slitting  Mil's  at  Birkacre,  228 
Slyne,   195 
Smith,  Isaac,  37 

John,   185 

William,   146 

-  W.,  Bishop  of  Lincoln,  174n 
Smythe,  Thomas,  207,  209 
Southampton  (Hampton),  Earl  of, 

198 
Southworth,  Anne,  212 

George,  212 

-  Thomas,   182,  212 

Sir  Thomas,  200,  202,  204-6 

Speed,  Hugh,  221 

Speke,  26.   169.   17  J,   180 
Spencer,  Alice,   129 

Sir  John,   129 

Sporting  Rights,  232 
Stafford,   18 

Staff,  pilgrim  or  traveller's,  78-9 
Stalmine,  214 
Stamford,    1.   2 


Index 


255 


Standish,  Christopher,  201 

John,  201 

Peter,   185 

Stanley,  Edward,   177 

Sir  Edward,    108,    189,    190 

Elizabeth,   181 

Lady,   189 

Peter,   177,   181 

Thomas,   147 

Sir  Thomas,   128 

Thomas,  Lord,   128 

,  ,   181 


family,   132 


Stantton,  H.  H.,  19.  20,  26,  27 
Star  Chamber  panelling,   138 
Starkey  (Starkie,   Sterky),   Anne, 
194,    196,    199-208 

Etheldreda,  195-6,  207 

Geoffrey,   189 

Joan,   189 

John,   156« 

Lawrence,   189-208 

Margaret,   192,  194,  195,  207 

Master,   174 

Oliver,   195-6,  201 

Richard,   189 

Simon,   197 

Thomas,   197 

,  ,   180,  232 

Stewart-Brown,  R.,  M.A.,  F.S.A., 

and  F.  C.  Beazley,  F.S.A.  : 
"  The  Crosse  Family  of  Wigan, 
Chorley  and  Liverpool,"  153 

Stigand,  archbishop,  58,  63 

Stockport,  31 

Stokenchurch  Hill,  21 

Stokes,  ,  230 

Stone,  Staffs.,  2,  14,  27-8 

Stonehewer,  John,  7 

Stonehouse,  James,  38 

Stonyhurst,  209 

Stony  Stratford,  28 

Store,  Thomas,  221 

Stotesbury,  Northants.,  229 

Stowe,  church  (near  Lichfield), 
97 

Strange,  Alice,  Lady,   129 

Ferdinando,  Lord,   129 

Strathclyde,  49 

Stretton,    co.    Chester,    180,    189, 

197-8 
Strickland,  ,  213,  214 

Sir  Thomas,  194 

Strong,  Thomas,   147 

William,   147 

Stursacres,  Hugh,   179 
Sunderland,  30 


Sutton,  co.  Chester,  25,  156 
Sutton,  Gilbert,   169 

John,  168 

Mary,   169 

Thomas,  9 

Swan,  Robert,  229 
Swansea,   15 

Symphony,  or  Hurdy-gurdy,  102, 

124 
Syon,  abbesses  of,  193,  193w,  194 

TABOR,  or  Drum,  102,  104 
Tadcaster,   19,  24 
Talbot,  Isabel,  193n 

John,   193« 

Talk  o'th'  Hill,  28 
Tarleton,   12 
Tarleton,  Edward,  216 
Tau-staff,  79,  80 
Taylor,  Bryan,  210 

Daniel,  146 

Edmund,  228 

Edward,   171 

Eleanor,  171 

Katharine,   171 

Margaret,   163,  210 


Telford,  Thomas,  23 

Tetsworth  (near  Oxford),  church, 

75 

Teu,  John  le,  232 
Themberton,  Elizabeth,   164 
Thicknes,  Richard  de,  231 
Thirnby  (Thyrneby),  225,  227 

Little,  227 

Wood,  227 

Thirnby,  Alice  de,  226 

Isabel  de,  226 

Sara  de,  226 

Thomasson,  James,   163 
Thompson,  J.  T.,  234 
Thornhill,  30 
Thornton  (in  Wirral),  25 
Thornton  Hough  (in    Wirral),  160 
Thorpe,  Edmund,   163 

"  Three    Local    Windmills."     By 

Charles  R.  Hand,  33 
Tockholes  (in  Blackburn),   187 
"  Tockholes   Chapel."     By    John 

Livesey,   187, 
Toft,  co.  Chester,   184 
Tonsure,  67 
Torcello,  79 
Tostig,  225 
Tournai,  77 
Towcester,  28 
Toweleson  (Tolnson),  George,  213, 

214 


256 


Index 


Toxteth  Park,   181 

Toxteth  Windmill,  Harrington,  41 

Trafford,  Edmund,  232 

Sir  Edmund,  207 

Tranmere,   1 1 

-  Ferry,  24-6 

Hill,   11 

Pool.   11 

Whetstone  Lane,   11 

Trent   Valley,  97 
Treves,  79 

Trotter,  Margaret,   175 

Thomas,   175 

Trumpet  or  Clarion,   102,   112 
Trunk  Roads  of  Britain,  3 
Tuebrook,  95 

Tunstall,   192 

Tunstall,    Sir   Marmaduke,    197-8 

—  William,   190,   192-4 
Turner  (Towrner),  William,     200 
Turnpike  Gates,   12 
Turvey    (Tyrvey),    Beds.,    165-7, 
170,   173 

-  All  Saints,   165,   167 

St.  Nicholas,   155-6 

Tuxford,  2 

Tyldesley,  Thurstan,   198 
Tyrer,  Alderman,  36 

George,  218 

Margaret,   147 

Thomas,  36,  217,  218 

179 

Tyre'r's  Mill,  Liverpool  ,36 

Ulverston,  31,  231 

Upholland,    172 

Uplitherland,    153 

Urmston  (Urmson),  Samuel,  147 

146 

Urswick,  Master,  191 


VARTY,  - 
Venice,  79 


22 


Wadding  ton,   199 
Wainwright,  T.  T.,  234 
Wakefield,  2,  30 
Waley,  family,  154 
Waleys,  Richard  le,   157-8 

Robert  le,    157-8 

Walker, .  18 

-  J.  and  A.,  40 

John.  233 

"  Walker,"  159,  160 
Wallasey  (Wallesea).    127-8,    130, 
132,  146,   148 

Font,  50 


Wallasey,  Hall,   127 

-  Manor,  128w,  129,  131 

-  New  Hall,   132 

-  Old  Hall,  132 

—  See  Kirkby  in  Wallasey 
Walley.  --  ,   128 

—  See  Whalley 

Walter,   fuller  of  Wigan,    159 
-  ,  Sons  of,   159 
Walton,  Elizabeth,  169 

-  Roger,   169 
--  ,  28 
Walton-le-Dale,  bridge,  8 
Walton-on-the-Hill,     12,     44,     95, 

159,    163,    169,    170-2,    174-5, 
179.  180,  230 

-  St.  Mary's,  163 
Ward,  Abel,  M.A.,  221 

-  Alice,  222 

-  Charles,  221-3 

-  Henry  Townley,  223 
-  Jonathan,  221-2 

-  Mary,  221-2 

-  Thomas,  202,  219 

-  William,  206 
Wareing.  John,  219 
Warren  (Waren),  John,  171 

-  Katherine,   171 

-  Thomas,  168 
Warrington,  2,  4-6,  8,  12,  18,  19, 

27-8,  189,  202,  204-6. 

-  inns  —  •'  George,"  10  ;  "  Red 
Lion,"  7 

Warwick,  27 
Watt,  Miss,  234 
Wavertree,  25-6,  162 

-  Hall,  6 

-  Lane,  6 
Webster,  William,  216 


Welford,  18 

Wells  Green,  28  - 

Weltham,   Little,   Suffolk,   church, 

89n 

Wem,  24 

Westchester.     See    Chester. 
West  Derby,  171-2,   179 

-  Clubmoor,   224 

—  Edge  Lane  Road,  6 
-  King's  Mill,  42-3 
--  Mill  Lane,  43 

-  Pilch  Lane,  224 

-  Thomas  Lane,  224 
West  Ilorndon,  Essex,   173 
Westminster,   191 

-  St.   Margaret's,    115 
Wetenhale,  Adam  de,  232 


Index 


257 


Wetherby,  29 

Whalley,  29 

Whalley  (Waley),  Thomas,  187 

William,    218-220 

Whitby,  67,  99 
Whitchurch,  24 
Whitehaven,  20,  31 

White  Roding,  Essex,  173-4 

Whitfield. ,  229 

Whitley,  Col.  Roger,  13 
Whitwell,   198,  202 
Whittington,  225-6 

Holme  House,  227 

Little  Thirneby  close,  227 

Sellet  Mill,  227 

Widders,  William,  9 

Wigan,  2,  12,  31,  35,  153-4, 
157-8,  160-2,  171-2,  174-5. 
178,  191-2 

church,  230 

mayor,   158 

Wigan,  Hugh  de,  159 

Margery,  de,  159 

Roger  de,  159 

William  de,  159 

Wilcock,  Deborah,   147 
Wildbore,   Augustine,   D.D.,  212, 

213 

Elizabeth,   213 

William,   Duke  of  Normandy,  58 
Williamson,  Anne,  186,  219 

-  John,  186 

Mary,  186 

Wilson,  Thomas,   147,  202,  204 
Winchester,  Hedda,  bishop  of,  77 
Winchester,  font,  58,  76-7,  96 
Windell,  Richard,  216 
Winder,   George,   207,   209 
Windsor,  St.  George's  Chapel,  151 
Wingfield  (Wyngfeld),  Sir  Richard 

193 

Winmarleigh,  chapel,  201 
Winstanley,  169 
Winstanley,  Edmund,   169 

Elizabeth,    169 

John,   179 

Ralph,  182 

Winwick,   52 


Wirral,  133,  135,  154 

Woburn,   173 

Wolverhampton,  18 

Woodchurch,  178-9 

Woods,      E.      Cuthbert,     L.D.S., 

"  Leasowe  Castle  :    its  owners 

and  history,"  127 
Woodside  Ferry,  10,  11,  25 
Woolfall,  in  Huyton,  181,   183 
Woolfall,   Frances,   181 

John,   163 

Thomas,   181-2 

Woolton,  25-6 

Little,  224 

Much,  172 

Woosey,  G.,  185 
Worcester,  15,  31 
Worsley,  Ralph,  195 
Worthington,    172 
Worthington,  Richard,  172 

Sarah,  218,  219 

Wraxall  Manor,  Wilts.,   15 

"  Wrecking,"     in     Cheshire     and 

Cornwall,  134 

Wrenbury,  co.  Chester,  156w 
Wrench,  Jane,  228 
Wrexham,  25 
Wrightington     ( Wry  thtyn  tone), 

John. 167 
Wulfad,  86 

Wulfstan,   archbishop,   67,   74 
Wulphere,  King  of  Mercia,  86 

Wyatt, .27 

Wyresdale,  214 

Yarmouth,  3 
Yate,  Ann,   184 

Samuel,  184 

Yates, ,  22,  40,  41,  43 

Yestin,  St.,  his  tomb,  81 

York,  1,  2,  18,  19,  22,  24,  28-30. 

97-8,  162,  191,  229 
Young, ,  232 

Edward,   147 

William,   147 


Zara,  79 


Printed  by  J.   ROBERTSON  &  Co..  LTD.,  St.  Annes-on-tht-Sta. 


No.  1 


The  Year's  Work 

in 

Archaeology 
1921 


Published  by  the  Congress  of  Archaeological  Societies 

(in  union  with  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  London) 
and  printed  by  the  Hampshire  Advertiser  Company,  Limited,  45,  Above  Bar,  Southampton. 

1922. 


Price,  I/- 


Congress  of  Archaeological  Societies 

(in  union  with  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  London). 

President  : 
SIR  C.  HERCULES  READ,  KNT.,  LL.D.,  P.S.A. 

Hon  Treasurer  : 
W.  PALEY  BAILDON,  V-P.S.A. 

Hon.  Secretary. 
O.  G.  S.  CRAWFORD,  F.S.A. 

Hon.  Auditor : 
G.  C.  DRUCE,  F.S.A. 

Assistant  Treasurer  : 
A.  E.  STEEL. 

Council : 

COL.  F.  W.  T.  ATTREE,  R.E.,  F.S.A.     H.  ST.  GEORGE  GRAY. 
ROLAND  AUSTIN  W.  J.  HEMP,  F.S.A. 

"W.  PARKER  BREWIS,  F.S.A.  P.   M.   JOHNSTON,   F.S.A.,   F.R.I. B.A. 

R.  G.  COLLINGWOOD,  F.S.A.  Miss  N.  F.  LAYARD,  F.S.A.,  F.L.S. 

WILLIAM  DALE,  F.S.A.,  F.G.S.  THE  REV.  CANON  G.  M.  LIVETT,  F.S.A. 

GEORGE  EYRE  EVANS  ALBANY  F.  MAJOR,  O.B.E.,  F.S.A. 

M.  S.  GIUSEPPI,  V-P.S.A.  WILLIAM  MARTIN,  LL.D.,  F.S.A. 

THE  REV.  E.  H.  GODDARD  PROFESSOR  J.  L.  MYRES,  O.B.E., 

D.Sc.,  F.S.A. 

COL.  J.  W.  R.  PARKER,  C.B.,  D.L.,  F.S.A. 
And  the  Officers  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  and  of  the  Congress. 


COMMITTEE  ON  ANCIENT  EARTHWORKS  AND  FORTIFIED 
ENCLOSURES. 

Chairman  : 
SIR  HERCULES  READ,  KNT.,  LL.D.,  P.S.A. 

Committee  : 

THE  RT.  HON.  THE  EARL  OF  CRAW-      SIR  ARTHUR  EVANS,  D.Lrrr., 
FORD  AND  BALCARRES,  P.C.,  LL.D.  HON.  D.C.L.,  F.R.S.,  V-P.S.A. 

F.S.A.  WlLLOUGHBY  GARDNER,  F.S.A. 

A.  HADRIAN  ALLCROFT  H.  ST.  GEORGE  GRAY. 

COL.  F.  W.  T.  ATTREE,  R.E.,  F.S.A.  W.  J.  HEMP,  F.S.A. 

G.  A.  AUDEN,  M.D.,  F.S.A.  T.  CANN  HUGHES,  F.S.A. 

HENRY  BALFOUR,  F.S.A.  W.  M.  I'ANSON,  F.S.A. 

R.  C.  BOSANQUET,  F.S.A.  WILLIAM  MARTIN,  LL.D.,  F.S.A. 

C.  H.  BOTHAMLEY,  M.Sc.,  F.I.C.  D.  H.  MOXTGOMERIE,  F.S.A. 

MAJOR  J.  P.  BUSHE-FOX,  F.S.A.  COL.  W.  LL.  MORGAN,  R.E.,  F.S.A. 

A.  G.  CHATER.  T.  DAVIES  PRYCE. 

W.  G.  COLLINGWOOD,  F.S.A.  COL.  O.  E.  RUCK,  F.S.A.  (Scot.) 

O.  G.  S.  CRAWFORD,  F.S.A.  W.  M.  TAPP,  LL.D.,  F.S.A. 
J.  P.  WILLIAMS-FREEMAN,  M.D. 

Hon.  Secretary : 
ALBANY  F.  MAJOR,  O.B.E.,  F.S.A.,  30,  The  Waldrons,  Croydon. 


iii 

Publications  of  Congress. 

INDEX  OF  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  PAPERS. 

The  following  may  be  obtained  from  Messrs.  Archibald 

Constable    &    Co.,  Ltd.,  10  Orange  Street,  Leicester 

Square,  W.C.2.  : — 

INDEX  OF  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  PAPERS  (1665-1890),  in  one  volume  ; 
compiled  by  the  late  Sir  Laurence  Gomme,  F.S.A.,  etc.  ; 
price  255.  net.  (Published  in  1907.) 

ANNUAL  INDEXES  FOR  THE  YEARS  1891-1907  (inclusive) ;  price 
is.  each  net  (except  1902,  out  of  print). 

The    following   Indexes  (excepting  the  'first)  may   be 

obtained  from  the  Assistant  Treasurer  of  Congress, 

Society  of  Antiquaries  : — 

INDEX  OF  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  PAPERS  FOR  1908  (published  1912) ; 
out  of  print. 

INDEX  OF  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  PAPERS  FOR  1909  (published  1913)  ; 
price  is. 

INDEX  OF  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  PAPERS  FOR  1910  (published  1914); 
price  is. 

REPORTS  OF  CONGRESS. 

The  Hon.  Secretary  is  endeavouring  to  make  up  a  complete 
reference  set  of  the  published  reports  of  Congress,  and  would 
be  very  grateful  for  single  copies  of  reports  of  the  following  meetings  : 

jth  (held  1895),  loth  (1898),  nth  (1899)  and  12th  (1900) 

CHURCHYARD  INSCRIPTIONS. 

The  following   may   be   obtained  from  the  Assistant 
Treasurer  : — 

INSTRUCTIONS  FOR  THE  TRANSCRIPTION  OF  CHURCHYARD 
INSCRIPTIONS  ;  drawn  up  by  a  special  committee  appointed 
by  Congress  in  1906  ;  4  pp.,  price  3d.  post  free. 

PARISH  REGISTERS. 

Reports  of  the  Committee  for  promoting  the  transcription 
.and  publication  of  Parish  Registers,  with  Calendar  of  Registers. 

FIRST  REPORT,  1892.        Out  of  print. 
SECOND  REPORT,  1896.     Out  of  print. 


IV 

Publications  of  the  Earthworks  Committee. 

The  following  may  be  obtained  from  the  Hon.  Secretary 
(Mr.  Albany  Major,  30  The  Waldrons,  Croydon)  : — 

SCHEME  FOR  RECORDING  ANCIENT  DEFENSIVE  EARTHWORKS  AND 
FORTIFIED  ENCLOSURES  ;  revised  edition,  1910,  23  pp. 
and  43  plans,  illustrating  the  various  classes  of  earth- 
works ;  price  is.  each  ;  12  copies,  73.  6d. 

REPORTS  OF  THE  COMMITTEE  FOR  THE  YEARS  1903  (First 
Report  issued),  1905,  1907,  1908,  1909,  1911,  1912,  1914, 
and  subsequent  years  ;  price  6d.  (A  single  joint  Report 
was  issued  for  1918-19). 

The  Hon.  Secretary  would  be  very  glad  to  hear  if  any  society 
or  individual  has  spare  copies  of  the  Reports  for  1904,  1906,  1910 
and  1913,  and  of  Appendix  I.  (1904)  and  II.  (1905).  These  Reports 
are  out  of  print  and  very  scarce. 


Meetings  of  Congress. 

The  Congress  meets  annually  at  the  end  of  November  in  the 
apartments  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  London,  at  Burlington 
House.  Each  affiliated  society  is  invited  to  send  two  delegates, 
and  to  suggest  for  discussion  any  subject  of  general  archceological 
importance. 


Affiliation. 

Societies  wishing  to  become  affiliated  should  communicate  in 
the  first  instance  with  the  Hon.  Secretary  of  the  Congress,  Ordnance 
Survey  Office,  Southampton.  The  annual  subscription  is  £i, 
payable  in  advance  on  July  ist.  A  great  deal  of  unnecessary  trouble 
will  be  avoided  by  using  banker's  orders,  which  will  be  supplied 
on  application  to  the  Assistant  Treasurer. 


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VI 

Report  of  the  Council,  June  30th,  1921. 

The  financial  position  of  the  Congress  continues  to  be  satis- 
factory. The  credit  balance  is  £38  95.  6d.  Thanks  are  again 
due  to  Mr.  G.  C.  Druce,  F.S.A.,  for  auditing  the  accounts. 

It  is  with  great  regret  that  the  Council  records  the  death  of 
Mr.  George  Clinch,  who  had  for  many  years  acted  as  Assistant 
Treasurer  of  the  Congress  and  who  had  compiled  the  Archaeological 
Index  in  recent  years.  Mr.  Clinch's  death,  which  occurred  very 
soon  after  the  last  Meeting  of  Congress,  resulted  in  certain  changes 
to  which  Congress  is  asked  to  give  effect  by  formal  ratification. 
Dr.  Norman  expressed  to  the  Council  his  desire  to  resign  the 
office  of  Hon.  Treasurer  ;  the  Council  has  accepted  his  resignation 
with  regret,  and  recommends  that  Mr.  Paley  Baildon,  F.S.A., 
be  appointed  Hon.  Treasurer  to  succeed  him.  The  work  formerly 
done  by  Mr.  Clinch  is  being  carried  on  by  Mr.  A.  E.  Steel,  who 
has  given  great  help  at  a  critical  time  in  the  affairs  of  the  Congress. 

No  Societies  have  resigned  and  no  new  ones  have  been 
affiliated  during  the  year. 

The  number  of  affiliated  Societies  is  now  40.  It  is  the 
desire  of  the  Council  to  add  to  its  numbers  year  by  year  until 
all  the  principal  Archaeological  Societies  of  the  Kingdom  are 
included.  By  adopting  this  policy  the  Congress  will  not  only 
increase  its  material  resources  and  output,  but  will  also  be  able 
to  prove  itself  of  greater  use  to  each  individual  Society.  With 
this  latter  object  in  view,  the  Council  proposes  for  the  consideration 
of  Congress  a  new  method  of  publishing  its  Annual  Reports. 
It  is  proposed  in  future  to  condense,  if  necessary,  the  printed 
report  of  the  proceedings  at  the  Congress,  and  to  print  in  addition 
a  summary  account  of  "  The  Year's  Work  in  Archaeology." 
This  account  will  attempt  to  give  a  bird's-eye  view  of  all  important 
excavations  and  discoveries  which  have  been  made  during  the 
preceding  calendar  year,  beginning  with  the  year  1921.  It 
will  be  bound  up  with  the  Report  of  the  Earthworks  Committee 
and  will  be  sold  to  affiliated  Societies  at  the  lowest  price  com- 
patible with  the  cost  of  production.  It  is  hoped  that  this 
combined  Report  will  prove  interesting  to  individual  members 
of  Societies,  and  particularly  to  those  workers  who  would  like  to 
know  the  latest  archaeological  news  from  all  parts  of  the  country. 
Incidentally,  printing,  binding  and  distributing  a  single  Report 
instead  of  two  will  be  a  measure  of  economy.  The  scheme  can 
only  succeed  if  it  receives  the  practical  support  of  affiliated 
Societies,  who  are  asked  to  assist  the  Hon.  Secretary  in  the  very 
arduous  work  of  compilation.  It  is  suggested  that  they  do  this 
by  sending  him  a  sort  of  summary  of  progress  during  1921  within 
the  county  or  area  they  cover.  Such  summaries  should  only 
include  the  more  important  excavations  and  discoveries  made 


Vll 

during  the  year  within  the  area,  whether  by  members  of  the 
Society  or  by  others.  Casual  finds  of  importance  should  be 
included.  It  is  not  intended  to  forestall  the  full  published 
accounts  which  will  no  doubt  appear  at  a  later  date.  Forms 
already  exist  suitable  for  entering  these  notes  upon,  and  will  be 
supplied,  if  required,  on  application  to  the  Hon.  Secretary.  The 
method  of  compilation  will  thus  be  precisely  similar  to  that  so 
successfully  employed  in  preparing  the  Earthworks  Report, 
which  will,  of  course,  be  continued  as  before. 

According  to  rule  the  following  six  members  retire  from 
Council:— The  Rev.  P.  H.  Ditchfield,  Mr.  J.  W.  Willis  Bund, 
Dr.  Philip  Norman,  Dr.  Horace  Round,  Lord  Crawford,  Major 
Freer.  In  order  to  meet  the  wishes  of  affiliated  Societies  for  more 
complete  representation  on  Council,  it  is  suggested  that  the 
following  resolution  should  be  adopted  : — That  the  six  retiring 
members  of  Council  shall  not  be  eligible  for  re-election  until  a  year 
has  elapsed.  Affiliated  Societies  not  already  represented  on 
Council  are  invited  to  suggest  names  of  representatives  likely  to 
be  able  to  attend  Meetings  of  Council.  Such  names  should  be 
sent  to  the  Hon.  Secretary. 

The  Council  wish  to  draw  the  attention  of  affiliated  Societies 
to  one  aspect  of  relief-works  for  the  unemployed.  Wherever 
these  involve  disturbance  of  the  soil,  important  archaeological 
discoveries  are  certain  to  be  made  sooner  or  later,  and  equally, 
certain  to  be  lost  or  destroyed  through  ignorance,  unless  systematic 
supervision  is  organised  in  each  area.  The  Council  consider  that 
this  will  form  a  suitable  subject  for  discussion  at  the  forthcoming 
Congress. 


Report  of  the  Proceedings  at  the 
29th  Congress. 

The  Twenty-ninth  Congress  was  held  in  the  rooms  of  the 
Society  of  Antiquaries  of  London,  at  Burlington  House,  November 
29th  and  30th,  1921,  under  the  Presidency  of  Sir  Hercules  Read, 
LL.D.,  President  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries. 

The  following  Societies  sent  delegates  : — 

Society  :  Delegates : 

British  Archaeological  Association      W.  A.  Cater  (Hon.  Research  Secretary), 

Francis  Weston 

Royal  Archaeological  Institute  G.  C.  Druce 

Prehistoric  Society  of  East  Anglia     Guy  Maynard  (Hon.  Secretary) 
Society  of  Genealogists  of  London     Rev.  C.  Moor  ) 

Cambrian  Archaeological  Associa-       W.  J.  Hemp,  T.  E.  Morris 
tion 


Vlll 


Society  : 
National  Museum  of  Wales 

Royal  Society  of  Antiquaries  of 

Ireland 
Berkshire  Archaeological  and 

Architectural  Society 
Bristol  and  Gloucestershire 

Archaeological  Society 
Buckinghamshire  Archaeological 

Society 

Cambridge  Antiquarian  Society 
Carmarthenshire  Antiquarian 

Society 
Cumberland  and  Westmorland 

Antiquarian  and  Archaeological 

Society 
Derbyshire  Archaeological  and 

Natural  History  Society 
Dorset  Natural  History  and  Anti- 
quarian Field  Club 
Essex  Archaeological  Society 
Hampshire  Field  Club  and 

Archaeological  Society 
Kent  Archaeological  Society 
Lancashire  and  Cheshire  Anti- 
quarian Society 
Leicestershire  Architectural  and 

Archaeological  Society 
Oxford  Architectural  and 

Historical  Society 
Somersetshire  Archaeological  and 

Natural  History  Society 
Suffolk  Institute  of  Archaeology 
Surrey  Archaeological  Society 
Sussex  Archaeological  Society 
Wiltshire  Archaeological  and 

Natural  History  Society 


Delegates  : 

Dr.  D.  R.  Paterson.  Dr.  R.  E.  Mortimer- 
Wheeler 

Sir  William  Fry  (Vice-President),  E.  W. 
Lynam 

Rev.  P.  H.  Ditchfield  (Hon.  Secretary) 

Roland  Austin  (Hon.  Secretary) 
Edwin  Hollis,  James  Berry 

Professor  E.  Prior,  Cyril  Fox 

George    Eyre    Evans    (Hon.    Secretary) 


T.   H.   B.   Graham, 
(Hon.  Editor) 


R.   G.    Collingwood 


W.   J.   Andrew,   P.   H.   Currey   (Hon. 

Secretary) 
His  Honour  Judge  Udal,  Canon  J.  C.  M. 

Mansel-Pleydell 
R.  C.  Fowler  (Hon.  Editor) 
William  Dale  (Hon.  Secretary) 

Aymer  Vallance 
George  Bethell 

Major  Freer 

Professor  J.  L.  Myres 

H.  St.  George  Gray  (Secretary) 


Yorkshire  Archaeological  Society 


Rev.  H.  A.  Harris  (Hon.  Secretary) 
M.  S.  Giuseppi,  Arthur  Bonner 
Col.  Attree,    R.    Garraway   Rice 
B.  Howard  Cunnington    (Hon.  Cur.    of 
Mus.),    Rev.    E.    H.    Goddard    (Hon. 
Secretary) 
Col.     Parker,     E.     W.    Crossley     (Hon. 

Secretary) 

In  addition  to  the  above  delegates  and  to  the  President  and 
Officers  of  Congress,  there  were  present  :  Miss  Nina  F.  Layard 
and  Dr.  Philip  Norman  (Members  of  Council),  and  Mr.  Willoughby 
Gardner  (Member  of  the  Earthworks  Committee). 

The  Proceedings  of  the  first  day  were  devoted  to  the  business 
affairs  of  the  Congress.  Copies  of  the  Report  of  the  Proceedings 
at  the  last  Congress  had  been  printed  and  distributed.  Owing 
to  the  lamented  death  of  Mr.  George  Clinch  (which  occurred  very 
soon  after  the  last  Congress),  the  Council  had  provisionally 
arranged  for  the  work,  formally  done  by  Mr.  Clinch,  to  be  con- 
tinued by  Mr.  A.  E.  Steel.  Dr.  Norman  had  asked  the  Council 
to  accept  his  resignation  as  Hon.  Treasurer,  and  the  Council  had 
done  so,  nominating  Mr.  W.  Paley  Baildon  as  his  successor. 
These  provisional  arrangements  were  all  confirmed  unanimously 
by  Congress. 


IX 

Mr.  W.  Paley  Baildon  then  presented  his  Report  as  Hon. 
Treasurer.  The  financial  position  of  the  Congress  was  quite 
satisfactory,  the  balance  in  hand  on  June  3oth  being  £38  95.  6d. 
Major  Freer  drew  attention  to  the  desirability  of  using 
Bankers'  Orders  for  subscriptions,  and  the  Hon.  Secretary  assured 
him  that  this  was  being  done  and  that  the  necessary  forms  would 
sh'ortly  be  distributed  to  Societies. 

The  Treasurer's  Report  was  carried  unanimously. 
Mr.  Albany  Major,  O.B.E.,  Hon.  Secretary  of  the  Earthworks 
Committee,  presented  the  Report  of  the  past  year,  which  is  printed 
in  full  elsewhere.  The  Report  was  approved  unanimously. 
Arising  out  of  the  Report,  the  following  resolutions  were  passed 
unanimously  by  the  Congress  : — 

"  That  the  Congress  of  Archaological  Societies  desires 
to  support  as  strongly  as  it  can  the  appeal  put  forward  by  the 
National-  Trust  for  funds  in  order  to  enable  it  to  carry  out 
the  purchase  of  Cissbury  Ring,  near  Worthing,  and  would  ask 
all  archcsolo gists  to  assist  the  proposal  by  any  means  in  their 
power." 

(Proposed  by  Colonel  Attree,  seconded  by  Major  Freer.) 
The  President  hoped  that  the  National  Trust  would  be  able 
to  acquire  Cissbury,  a  site  of  the  greatest  archaeological  importance, 
which  had  been  investigated  by  General  Pitt-Rivers  and  other 
archaeologists  after  him. 

It  was  agreed  that  the  Congress  should  make  a  small  con- 
tribution to  the  fund,  the  exact  amount  being  left  to  the  discretion 
of  the  Council. 

"  That  the  Congress  of  Archceological  Societies,  having 
heard  the  Report  of  the  Earthworks  Committee  for  the  present 
year,  wishes  to  express  its  regret  at  the  destruction  of  a  portion 
of  the  Middlesex  Grim's  Dyke  at  Pinner  Green,  and  to  urge  on 
the  Ancient  Monuments  Board  the  desirability  of ' scheduling 
for  preservation,  under  the  Ancient  Monuments  Acts,  the 
portion  of  the  dyke  which  still  exists  at  Pinner,  together 
with  other  remains  of  the  dyke  which  are  of  value,  either  as 
illustrating  its  construction  or  indicating  its  course  and  extent." 
(Proposed  by  Mr.  Francis  Weston,  seconded  by  Mr.  H. 
St.  George  Gray.) 

The  Report  of  the  Council,  dated  June  3oth,  1921,  having 
been  printed  and  distributed,  was  taken  as  read  on  the  proposal 
of  Major  Freer,  seconded  by  Colonel  Attree.  An  amendment  to 
the  wording  of  the  Resolution  in  the  Council's  Report,  proposed 
by  the  Hon.  Treasurer,  was  approved,  and  the  Resolution  there- 
fore should  read  as  follows  : — 

"  That  the  six  senior  Members  of  Council  (other  than 
Officers]  retire  at  each  Annual  Meeting,  and  shall  not  be  eligible 
for  re-election  at  that  Meeting." 


Arising  out  of  the  Report,  the  Hon.  Secretary  explained 
two  proposals  contained  therein,  viz.,  to  print  an  annual  summary 
of  the  year's  work,  and  to  secure  adequate  supervision  of 
unemployment  schemes  that  involved  disturbance  of  the  soil. 
The  details  of  procedure  in  both  cases  were  discussed  by  Major 
Freer,  Sir  William  Fry,  Mr.  T.  E.  Morris,  Mr.  Albany  Major, 
the  Rev.  E.  H.  Goddard,  Mr.  St.  George  Gray  and  the  Hon. 
Treasurer.  •  It  was  decided  that  as  regards  the  "  Year's  Work  " 
proposal,  the  methods  outlined  in  the  Council's  Report  should 
be  adopted  ;  and  that  as  regards  unemployment  schemes,  the  Coun- 
cil should  be  authorized  to  take  such  action  as  might  be  deemed 
necessary  in  the  best  interests  of  Archaeology,  it  being  left  to  the 
Council  to  decide  upon  the  exact  procedure  adopted.  The 
President  said  that  it  would  probably  be  found  advisable  to  send 
communications  to  the  Press,  since  the  preservation  of  antiquities 
was  one  which  might  well  be  of  interest  to  others  besides  archaeo- 
logical students. 

Under  the  new  rule  the  following  Members  of  Council 
retired:— The  Rev.  P.  H.  Ditchfield,  Mr.  J.  W.  Willis  Bund, 
Dr.  Philip  Norman,  Dr.  Horace  Round,  the  Earl  of  Crawford  and 
Major  Freer. 

The  following  eight  Members  were  elected  unanimously  to 
take  their  place  and  to  fill  two  vacancies  : — Mr.  Roland  Austin, 
Mr.  W.  Parker  Brewis,  Mr.  R.  G.  Collingwood,  the  Rev.  E.  H. 
Goddard,  Mr.  H.  St.  George  Gray,  Mr.  W.  J.  Hemp,  Professor 
J.  L.  Myres  and  Colonel  Parker. 

THE  PRESERVATION  OF  OLD  STONEWORK. 

The  Proceedings  on  Wednesday,  November  30th,  began  at 
ii  a.m.  with  the  opening  remarks  of  the  President.  He  took  as 
his  subject  the  Preservation  of  old  Stone-work,  which  was  to  be 
brought  before  the  Congress  by  Professor  Prior.  A  good  deal  of 
attention  had  been  given  to  the  care  of  interiors,  but  not  much  to 
that  of  exteriors.  Our  climate  was  responsible  for  a  great  deal 
of  decay,  as  could  be  seen  from  an  examination  of  Westminster 
Abbey,  where  only  one  small  piece  of  original  stone-work  had 
survived.  The  natural  agents  of  destruction  were  supplemented 
by  human  ones  in  the  form  of  deleterious  gases  emitted  from 
factory  chimneys  and  the  like.  The  salt  fumes  of  factories  were 
very  harmful.  How  long,  for  instance,  could  the  very  fine  stone- 
work of  the  John  Rylands  Library,  at  Manchester,  be  expected 
to  last  amid  such  unfavourable  surroundings  ?  Attempts  to 
stop  this  process  of  decay  had  not  hitherto  been  conspicuously 
successful.  Hardening  processes  sometimes  caused  the  whole 
of  the  exterior  to  flake  off,  thus  doing  more  harm  than  good. 
He  had  much  pleasure  in  introducing  Professor  Prior,  who  was 
Slade  Professor  of  Fine  Art  at  Cambridge,  and  who  had  something 


X) 

to  tell  the  Congress  of  new  methods  of  preserving  old  stone-work 
from  decay. 

Professor  Prior  (Cambridge)  said  that  hitherto  two  views  had 
been  current,  to  replace  ancient  original  work  by  modern  imitations 
and  to  preserve  it  intact  in  its  genuine  state.  The  adherents 
of  the  first  view  had  hitherto  held  the  field  and  had  scored  so  many 
runs  that  there  was  little  left  for  the  other  side  to  do.  There  was 
very  little  genuine  stone-work  left,  but  it  was  now  generally 
agreed  that  what  there  was  should  be  left  and  preserved  rather 
than  replaced.  To  make  use  of  a  literary  comparison^  what  could 
be  our  knowledge  of  Homer  if  he  survived  only  in  Pope's  trans- 
lation ?  The  day  of  mere  conjecture  was  past.  Old  stone-work 
could  be  effectually  preserved  by  established  scientific  processes. 
Professor  Noel  Heaton  was  describing  the  methods  employed 
at  the  Royal  Society  of  Arts  that  evening.  Archaeological 
Societies  could  create  sympathy  and  interest  throughout  the 
country  and  could  give  advice  as  to  preservation. 

The  Rev.  E.  H.  Goddard  (Wilts)  asked  how  long  the  pre- 
serving process  might  be  expected  to  last.  Past  experience  in 
this  respect  was  not  encouraging.  What  was  good  for  one  sort 
of  stone  was  not  good  for  another  ;  no  single  process  could  be  of 
general  application.  He  thought  there  were  occasions  when 
restoration  was  justified.  It  was  better  to  see  that  a  building 
was  decently  clothed  than  that  it  become  exposed  by  decay. 

Professor  Myres  (Oxford)  suggested  that  what  was  required 
was  to  focus  a  large  variety  of  experiments  in  preservation  so 
that  architects  could  go  and  inspect  the  results.  Perhaps 
Professor  Prior  would  make  a  communication  to  Council,  relative 
to  Professor  Heaton's  paper.  A  comprehensive  report  was 
needed  to  assist  Societies  in  giving  advice  to  architects. 

His  Honour  Judge  Udal  (Dorset),  enquired  as  to  the 
weathering  of  Hamdon  Hill  stone.  Mr.  Gray  (Somerset)  said 
it  was  very  variable.  Mr.  Collingwood  (Cumberland  and  West- 
morland), referring  to  some  remarks  on  the  urgency  of 
scheduling  fabrics,  said  that  his  Society  had  already  done  this. 
After  further  discussion  in  which  Messrs.  Aymer  Vallance,  Morris 
and  Currey  took  part,  Professor  Prior  thanked  the  Congress  for 
the  interest  shown  in  the  subject,  which  was  now  removed  from 
the  realms  of  conjecture. 

The  President,  summing  up,  said  that  the  subject  under 
discussion  was  capable  of  scientific  treatment,  causes  rather  than 
symptoms  being  now  attacked.  The  thanks  of  the  Congress 
were  due  to  Professor  Prior  for  his  remarks. 

THE  PROGRAMME  OF  THE  HAVERFIELD  TRUST. 

Professor  Myres  referred  briefly  to  the  late  Professor  Haver- 
field  and  his  work  in  terms  which  fully  expressed  the  feelings 


Xll 

of  the  Congress.  Professor  Haverfield's  library  was  bequeathed 
by  his  will  to  the  Ashmolean  Museum,  and,  with  the  rest  of  his 
estate,  was  held  in  trust  by  a  representative  committee.  The 
Haverfield  Trust  had  two  main  objects  in  view :  (i)  the  formation 
of  a  Corpus  of  Inscriptions,  to  be  published  in  the  form  of  supple- 
mentary volumes :  (2)  the  carrying  out  of  an  archaeological  survey 
of  Roman  remains  reduced  to  map  form.  In  both  these  under- 
takings, Archaeological  Societies  could  give  the  Trust  great 
assistance.  It  was  hoped  that  the  Library  would  become  a  central 
storehouse  of  information  relating  to  Roman  Britain,  and  that 
reports  of  finds  and  similar  information  would  be  sent  to  it  from 
all  parts  of  the  country. 

Mr.  Crawford  (Hon.  Secretary,  Congress)  said  he  felt  sure 
that  aU  those  who  were  taking  part  in  the  Archaeological  Survey, 
with  which  he  was  most  closely  associated,  would  be  only  too 
willing  to  assist  the  Haverfield  Trust. 

Mr.  Collingwood  (Cumberland  and  Westmorland)  informed 
the  Congress  that  he  was  engaged  upon  the  compilation  of  the 
Corpus  referred  to  by  Professor  Myres.  Two  thousand  inscrip- 
tions were  estimated  to  exist,  and  he  was  anxious  to  obtain 
fresh  readings  of  all  these.  It  was  a  big  undertaking,  but  the 
labour  would  be  greatly  lessened  if  he  were  provided  with 
photographs  or  rubbings  of  inscriptions  beforehand.  Members 
of  Archaeological  Societies  could  assist  him  greatly  in  his  work  by 
sending  these  to  him,  since  preliminary  study  at  home  shortened 
the  time  required  on  the  spot. 

Mr.  Fox  (Cambridge)  referred  to  the  survey  of  Southern 
Cambridgeshire  now  being  carried  out. 

The  President  was  glad  to  think  that  the  great  name  of 
Professor  Haverfield  would  be  perpetuated  by  the  Trust  formed 
by  his  will  to  carry  on  his  work. 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL    SURVEY. 

The  afternoon  was  devoted  to  a  discussion  of  the  Archaeo- 
logical Survey  being  carried  out  in  connection  with  the  Ordnance 
Survey.  The  Hon.  Secretary,  who  is  also  Archaeology  Officer  of 
the  Ordnance  Survey,  gave  a  brief  outline  of  the  very  satisfactory 
progress  made  up  to  date. 

Mr.  Gray  (Somerset)  referred  to  the  work  in  Somerset  being 
done  by  Messrs.  Bulleid,  Balch  and  Wicks,  some  of  the  results 
of  which  could  be  seen  in  the  6in.  maps  exhibited.  As  an  example 
of  the  need  for  such  work,  he  said  that  in  a  given  area  of  the 
Mendips,  57  tumuli  only  were  marked  on  the  Ordnance  Maps, 
whereas  163  were  now  known  to  exist,  and  one  new  Camp  had  been 
discovered. 

Mr.  Major  (Hon.  Secretary,  Earthworks  Committee)  referred 
to  the  work  being  undertaken  by  the  Croydon  Natural  History 


Xlll 

Society  in  conjunction  with  the  Surrey  Archaeological  Society. 
Some  criticisms  were  made  of  the  Hon.  Secretary's  "  Notes  for 
Guidance  in  the  Field,"  copies  of  which  were  distributed  at  the 
Congress. 

Mr.  Crawford  replied  briefly  to  Mr.  Major's  criticisms  and 
expressed  the  hope  that  the  "  Notes  "  would  be  found  useful 
by  field-archaeologists.  It  was  easier  to  criticise  than  to  construct . 
The  "  Notes  "  would  be  offered  for  sale  by  the  Ordnance  Survey 
at  4d.  a  copy  and  the  accompanying  "Specimen  Field  Sheet" 
(Wilts,  Sheet  29,  S.W.)  at  is.  6d.  a  copy.  The  "  Notes  "  were 
intended  to  assist  those  engaged  in  the  Archaeological  Survey  to 
recognize  and  classify  earthworks,  and  to  make  public  the  system 
of  nomenclature  to  be  adopted  in  future  on  the  Ordnance  Survey 
Maps. 

After  a  further  discussion  of  details,  in  which  Messrs.  Morris 
and  Fox  took  part,  the  President,  in  summing  up,  said  that  there 
were  many  signs  that  we  were  at  last  becoming  a  civilised  nation. 
The  Ancient  Monuments  Act  was  evidence  of  this,  as  was  also  the 
appointment  of  their  Secretary,  Mr.  Crawford,  to  the  recently 
created  post  of  Archaeology  Officer  at  the  Ordnance  Survey. 
When  the  Archaeological  Survey  being  carried  out  from  there  was 
completed,  we  should  have  a  record  as  good  as  could  be  provided 
by  any  human  means.  The  Congress  had,  he  considered,  been 
a  most  successful  one  ;  its  influence  was  far-reaching  and  not  to 
be  measured  in  numerical  terms. 


Report  of  the  Earthworks  Committee. 

The  information  received  by  the  Committee  this  year  shows 
an  increase  of  activity  under  all  heads,  destruction,  unhappily, 
not  excepted.  Indeed,  the  destruction  of  a  portion  of  the  Middle- 
sex Grim's  Dyke,  at  Pinner  Green,  is  the  most  serious  case  of  the 
kind  brought  to  your  Committee's  notice  within  recent  years,  and 
shows  up  strikingly  the  difficulties  in  the  way  of  those  who  desire 
to  protect  ancient  earthworks.  Although  the  dyke  was  clearly 
marked  on  the  O.S.  Maps,  no  one  connected  with  the  Housing 
Scheme  put  forward  by  the  Hendon  Rural  District  Council  seems 
to  have  called  attention  to  it,  or  to  have  suggested  that  it  ought 
to  be  preserved,  and  no  local  resident  raised  a  voice  on  its  behalf. 
The  scheme  seems  to  have  been  approved  by  the  Office  of  Works 
and  ought,  your  Committee  understands,  to  have  been  submitted 
to  the  Chief  Inspector  of  Ancient  Monuments  before  approval, 
but  it  appears  that  this  was  not  done.  This  is  the  more 
unfortunate,  as  some  modification  of  the  scheme  would,  no  doubt, 
have  been  possible,  which  would  have  saved  a  well-marked  and 
typical  portion  of  the  dyke,  interesting  in  its  contrast  to  the  yet 
more  imposing  fragment  to  the  east  of  it,  which  so  far  has  escaped. 
As  soon  as  the  Committee  heard  of  the  destruction  that  had  been 
wrought,  the  matter  was  reported  to  the  Chief  Inspector  and  to 
others  likely  to  be  interested,  and  urgent  representations  were 
made.  It  is  believed  that  the  danger  of  further  damage  has  been 
averted,  but  your  Committee  is  strongly  of  the  opinion  that  the 
fine  piece  of  Grim's  Dyke  which  still  remains  at  Pinner  Green 
should  be  scheduled  under  the  Ancient  Monuments  Acts,  together 
with  other  portions  which  are,  at  present,  in  no  immediate  danger. 

There  are  two  cases  reported  of  destruction  on  the  line  of 
the  Roman  Wall,  near  Newcastle-upon-Tyne,  one  of  these  being 
also  due  to  a  Housing  Scheme.  The  Wall  itself  has  long  perished 
in  these  parts,  but  it  is  very  desirable  that  the  traces  of  its  course 
which  still  remain  should  be  preserved. 

Belated  reports  of  damage  or  destruction,  due  either  directly 
or  indirectly  to  the  war,  come  from  Northumberland  and  Wilt- 
shire, and  it  is  probable  that  there  are  many  cases  of  damage 
done  to 'minor  earthworks  to  which  attention  has  not  been  called. 

The  Wiltshire  case  occurred  on  the  outskirts  of  Salisbury 
Plain  and  your  Committee  is  glad  to  record  that  at  the  instance 
of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries,  Colonel  Hawley  has  been  appointed 
Inspector  of  the  Antiquities  on  the  Plain,  which  are  in  urgent 
need  of  the  watchful  care  of  an  archaeological  expert.  Unofficial 
activity  in  recording  known  and  searching  for  unknown  earth- 
works is  also  increasing.  The  Sussex  and  the  Yorkshire  Archseo- 
logical  Societies  have  started  on  a  survey  of  the  earthworks 
of  their  respective  counties,  and  the  number  of  unrecorded  earth- 


works  brought  to  notice  from  other  quarters,  notably  from  Wales, 
Hertfordshire,  Middlesex  and  Surrey,  is  remarkable.  In  the 
latter  county  a  local  Society,  the  Croydon  Natural  History  and 
Scientific  Society  which  has  undertaken  a  Regional  Survey  of 
a  large  area  in  its  neighbourhood,  seems  to  be  doing  very  good 
work. 

Apart  from  the  discovery  of  unrecorded  earthworks,  reports 
by  Dr.  Eric  Gardner  and  Mr.  D.  H.  Montgomerie  on  details  of 
certain  well-known  earthworks  in  Devonshire  and  Sussex  which 
are  not  in  existing  plans,  shows  the  large  field  that  is  open  even 
for  the  study  of  recorded  works  ;  while  reports  from  various 
quarters  suggest  that  the  remains  of  many  ancient  earthworks 
may  still  be  in  existence,  hidden  in  road  and  boundary  banks 
for  which  they  have  been  utilised.  This  seems  not  improbable 
when  we  consider  the  network  of  banks,  ditches  and  trackways 
that  surround  ancient  habitation  sites  in  regions  that  have  never 
been  enclosed  or  highly  cultivated,  e.g.,  Salisbury  Plain,  the 
South  Downs,  the  hills  of  Dorset,  the  Yorkshire  Wolds,  etc. 

Your  Committee  is  glad  to  know  that  an  attempt  is  being 
made  by  the  National  Trust  to  acquire  Cissbury  Ring  for  the 
public,  and  they  hope  the  project  will  be  warmly  supported  by 
archaeologists.  A  report  by  Mr.  H.  S.  Toms  shows  that  this  is 
another  well-known  work  which  will  repay  closer  study,  and  also 
that  it  is  another  of  the  works  which  is  being  greatly  damaged 
by  rabbits.  Several  recent  reports  of  your  Committee  have 
pointed  out  the  harm  done  by  these  insidious  agents  of  destruction, 
and  it  is  to  be  hoped  that  the  National  Trust  will  shortly  be  in  a 
position  to  show  how  their  ravages  can  be  checked. 

The  exploration  of  earthworks  is  still  hampered  by  cost  of 
labour,  but  in  Wales  this  difficulty  has  not  prevented  a  good  deal 
of  work,  and  there  has  been  much  activity  in  Hampshire  where 
archaeologists  have  been  able  to  do  the  work  themselves  or  the 
cost  has  been  borne  by  the  owner.  Special  attention  should, 
however,  be  called  to  the  work  begun  by  the  Cambridge  Anti- 
quarian Society  on  the  great  Cambridgeshire  dykes  and  other 
earthworks  in  their  neighbourhood.  The  tendency  has  hitherto 
been  for  workers  connected  with  our  Universities  to  go  far  afield 
for  excavation  and  to  neglect  the  problems  at  their  doors.  The 
example  set  by  the  Cambridge  Antiquarian  Society  might,  with 
advantage,  be  followed  by  the  sister  University,  in  the  case  of 
earthworks  so  near  Oxford  as  the  Dyke  Hills  at  Dorchester  and 
Sinodun  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  Thames. 

Should  it  be  decided,  as  proposed  by  your  Council,  to  issue 
in  future  a  general  review  of  the  Year's  Work  in  Archaeology  in 
addition  to  the  Earthworks  Report,  information  about  mounds 
and  tumuli  not  connected  with  defensive  earthworks  will  be 
transferred  to  the  general  review. 


Your  Committee  regrets  to  record  the  loss  of  Mr.  Charles 
Lynam,  F.S.A.,  a  Member  of  the  Committee  since  May,  1905, 
who  died  on  the  2oth  February,  1921.  Messrs.  J.  P.  Bushe-Fox, 
F.S.A.,  W.  J.  Hemp,  F.S.A.,  and  T.  Cann  Hughes,  F.S.A.,  have 
joined  the  Committee. 

Your  Committee  wishes  further  to  express  its  great  regret 
at  the  death  of  Mr.  George  Clinch,  who  had  rendered  it  invaluable 
help,  and  its  appreciation  of  the  assistance  it  has  had  from  Mr. 
A.  E.  Steel,  who  has  succeeded  Mr.  Clinch  as  Assistant  Treasurer 
of  the  Congress  of  Archaeological  Societies,  in  the  preparation  of 
the  Bibliographies  attached  to  the  last  and  present  Reports. 

The  information  on  which  the  Report  is  based  follows  under 
the  usual  head,  and  thanks  are  again  due  to  the  Secretaries  of 
affiliated  Societies  and  other  correspondents  who  have  furnished 
it. 

England  and  Wales. 

PRESERVATION    AND   RECORD. 

CARMARTHENSHIRE. — A  small  earthwork  on  the  right  bank 
of  the  River  Llwchwr,  near  Llangennech,  which  is  mentioned  in 
a  "  Survey  Plan  "  of  1808  as  "  Old  Fortification,"  but  had  been 
lost  sight  of  and  forgotten,  has  been  re-discovered. 

CARNARVONSHIRE. — A  small  earthwork,  about  90  ft.  square, 
has  been  discovered  by  Dr.  R.  E.  M.  Wheeler  in  the  probable 
line  of  the  Roman  road,  ij  miles  N.W.  of  the  Roman  fort  at 
Carnarvon. 

DENBIGHSHIRE. — The  existence  of  the  remains  of  a  Roman 
fort  in  the  valley  of  the  Llugwy,  near  Bettws-y-coed,  which  has 
long  been  suspected,  has  been  verified  by  the  spade. 

DEVONSHIRE. — Dr.  Eric  Gardner,  F.S.A.,  has  sent  the 
following  report  on  details  in  the  construction  of  the  under- 
mentioned earthworks  which  do  not  appear  in  the  plans  in  the 
Victoria  County  History  : — 

-  Payhembury.     The  eastern  entrance  of  Hembury 
Camp  is  limited   by   a    hedge  and  no  earthworks  are  shown  E. 
of  it,  though  the  very  interesting  approach  to  the  entrance  lies 
there.     This  consists  of  a  prolongation  of  the  end  of  the  third 
rampart    southwards,    protecting  a  deeply  sunken   path   which 
runs  up  from  low  down  on  the  side  of  the  hill  and  leads  to  the 
east  entrance. 

-  Membury.     The    eastern    entrance,  as   shown   on 
the  plan,  consists  of  a  narrow  breach  in  the  rampart,  alongside 
a  blind  recess.    The  narrow  bank  is  undoubtedly  modern,  and  the 
blind  recess  is  formed  by  the  inflection  of  the  ends  of  the  ramparts 
flanking  a  true  entrance,  these  two  inflected  ends  being  joined  by 
a  very  modern  bank. 


DEVONSHIRE. — Dumpton  Camp.  A  long  bank  can  be  traced 
throughout  most  of  its  course,  running  up  the  hillside  to  the 
southern  end  of  the  upper  terrace  outside  the  eastern  entrance 
and  protecting  a  path.  Hembury  and  Membury  are  within  six 
miles  of  Dumpton.  All  three  have  eastern  entrances  with  inflected 
ramparts,  and  two  have  interesting  outworks. 

ESSEX. — Dr.  J.  Horace  Round  sends  the  following  notes : — 

Chrishall.  In  Morant's,  Essex  (1768),  there  is  a 

mention  under  Chrishall,  II.,  606,  of  "  a  bank  which  probably 
ran  through  Hertfordshire  to  Middlesex."  He  states  that 
"  the  land  above  the  bank  in  the  same  fields  is  inherited  by  the 
eldest  brother ;  that  below  the  bank  descends  by  Borrough- 
English  to  the  youngest."  From  his  language  I  gather  that  the 
bank  was  already  in  decay,  so  that  it  may  well  be  no  longer 
traceable. 

Good  Easter.  The  late  Mr.  Chalkley  Gould,  in 

his  article  on  Essex  earthworks  in  the  Victoria  County  History, 
Essex,  I.,  303,  stated  that  "at  Good  Easter,  by  the  Church,  is  a 
batch  of  four  moated  enclosures,  close  together  but  not  conjoined," 
etc. 

These  enclosures  must  have  been  those  of  Paslowes,  Imbers, 
Fawkeners  and  Bowers.  These  were  the  prebendal  homes  of 
four  canons  of  S.  Martin-le-Grand,  each  of  whom  is  known  to 
have  had  a  house  there. 

Great  Canfield.  This  perfect  example  of  the  mound 

and  court  castle^was  not  dated  by  Mr.  Gould  (V.C.H.,  I.,  290). 
I  have  just  sent  to  the  Essex  Archaeological  Society  a  note  upon 
it  proving  that  in  1221  the  De  Veres  had  here  a  castle,  which  is 
mentioned  in  conjunction  with  their  stronghold  at  Hedingham 
Castle. 

GLAMORGANSHIRE. — An  oval  earthwork  with  an  area  of 
half-an-acre  has  been  discovered  6ooft  above  the  sea  level  on  the 
shoulder  of  the  Wenallt,  two  miles  N.  of  Whit  church,  near 
Cardiff.  It  forms  one  of  a  series  of  similar  works  in  South  Wales. 

HERTFORDSHIRE. — St.  Alban's.  In  the  parish  of  St.  Michael's 
there  is  a  well-marked  dyke,  known  as  the  "  Devil's  Ditch," 
which  in  the  Victoria  County  History,  as  well  as  in  the  Hertford- 
shire Inventory  of  the  Royal  Commission  on  Historical  Monuments 
(England)  and  in  the  O.S.  maps,  appears  as  a  short,  isolated  length 
of  bank  and  ditch  with  no  extension  either  way.  Mr.  G.  E. 
Cruickshank,  F.S.A.,  and  the  Hon.  Secretary,  however,  in  con- 
tinuation of  their  examination  of  dykes  near  St.  Alban's, 
mentioned  in  the  last  Report,  have  traced  this  both  E.  and  W. 
for  a  considerable  distance  beyond  what  appears.  Eastwards 
it  has  been  traced  across  Watling  Street  and  down  to  the  River 
Ver,  while  beyond  the  river  the  line  is  continued  by  a  bank  and 
ditch  up  to  and  through  Ladies'  Grove,  as  far  at  least  as 


Batch  Wood.  Westwards  it  can  be  traced  right  through  Gorham- 
bury  Park,  while  beyond  it  the  line  appears  to  be  carried  on  by 
hedgerows  extending  almost  continuously  to  Nash  Mills  on  the 
River  Gade. 

HERTFORDSHIRE. — The  Hon.  Secretary  has  also  visited  the 
"  Fosse"  at  Verulamium,  which  runs  out  from  about  the  centre  of 
the  west  side  of  the  Roman  fosse  at  an  acute  angle  towards  the 
N.W.,  and  is  only  shown  in  the  O.S.  maps  as  extending  for  less  than 
a  quarter-of-a-mile.  It  is  suggested  in  the  Victoria  County  History 
and  in  the  Hertfordshire  Inventory  that  it  returned  at  an  angle 
to  form  an  outwork  of  the  Roman  fortress,  though  the  former 
authority  notes  an  extension  beyond  the  supposed  point  of  return 
through  a  copse  and  into  an  arable  field  beyond.  But,  as  a  matter 
of  fact,  although  ploughed  out  in  this  field,  its  continuation  on 
the  same  line  can  again  be  traced  three  or  four  hundred  yards 
further  on  in  Gorhambury  Park,  where  it  joins  up  with  the  earth- 
works referred  to  below. 

Gorhambury     Park.     The     Hon.     Secretary    has 

found  traces  of  an  extensive  system  of  earthworks  here,  including 
small  quadrangular  works,  Jong  lines  of  dyke,  trackways,  etc., 
which  require  to  be  studied  and  planned  before  they  can  be 
further  described,  or  understood. 

—  Ware.  A  new  camp  (at  Widbury)  has  been 
discovered,  and  reported  to  the  Ordnance  Survey  by  the  owner, 
Mr.  J.  H.  Buxton,  of  Easneye.  It  lies  between  Widbury  House 
and  Widbury  Wood,  and  the  ditch  is  weU-presejrved  on  the  S.W. 
and  E.  sides  of  the  camp  which  coincide  with  field  boundaries. 
The  site  has  been  visited  and  the  necessary  additions  made  for 
publication  on  the  next  edition  of  the  O.S.  maps;  but  as  a  new 
edition  of  the  25-inch  sheets  [Herts,  30  S.W.]  was  published  in 
1921,  the  camp  will  only  appear  on  the  6-inch  Sheet  now  in  course 
of  preparation. 

HERTFORDSHIRE-MIDDLESEX. — Mr.  Cruickshank  and  the  Hon. 
Secretary  have  also  made  further  investigations  of  the  course  of 
Grim's  Dyke.  (See  Report  for  1919).  Eastwards  they  have 
traced  it  from  a  little  beyond  Potter's  Bar  Station,  on  the  G.N.R., 
almost  to  the  boundary  between  the  two  counties,  distant  a  mile 
or  more.  At  the  western  end  the  dyke  seems  to  split  into  several 
branches  beyond  Cuckoo  Hill,  at  Pinner  Green.  There  are,  at 
least,  three  or  four  traceable  between  East  cote  and  Ruislip. 
Their  exact  course  through  enclosed  ground  between  Cuckoo 
Hill  and  Haydon  Hall  at  Eastcote  is  uncertain,  but  W.  of  this 
the  two  northernmost  branches  run  into  Park  Wood,  while  a 
branch  from  the  most  northerly  runs  due  N.  and  forms  the  eastern 
boundary  of  the  Wood.  It  has  not  yet  been  followed  further. 
The  southerly  branch  follows  the  north  bank  of  the  River  Pinn, 
from  the  road  W.  of  Haydon  Hall  to  the  next  lane  westwards. 


Just  beyond  this  it  crosses  to  the  S.  of  the  river  and  divides 
into  two.  The  southern  arm  follows  the  main  road  into  Ruislip, 
passing  to  the  south  of  Manor  Farm.  The  other  arm  runs  midway 
between  this  and  the  river,  passes  just  N.  of  Manor  Farm  and  has 
been  traced  for  half-a-mile  or  more  beyond,  but  the  investigation 
of  these  various  branches  is  not  yet  complete. 

MIDDLESEX. — Mr.  G.  E.  Cruickshank  and  the  Hon.  Secretary 
have  recently  verified  the  existence  of  the  following  unrecorded 
earthworks  • — 

Bentley  Heath.     Banks  and  ditches  in  a  field  to 

the    N.    of   the   church,    under   Mr.    Cruickshank's    observation 
for  some  time,  which  appear  to  consist  of  the  remains  of  a  moated 
site  and  enclosures  connected  with  it. 

-  Ruislip.  Various  banks  and  a  mound  in  the 
fields  N.  and  E.  of  Manor  Farm,  to  which  their  attention  was 
drawn  by  Mr.  H.  S.  Braun.  Manor  Farm  stands  within  an  oval 
moat,  and  the  other  earthworks,  which  are  not  in  the  O.S.  maps, 
appear  to  include  the  remains  of  another  quadrangular  moat 
with  other  enclosures.  There  was  at  Ruislip  a  cell  of  the  Abbey 
of  Bee  Harlewin  in  Normandy,  to  which  the  Manor  belonged 
formerly,  and  these  banks  and  ditches  mark,  no  doubt,  the  site 
of  the  monastic  buildings,  etc. 

Wrothairi  Park.     A  big  bank  which  runs  round 

the  north-west  corner  of  the  park  from  mid-way  up  its  western 
side  to  mid-way  along  its  northern  side,  whence  it  diverges  towards 
Bentley  Heath.      Grim's  Dyke  is  merged  with  it  along  the  W. 
side  of  the  park,  but  the  relationship  of  the  two  works  is  not  clear. 

MONMOUTHSHIRE. — Bedwas.  Mr.  O.  G.  S.  Crawford,  F.S.A., 
has  found  a  small  square  earthwork  on  a  high  moor  immediately  W. 
of  Twyn  Cae-Hugh  on  Mynydd  y  Grug,  probably  a  Roman  camp. 

The  clearance  of  trees  in  Priory  Wood,  a  mile  E. 

of  Caerleon,  has  revealed  a  quadrangular  earthwork  with  an  area 
of  three  or  four  acres.     The  site  might,  it  is  stated,  well  be  Roman, 
except  that  the  corners  are  angular,  not  rounded. 

NORTHUMBERLAND. — Lieut. -Colonel  E.  R.  B.  Spain,  C.M.G., 
has  examined  the  course  of  the  Black  Dyke,  which  crosses  the 
Roman  Wall  a  little  W.  of  Broomlee  Lough  and  runs  between  the 
North  and  South  Tyne.  He  apparently  finds  nothing  to  support 
the  theory  that  it  is  a  continuation  of  the  Scottish  Catrail,  or 
of  dykes  in  Durham  and  Yorkshire.  A  full  account  will  be  given 
to  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

SUFFOLK. — Sicklesmere.  Further  examination  of  the  Roman 
•site,  discovered  by  Mr.  G.  Basil  Barham  in  1904,  and  described 
by  him  in  "  The  Antiquary,"  July,  1906,  has  enabled  him  to  trace 
out  the  occupied  area  which,  in  his  view,  probably  marks  the 
site  of  the  station  of  Villa  Faustini  in  Iter  V.  of  Antoninus.  Con- 
siderable remains  of  the  ramparts  on  the  S.  and  S.W.  sides,  and 


of  what  appears  to  have  been  a  small  amphitheatre  on  the  hillside 
to  the  N.W.,  are  still  visible.  Pottery  found  ranges  from  Samian 
to  the  crudest  Romano-British,  and  coins  were  found  of  seven 
rulers,  dating  from  A.D.  14  to  A.D.  337.  In  the  Victoria  County 
History  the  site  is  erroneously  described  as  at  Whelnetham. 
.  SUFFOLK. — Whelnetham.  In  the  latter  parish,  however, 
Mr.  Barham  has  found  a  small  oblong,  rectangular  work,  enclosing 
two  small  mounds  to  the  S.E.  of  the  site  described  above. 

SURREY. — The  following  unrecorded  earthworks  are  reported, 
discovered  for  the  most  part  by  Members  of  the  Croydon  Natural 
History  and  Scientific  Society  in  the  course  of  a  Regional  Survey 
of  a  large  area  round  Croydon  undertaken  by  the  Society  : — 

Chaldon.     A  quadrangular  earthwork  just   S.  of 

Tolworth  Farm,  whose  southern  rampart  has  been  almost,  if  not 
entirely,  obliterated  by  a  chalk  pit,  found  by  Mr.  J.  M.  Newnham. 
A  parish  boundary  runs  along  its  western  face,  and  just  below  it 
the  Pilgrims'  Way  goes  diagonally  down  the  slope  of  the  Downs. 

Godstone.     A    quadrangular    earthwork    just    N. 

of  and  partly  in  the  grounds  of  the  rectory,  found  by  Mr.  C.  C. 
Fagg,  F.G.S.,  President  of  the  above  Society,  and  Mr.  Newnham. 
The  earthwork  lies  within  and  near  the  north-eastern  corner  of 
the  remains  of  a  much  larger  enclosure,  also  apparently  quad- 
rangular, and  there  are  traces  of  an  approach  from  the  south-east 
angle  of  the  latter  to  the  south-east  corner  of  the  earthwork. 

Merstham.      A  quadrangular  earthwork  in  a  field 

between  Coldroast  Farm  and  the  highroad,  found  by  Mr.  Fagg. 
There  are  traces  of  other  ancient  banks  in  the  field  as  well  as 
immediately  to  the  S.  round  Boorsgreen  and  Furzefield  Shaw. 

There  are  also  traces  of  what  appear  to  be  scarped 

banks  running^  across  the  south  slope  of  Ashstead  Hill,  between 
Furzefield  Shaw  and  Upper  Gatton  Park,  a  little  below  the  brow 
of  the  hill.     On  the  slighter  of  these,  which  is  some  thirty  yards 
below  the  upper  one,  there  is  a  small  pear-shaped  earthwork  on 
the  shoulder  of  the  hill. 

-  Epsom.     A  large  enclosure,  roughly  quadrilateral,, 
within  banks  of  very  low   profile,  at   the   extreme   N.  angle   of 
the  golf  course  on  Epsom  Downs.     This  appears  in  the  6in.  O.S. 
map  of  1897  as  "  Cricket  Ground,"  apparently  enclosed.     There 
are  traces  of  an  entrance  in  the  middle  of  the  south  side  with  a 
trackway  approaching  it. 

-  Wallington.     Remains   of   an    earthwork   on   the 
banks  of  the  Wandle,  close  to  the  boundary  between  the  parishes 
of  Beddington  and  Wallington,  found  by  Mrs.  J.  E.  Birch.     There 
is  a  large  circular  depression  in  the  enclosure  not  far  from  the 
river  bank.     A  reference  to  an  earthwork,  apparently  the  one 
in  question,  is  quoted  in  "  Historical  Notes  on  Wallington,"  by 
the  Rev.  J.  Williams,  1873,  but  no  authority  is  given  and  the  work 


8 

is  not  mentioned  in  the  Victoria  County  History  or  shown  in  the 
O.S.   maps. 

SURREY. — Walton-on-Thames.  Traces  of  the  old  boundary 
bank  and  ditch  of  Oatlands  Palace  grounds  (1537-1650)  recently 
noted  in  Oatlands  Park  by  Dr.  Gardner. 

Woodmansterne.  Remains  of  a  large  quadrangu- 
lar earthwork  on  the  cricket  field  near  the  church,  discovered  by 
Mr.  J.  M.  Newnham. 

In    addition    to    the   above    the    Hon.    Secretary 

reports  a  boundary  bank  following  the  boundary  between  the 
parishes  of  Chipstead  and  Merstham,  which  he  has  traced  from 
the  Brighton  Road,  near  the  Star  Inn  at  Hooley,  into  and  across 
Upper  Gatton  Park ;  also  traces  of  ancient  earthworks  in  field 
and  road-banks  round  Chipstead  ;  and  apparent  traces  of  what 
seems  to  have  been  an  extensive  system  of  earthworks  extending 
across  the  hills  from  Upper  Gatton  Park  to  a  point  between  Epsom 
and  Ewell.  In  connection  with  the  latter,  he  believes  he  has 
succeeded  in  locating  the  remains  of  two  banks  shown  in  a  very 
rude  plan  of  an  estate  at  Banstead  in  Manning  and  Bray's  History 
of  Surrey  as  running  across  Preston  and  Ewell  Downs  (now 
enclosed).  These  banks  would  appear  to  have  diverged  from  the 
neighbourhood  of  "  Buckle's  Gap "  at  the  N.E.  corner  of 
the  golf  course  on  Epsom  Downs,  whence  the  one  ran  nearly 
N.  and  N.E.,  its  course  being  still  marked  by  the  parish  boundary 
between  Epsom  and  Ewell,  while  the  other  ran  first  W.,  then 
turned  nearly  S.  along  the  western  boundary  of  "  The  Knolls," 
beyond  which  its  course  is  marked  by  field-banks  to  Preston 
Hawe  and  beyond. 

SUSSEX. — The  Sussex  Archaeological  Society  has  appointed 
a  Committee  to  make  a  survey  of  the  earthworks  of  the  county, 
and  the  Committee  has  issued  an  appeal  to  all  Sussex  folk  to  help 
them  to  carry  out  the  work. 

Cissbury  Ring.     The  National  Trust  has  started 

a  scheme  for  the  purchase  of  Cissbury  Ring,  near  Worthing,  and 
appeals  to  the  public  and  to  archseologists  in  general  for  support . 
-  Mr.  H.  S.  Toms  reports  the  discovery  and  survey 
of  four  more  rectangular  enclosures,  ditched  and  banked,  in  Ciss- 
bury Ring.  These  are  in  addition  to  the  three  described  by 
General  Pitt-Rivers. 

Ringmer.     Mr.  Toms  also  reports  a  castle-mound, 

Norman,  with  dry  ditch  at  Clay  Hill  Farm.     He  states  that  the 
work  is  in  a  very  perfect  state  and  is  not  in  the  O.S.  maps. 

Mr.  D.  H.  Montgomerie,  F.S.A.,  reports  the  follow- 
ing details  which  do  not  appear  in  the  plans  of  the  earthworks 
referred  to  either  in  the  Victoria  County  History  or  in  the  O.S. 
maps,  and  are  apparently  unrecorded  : — 

Pulborough.     The  vallum  and  ditch  of  the  Roman 


camp  near  Hardham,  which  maps  and  plans  only  show  to  the 
S.  of  the  L.B.  &  S.C.R.,  can  be  traced  also  to  the  N.  of  the 
railway,  round  the  enceinte,  completing  the  quadrangle. 

SUSSEX. — Park  Mount.  The  well-marked  rampart  and  ditch 
of  a  bailey  run  out  in  a  curve  from  the  mount  on  the  S.  W.  on  to  a 
steep  natural  slope. 

Dr.   Eliot  Curwen  and  Mr.  A.   Hadrian  Allcroft 

report  the  discovery  of  various  fresh  earthworks,  including  a  big 
valley  entrenchment  to  the  E.  of  Harrow  Hill,  another  probable 
village  site  in  Rewell  Wood  (see  the  Report  for  1920),  covered 
ways  on  Amberley  Mount,  Rackham  Hill,  etc.     These  will  be 
described  in  forthcoming  papers  in  the   Sussex  Archaeological 
Collections. 

WILTSHIRE. — Salisbury  Plain.  At  the  instance  of  the 
Society  of  Antiquaries,  Lieut. -Colonel  W.  Hawley,  F.S.A.,  has  been 
appointed  Inspector  of  the  various  antiquities  on  Salisbury 
Plain. 

Wanborough.     Mr.   A.   D.   Passmore  reports  the 

discovery  of  a  slightly  oblong,  quadrangular  earthwork,  containing 
two  mounds,  at  Sugar  Hill  on  the    S.    edge    of   the    parish   of 
Wanborough.      It  has  well-rounded  corners  and  two  apparent 
entrances,  one  near  the  centre  of  its  southern  face,  the  other 
at  its  S.W.  corner. 

—  Wansdyke.     In   continuation  of  an  examination 
of  Wansdyke  which  was  interrupted  by  the  war  (see  Reports 
for  1914,  1916  and  1917),  the  Hon.  Secretary,  in  conjunction  with 
Mr.   H.  C.   Brentnall,  has  again  followed  the  whole  course  of 
Wansdyke  from  the  W.  of  Savernake  Forest  to  its  termination 
under  Inkpen  Hill.     Their  examination  included  various  remains 
of  banks  and  ditches  which  may  mark  its  course  through  the 
forest,  but  no  continuous  line  has  yet  been  traced  through  this. 
He   has  also   followed   the   branch   described   by    Sir   R.    Colt 
Hoare,  as  diverging    southward   at  a  point  on  Merril  Down,  a 
little  E.  of  Great  Bedwyn,  from  that  point  to  the  neighbourhood 
of   Ludgershall.     Detailed    Itineraries   have   been    published    in 
the  Wiltshire  Archaeological  Magazine. 

YORKSHIRE. — Several  Members  of  the  Yorkshire  Archaeo- 
logical Society  are  engaged  in  the  work  of  marking  all  the  earth- 
works of  the  county  on  the  6in.map  in  connection  with  the  scheme 
of  the  Royal  Commission  on  Historical  Monuments  (England). 

—  Gilling.     Mr.    Edward    Wooler,    F.S.A.,    has    dis- 
covered that  the  Scott's  Dyke,  near  Gilling,  was  levelled  for  the 
passage  of  the  Roman  road  from  Watling  Street  to  Carlisle. 

-  Ilkley.     The   question  of  preserving  the   Roman 
fort  is  being  brought  before  the  Ilkley  District  Council. 

—  Stanwick.     Mr.  Wooler  also  reports  that  he  has 
discovered  some  outer  earthworks  of  the  "  British  "  camp  at 


10 

Stanwick  (described  in  his  Monograph  on  the  Roman  fort  at 
Piercebridge),  which  are  entirely  different  in  character  from  the 
rest  of  the  defences.  He  is  inclined  to  date  them  to  the  first 
half  of  the  first  century  A.D.,  and  believes  that  they  were  con- 
structed for  the  use  of  archers. 

DESTRUCTION. 

CARNARVONSHIRE. — The  gradual  and  unavoidable  destruction 
of  the  hill-fort  on  Penmaenmawr  continues. 

MIDDLESEX. — Harlington.  A  small  square  earthwork,  shown 
in  the  O.S.  maps  just  S.  of  Harlington,  has  been  so  completely 
effaced  by  cultivation  that  it  is  difficult  to  be  certain  of  its  site. 
—  Pinner  Green.  In  March,  1921,  Mr.  H.  S.  Braun 
reported  that  a  well-marked  part  of  Grim's  Dyke  had  been  com- 
pletely destroyed  by  a  Housing  Scheme  carried  out  by  the  Hendon 
Rural  District  Council.  The  matter  was  at  once  referred  to  the 
Chief  Inspector  of  Ancient  Monuments,  Mr.  C.  R.  Peers,  F.S.A., 
who  set  enquiries  on  foot.  The  Clerk  to  the  Council  tried  to  make 
out  that  no  part  of  the  dyke  had  been  injured,  but  this  was  shown 
to  be  incorrect.  Not  only  was  the  portion  of  the  dyke  destroyed 
clearly  marked  in  the  O.S.  maps,  but  the  Clerk  of  the  Works 
and  the  workmen  employed  were  well  aware  that  they  were  at 
work  on  the  site  of  an  ancient  earthwork.  Two  houses  at  least, 
had  been  built  actually  upon  it,  and  it  had  been  further  cut  up 
in  making  roads  and  gardens.  A  proposed  extension  of  the 
scheme  threatened  with  destruction  one  of  the  finest  parts  of  the 
dyke  which  at  present  has  escaped.  In  reply  to  the  representation 
made,  the  Office  of  Works  has  now  been  informed  that  it  is  not 
proposed  to  carry  out  the  extension  of  the  scheme.  There  may, 
however,  be  some  danger  of  the  land  being  utilised  for  allotments, 
and  a  careful  watch  ought  to  be  kept  locally.  But  for  the  present, 
although  attention  was  drawn  to  the  scheme  too  late  to  avert 
irretrievable  damage,  it  is  hoped  that  no  further  destruction 
will  take  place. 

Ruislip.  Part  of  the  oval  moat,  surrounding 

Manor  Farm  on  the  site  of  Ruislip  Priory,  has  been  filled  up  to 
make  a  lawn  tennis  court. 

NORTHUMBERLAND. — Roman  Wall.  Two  cases  of  destruction 
along  the  line  of  the  Wall  of  Hadrian  have  been  reported.  To  the 
E.  of  Newcastle-upon-Tyne,  between  Byker  and  Wallsend  the 
construction  of  a  new  road  has  obliterated  part  of  the  fosse,  while 
to  the  W.,  near  Wallbottle  Dean,  the  vallum  has  been  cut  through 
and  built  upon  by  the  East  Newburn  Urban  District  Council 
in  carrying  out  the  Wallbottle  Housing  Scheme. 

Countess  Park  Camp  in  N.  Tynedale  has  been 

damaged  by  the  felling  of  the  trees  on  its  area  and  the  extensive 
burning  of  rubbish,  which  has  injured  the  stones  and  ramparts 


II 

of  the  camp  and  its  hut  circles.  The  damage  was  probably  done 
during  the  period  1918-20,  but  has  only  just  been  reported. 
^SUFFOLK. — Mr.  G.  B.  Barham  reports  that  the  walls  of  the 
Roman  station  at  Sicklesmere  are  being  gradually  ploughed 
down.  (See  also  under  Preservation  and  Record.) 

SUSSEX. — Mr.  Hadrian  Allcroft  reports  that  a  covered  way 
on  Bury  Hill,  with  an  adjacent  large  bell-barrow,  has  been 
ploughed  over. 

Mr.  H.  S.  Toms  reports  great  damage  from  rabbits 

to  the  ramparts  of  Cissbury  Ring. 

WARWICKSHIRE. — Mr.  T.  Douglas  Murden  reports  that  the 
remains  of  a  moated  site,  situated  in  Ward  End,  a  suburb  of 
Birmingham,  have  been  obliterated.  Only  one  arm  of  the  moat, 
filled  with  water,  remained  in  front  of  Treaford  Hall.  This  has 
now  been  drained  and  filled  in. 

WILTSHIRE. — A  ditch  marked  on  the  O.S.  maps  on  the  out- 
skirts of  Salisbury  Plain  has  been  partially  destroyed  during  the 
war  by  the  construction  of  Perham  Down  Camp.  It  runs,  in  so 
far  as  its  course  is  known,  from  a  point  about  a  mile  S.E.  of 
Ludgershall  Castle  across  Perham  Down  to  Lambdown  Furze, 
a  distance  of  something  less  than  a  mile.  From  observations 
made  by  Mr.  Percy  Farrer,  it  would  appear  to  have  been  a  track- 
way. The  camp  is  right  across  it,  but  it  is  still  well  marked  on 
either  side  of  it. 

Hill  Deverill.     The   Rev.  J.   W.   R.   Brocklebank 

reports  that  the  Parish  Council  has  built  six  cottages  within  the 
enclosure  of  a  reputed  "  British  "  village  in  this  parish.  The  site 
is  marked  on  the  N.  and  W.  by  ditches,  still  some  3  feet  9  inches 
to  4  feet  deep,  the  former  a  hundred  yards  long,  the  latter  seventy- 
four  yards.  Seventy-five  yards  of  the  northern  ditch  will  be 
practically  effaced  in  laying  out  the  gardens  of  the  cottages. 
Nothing  of  importance  was  found  when  the  foundations  were 
dug. 

EXPLORATION. 

CAMBRIDGESHIRE. — The  Cambridge  Antiquarian  Society  has 
begun  an  examination  of  the  Fleam  Dyke  between  Cambridge 
and  Newmarket  (Cambs.,  48  S.W.).  The  excavations  conducted, 
up  to  the  present,  have  shown  the  profile  of  the  ditch  and  the 
original  mode  of  construction  of  the  vallum,  and  have  yielded 
evidence  bearing  on  the  date  of  the  earthwork.  It  seems  to  have 
been  constructed  in  three  stages,  the  two  reconstructions  being 
probably,  and  the  original  bank  possibly,  post-Reman.  Several 
cuttings  were  made  between  the  disused  railway-cutting  and 
Dungate  Farm.  The  investigation  will  be  continued  next  season. 

Excavation   during   the   present   season   has   also 

shown  that  the  ramp  which  carries  Worsted  Street  across  the 
Gogmagog  Hills,  is  an  example  of  Roman  civil  engineering,  and 


12 

not,  as  has  generally  been  believed,  the  partially  levelled  vallum 
•of  a  pre-Roman  dyke.  The  site  of  the  excavation  is  on  Sheet  47 
S.E.,  near  B.M's  191-8  and  156. 

CARNARVONSHIRE. — The  excavations  of  the  Roman  fort  at 
Segontium  has  been  continued  under  the  direction  of  Mr.  A.  G.  K. 
Hayter,  F.S.A.,  and  Dr.  R.  E.  Mortimer  Wheeler.  This  has 
shown  that  this  fort  began  its  career  as  an  earthwork  in  the 
latter  part  of  the  ist  Century,  A.D.  It  was  subsequently  walled 
in  stone.  The  work  will  be  continued. 

-  Excavations  at  the  earthwork,  discovered  by  Dr. 
Wheeler,  near  Carnarvon,  revealed  post-holes  and  Roman  pottery 
and  glass.     The  bank  has  been  capped  by  a  line  of  boulders,  and 
the  ditch   was   flat-bottomed. 

-  Mr.  Harold    Hughes,    F.S.A.,    has   continued   the 
examination  of  the  fast  disappearing  hill-fort  at   Penmaenmawr 
for   the   Cambrian   Archaeological   Association. 

CHESHIRE. — Mr.  R.  Hyde  Linaker  has  been  examining  a 
moated  site  at  Aston  Hall  in  an  endeavour  to  ascertain  its  date 
and  origin,  and  has  discovered  the  finely  chiselled  hexagonal  base 
of  a  sandstone  pillar,  and  made  one  or  two  other  small  finds. 
But  at  present,  in  spite  of  extensive  trenching,  nothing  has  been 
iound  to  throw  light  on  the  problems  referred  to. 

DENBIGHSHIRE. — During  the  excavations  in  1920  in  the 
hill-fort  of  Dinorben,  near  Abergele,  cuttings  through  ramparts 
and  ditches  threw  much  light  on  successive  occupations.  Owing 
to  excessive  cost  of  labour,  work  was  not  continued  during  the 
past  year,  but  it  is  hoped  to  resume  it  in  1922. 

-  A  good  deal  of  successful   exploration    work   on 
the  site  of  the  newly-discovered  fort  near  Bettws-y-coed  is  reported. 
(See  under  Preservation  and  Record.) 

HAMPSHIRE. — The  site  of  an  Early  Iron  Age  village  on 
Worthy  Down,  near  Winchester,  has  been  excavated  by  Mr. 
R.  W.  Hooley,  F.G.S.  (see  also  p.  16). 

Dudsbury.  Mr.  Heywood  Sumner,  F.S.A.,  began 

an  examination  of  Dudsbury  on  the  River  Stour,  near  Wimborne 
Minster,  in  April,  1921.  The  outer  ditch  was  tested  in  four  places 
on  the  western  side  of  the  camp,  where  the  outer  earthwork  has 
been  ploughed  and  spread.  No  prehistoric  relics  were  found 
in  the  filling  of  the  ditch,  but  only  sherds  of  green-glazed  and 
yellow-glazed  mediaeval  pottery  which  lay  on  the  bottom  of  the 
ditch.  The  western  entrance,  shown  in  Warne's  plan,  was 
disproved.  Excavation  revealed  that  the  ditch  was  continuous 
here,  and  also  that  a  recent  causeway  had  been  made  across  it 
with  modern  drain  pipes  and  brickbats  in  its  filling,  probably 
for  the  sake  of  access  to  the  area  of  the  camp  which  is  under 
cultivation.  The  diggings  in  this  outer  ditch  seem  to  indicate 
a  mediaeval  origin  for  this  outwork,  which  is  surprising.  But  at 


13 

present  it  must  be  left  at  that.  Subsequently,  a  trench  was  cut 
across  the  inner  ditch,  usually  water-logged,  but  dry  in  the  summer 
of  1921,  which  revealed  an  abrupt  ditch  wholly  different  from 
that  of  the  outer  work,  filled  with  peat,  at  the  bottom  of  which 
was  found  a  bone-polished  rim-sherd,  that  in  body,  form  and 
handling  indicates  pre-Roman  pottery.  Excavations  within 
the  area  yielded  no  result. 

HAMPSHIRE. — Hengistbury  Head.  Mr.  H.  St.  George  Gray  re- 
ports that  trenching  close  to  the  shore  of  Christ  church  Harbour, 
as  mentioned  in  the  last  Report,  has  been  continued  at  intervals 
during  the  year,  and  some  interesting  relics,  including  a  fine 
bronze  bridle-bit  of  the  late  Celtic  period,  have  been  found. 

Stanpit   Marsh,   Christ  church.     This  area  on  the 

N.  side  of  Christchurch  Harbour,  having  been  acquired  by  Mr. 
H.  Gordon  Selfridge,  Mr.  Gray  has  been  able  to  examine  a  large 
mound   of  sand,   called   Crouch   Hill.     Some   excavations  were 
carried  out  there  in  October  last  and  a  number  of  flint  implements 
and  pieces  of  ornamented  pottery  of  the  Bronze  age  were  found, 
but  no  incinerated  human  remains. 

St.  Catherine's  Hill,  Christchurch.     In  August  the 

small  square  enclosure  on  this  hill  (Sheet  86  N.E.)  was  tested  by 
Mr.  W.  G.  Wallace.     The  site  has  been  supposed  to  be  that  of  a 
mediaeval  chapel  within  a  Roman  earthwork.     The    chapel   site 
revealed  no  traceable  foundations  ;  only  broken  "  foreign  "  stones, 
bedded  pell-mell  amidst   decayed  mortar,   sherds  of  mediaeval 
pottery  and  rare  fragments  of  painted  glass.    Three  trenches  were 
cut  through  the  surrounding  low  earthwork,  which  showed  that 
the  ditches  were  shallow  and  not  defensive.     No  relics  were  found 
in  these  trenches,  excepting  one  nondescript  sherd.     The  only 
possible   indications   of   Roman   occupation   were   a   few  oyster 
shells,  but  these  were  found  on  the  chapel-site  associated  with 
mediaeval  pottery  sherds. 

Barley  Pound.  The  excavations  of  the  Farnham 

Field  Club  on  the  site  of  the  Norman  earthwork  at  Barley  Pound, 
near  Crondall  (Hants,  Sheet  28,  N.W.),  last  summer  were  rewarded 
by  the  uncovering  of  the  foundations  of  a  wall  eight  feet  thick, 
with  pottery  and  other  small  finds  of  the  Norman  period. 

An  account  and  plans  of  these  last  two  sites  will  be  found  in 
Dr.  Williams-Freeman's  Field  Archceology  as  illustrated  by  Hamp- 
shire (Macmillan,  1915). 

MERIONETHSHIRE. — Mr.  Willoughby  Gardner,  F.S.A.,  has 
carried  out  excavations  in  the  castle-mound  at  Rug,  near  Corwen. 
The  mound  is  an  enlarged  Bronze  age  barrow  which  contains  a 
cist. 

MIDDLESEX. — The  Committee  appointed  by  the  British 
Archaeological  Society,  the  London  and  Middlesex  Archaeological 
Society  and  the  South-Eastern  Union  of  Scientific  Societies, 


14 

with  a  view  to  excavation  at  Brockley  Hill  (Sulloniacae) ,  has 
applied  for  the  necessary  permission,  and  if  this  is  obtained  it  is 
hoped  to  begin  work  next  year. 

NOTTINGHAMSHIRE. — Margidunum  (on  the  Foss-way,  8  miles 
E.  of  Nottingham).  Excavation  has  been  continued  by  Dr.  Felix 
Oswald,  and  shows  that  four  ditches  formed  the  defences  of 
the  camp  on  the  S.  side.  A  series  of  shallow  rectangular  pits 
with  iron  slag  adhering  to  their  base  show  that  during  the 
Nero- Vespasian  period,  iron-smelting  was  carried  on  just  within 
the  ramparts.  Foundations,  probably  of  barracks,  are  being 
uncovered  and  a  stone-lined  well  has  been  cleared  out.  Several 
large  flagons  and  other  pottery,  belonging  exclusively  to  the  close 
of  the  3rd  century,  with  coins  of  Tetricus  and  Carausius  were 
found  in  it. 

YORKSHIRE. — Scarborough.  Preparatory  excavations  have 
been  made  for  the  purpose  of  locating  the  site  of  the  Roman  coast- 
guard fort.  The  mediaeval  chapel  in  the  castle  yard  has  been 
dug  out  and  some  traces  of  the  fort  have  been  found  at  a  lower 
level  than  the  chapel  foundations,  but  further  exploration  is 
deferred  until  next  year. 

Ireland. 

Mr.  T.  J.  Westropp  reports  that  the  great  anxiety  and  unrest 
in  Ireland  has  told  severely  against  all  archaeological  work,  and 
that  the  few  who  devote  themselves  to  the  study  of  prehistoric 
matters  and  of  earthworks  have  been  able  to  accomplish  very 
little  ;  while  the  exorbitant  cost  of  publication  has  been  equally 
hurtful  on  the  literary  side. 

DESTRUCTION. 

The  following  cases  of  destruction  have  come  to  Mr. 
Westropp's  notice  : — 

COUNTY  CLARE. — The  removal  for  road-metal  of  half  a 
stone  ringwall  or  cattle-bawn  at  Crossard,  Inchiquin. 

COUNTY  MAYO. — The  removal  by  turf-cutters  of  an  early 
Tochair,  "  togher "  or  causeway,  across  Cloonascarragh  Bog  : 
the  destruction  of  a  square  earthwork  used  as  a  refuge  by  the 
people  of  Castlebar  when  the  Crown  forces  retreated  before  the 
French  in  1798  ;  and  the  rapid  removal  of  a  rath  On  the  escar  by 
sand-diggers. 


15 

The  Year's  Work. 

The  following  notes  on  excavations  and  discoveries  have 
"been  received  by  the  Hon.  Secretary  : — 

I.  PREHISTORIC. 

BERKSHIRE. — Bones  of  bison  continue  to  be  found  in  Brain's 
Pit  at  Newbury  Station,  but  little  else,  and  nothing  that  assists 
the  dating  of  the  gravel,  which  is  the  lowest  in  the  Kennet 
Valley  at  this  point.  The  pit  is  being  carefully  watched. 

A  flint  factory  site  between  Thatcham  and  Newbury  was 
excavated  during  September  by  Messrs.  Crawford  and  Peake.  The 
working  floor  was  sealed  up  by  a  natural  deposit  of  peaty  soil 
and  shell-marl  about  2  feet  thick.  An  account  was  read  before  the 
Prehistoric  Society  of  East  Anglia  on  March  29th,  and  will  be 
published  in  their  transactions. 

A  bronze  spear-head,  found  by  a  workman  in  the  gravel-pit 
at  Colthrop,  Thatcham,  was  obtained  from  him  by  Dr.  G.  A. 
Simmons,  and  presented  to  the  Newbury  Museum. 

CAMBRIDGESHIRE. — An  Early  Iron  age  cemetery  with 
inhumations  has  been  found  at  Foxton  (Cambs.,  53,  S.E.), 
about  250  yards  due  N.  of  the  Railway  Inn.  The  objects, 
which  are  at  present  in  the  keeping  of  Mr.  Cyril  Fox,  Red  Gables, 
Milton,  Cambs.,  are  of  La  Tene  III.  and  IV.  type.  A  cordoned 
vessel  of  barrel  shape  and  a  spear-head  were  found  with  one  of 
the  skeletons.  The  discovery  was  made  during  gravel-digging. 
Mr.  Fox  hopes  to  excavate  it  this  year.  (See  also  Antiquaries 
Journal,  January,  1922,  pp.  57,  58). 

CHESHIRE. — Polished  stone  celt  found  in  Chester  City  by 
Professor  Newstead,  1914. 

Fragments  of  a  "  Neolithic  urn  "  found.  (Professor  Robert 
Newstead,  Grosvenor  Museum,  Chester). 

CORNWALL. — Two  bronze  implements  were  found  in  making 
foundations  for  workmen's  cottages  at  Biscovey,  parish  of  St. 
Blazey,  E.  of  St.  Austell  (Corn.,  Sheet  51,  N.W.),and  were  exhibited 
by  Mr.  Smallwood  at  a  meeting  of  the  Royal  Institution  of 
Cornwall  on  May  23rd,  1922.  One  other  was  found  but  lost  again 
or  stolen  immediately  afterwards.  They  are  at  present  in  the 
Truro  Museum,  where  it  is  to  be  hoped  they  will  find  a  permanent 
home. 

DORSET.— A  bronze  sword  was  found  in  the  Backwater, 
Weymouth,  during  the  construction  of  a  new  bridge.  It  was 
brought  up  in  the  "  grab  "  in  compact  gravel  and  mud  from  4  feet 
below  the  present  bed  of  the  Backwater.  It  is  now  on  loan  in  the 
Dorset  County  Museum.  (Captain  John  E.  Acland,  Dorchester). 

A  large  number  of  Kimmeridge  shale  discs  and  flints  have 
been  found  near  Kimmeridge  by  the  Rev.  A.  Joyce  Watson, 


i6 

Savernake  Vicarage,  Marlborough,  who  has  observed  near  by 
the  "  foundations  of  huts  constructed  of  Purbeck  Stone,  and 
apparently  occupied  by  the  shale  workers."  These  are  exposed 
at  the  edge  of  the  cliff,  and  near  by  are  "  many  discs  together 
with  pottery,  bones  (many  of  them  sharpened),  and  a  number  of 
little  flint  tools,  possibly  used  in  turning,  made  by  breaking  a 
flint  flake  transversely." 

GLOUCESTERSHIRE. — The  Barnwell  gravel-pit  continues  to 
yield  abundant  remains.  Mrs.  Clifford,  Barnwood  Cottage, 
Gloucester,  reports  discoveries  of  teeth  and  bones  of  mammoth, 
Rhinoceros  Tich.,  bison  and  ox,  and  Neolithic  flint  implements. 
The  objects  are  all  in  her  possession.  An  implement  from  the 
same  gravel-pit  is  illustrated  in  the  Antiquaries  Journal  (Vol.  i., 
p.  234),  where  it  is  described  as  "  either  of  late  Acheulian  or 
early  Mousterian  age — probably  the  former." 

HAMPSHIRE. — A  number  of  flint  implements  continue  to  be 
found  in  the  Basingstoke  District.  The  finds  include  flakes  and 
implements  of  Palaeolithic  Age  from  high  altitudes,  arrowheads 
both  leaf-shaped  and  tanged,  and  a  fine  greenstone  celt.  An 
illustrated  account  of  some  of  these  finds  appears  in  the  current 
number  of  the  Proceedings  of  the  Hampshire  Field  Club  (Vol. 
ix.,  Pt.  2). 

A  village  of  the  Early  Iron  age  on  Worthy  Down  (Hants, 
Sheet  41,  N.W.),  near  Winchester  has  been  excavated  by  Mr. 
R.  W.  Hooley,  F.G.S.,  Earlescroft,  St.  Giles'  Hill,  Winchester, 
Hon.  Curator  of  the  Winchester  Museum.  Attention  was  first 
drawn  to  the  site  by  the  discovery  there  of  about  a  dozen  iron 
currency-bars  (described  and  illustrated  by  Mr.  Hooley  in  the 
Antiquaries  Journal,  October,  1921).  By  means  of  tapping  the 
ground  with,  the  butt-end  of  a  pick  (and  sometimes  with  an  iron 
ram)  a  complete  plan  of  the  ditches  and  pits  was  made  before 
digging  commenced.  A  full  account  will  be  published  in  due 
course. 

During  digging  on  the  new  housing-site  on  the  S.W.  outskirts 
of  Winchester,  pottery  bearing  many  resemblances  to  that  found 
by  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Cunnington  at  All  Cannings  Cross,  Wilts.,  was 
discovered.  Mr.  Hooley  succeeded  in  uncovering  what  he  con- 
sidered to  be  an  oven  containing  many  large  pieces  of  a  vessel. 
The  objects  will  be  placed  in  the  Winchester  Museum.  It  is  hoped 
to  do  some  more  digging  on  the  site  this  summer. 

During  August  Mr.  W.  G.  Wallace  excavated  the  northern- 
most of  the  row  of  barrows  which  have  somehow  got  marked 
upon  the  Ordnance  Map  (Hants,  86,  N.E.)  as  Roman  Watch- 
Towers.  He  found  a  cremated  interment  and  a  Bronze-age 
urn  of  the  overhanging  rim  type  which  is  now  in  the  keeping  of 
the  Earl  of  Malmesbury,  Heron  Court,  Christchurch.  An  account 


I? 

will  be  published  in  the  Transactions  of  the  Bournemouth  Natural 
Science  Society. 

Barrows  have  been  noted  (i)  in  the  fork  between  the  junction 
of  the  G.W.R.  and  L.S.W.R.,  S.  of  Winchester  (Hants, 
50,  N.W.)  (2)  in  Borough  Field  immediately  S.  of  the  point 
where  the  L.S.W.R.  crosses  the  Micheldever  Valley,  E.  of  and 
touching  the  railway  embankment  (Hants,  33,  N.W.).  The 
latter  is  ploughed  nearly  flat,  but  quite  easily  visible  even  from  the 
train.  Both  are  round. 

KENT. — An  urnfield  of  the  Early  Iron  age  has  been  discovered 
near  Swarling  Farm,  Petham,  and  has  been  excavated  by  the 
Society  of  Antiquaries  (Kent,  46,  S.W.).  A  full  account  will 
be  published  in  due  course.  There  are  many  points  of  resemblance 
to  the  Aylesford  cemetery.  (See  Antiquaries  Journal,  Vol.  i., 

P-  339)- 

MIDDLESEX. — Mr.  Fred  Turner,  F.R.Hist.  Soc.,  Librarian 
and  Curator  of  the  Brentford  Public  Library  and  Museum,  writes  : 
"  I  have  recently  seen  at  least  another  dozen  stakes  or  piles  in  the 
river-bed  near  the  old  outlet  of  the  Brent  at  '  Old  England  '  ; 
one  of  them — the  best — has  been  drawn  and  placed  in  our 
Museum  ;  it  measures  about  seven  feet,  six  feet  of  which  was 
embedded  in  the  ground.  It  looked  a  perfect  specimen  when 
drawn  up,  but  the  drying  process  has  resulted  in  the  usual  cracks." 

NORTHUMBERLAND. — Colonel  E.  R.  B.  Spain  writes :  "  On 
February  I4th,  1921,  a  siding  on  the  N.E.  Railway  was  being 
cut  through  a  field  on  Low  Morralee  Farm,  on  the  Ridley  Hall 
Estate  (Northumberland,  93,  N.W.).  One  side  of  the  cutting 
iell  in,  and  amongst  the  debris  was  found  a  cinerary  urn  containing 
two  other  vessels,  and  some  burnt  bones.  One  of  these  vessels 
is  unique.  About  6  feet  W.  from  where  the  find  was  made, 
was  found  a  burial  by  inhumation  ;  the  body  was  lying  N.  and 
S.,  but  details  are  not  ascertainable.  With  it  was  a  bronze 
knife,  3 \  inches  long.  The  objects  are  in  the  possession  of  the  Hon. 
F.  Bowes-Lyon,  of  Ridley  Hall.  (Proc.  Soc.  Ant.,  N  ewcastle-on- 
Tyne,  3  Ser.,  Vol.  x.,  p.  29). 

In  August,  1921,  a  cist  was  excavated  by  Mr.  Bosanquet 
and  his  son  in  the  parish  of  Rock.  The  site  is  the  plantation 
known  as  Heiferlaw  Plantation  on  the  old  edition  (Sheet  27,  S.W.), 
and  Ellsnook  Wood  on  the  new  edition  (Sheet  29,  N.W.).  In  the 
cist  was  found  a  beaker.  The  cist  was  in  the  top  of  a  mound, 
and  it  is  thought  that  it  is  not  the  primary  interment.  The 
mound  is  certainly  partly  artificial.  Excavations  are  to  be 
resumed  this  summer.  (Mr.  R.  C.  Bosanquet,  Rock  Moor, 
Alnwick). 

The  remains  of  an  ancient  burial-mound  have  also  been 
found  during  the  revision  of  Northumberland.  It  is  situated 
15  chains  W.  of  Blawearie,  parish  of  Old  Bewick,  and 


half-a-mile  N.E.  of  the  cup-and-ring  marked  rocks.  Of  the 
mound,  or  more  properly  the  cairn,  itself,  little  remains  ;  but 
an  outer  surrounding  circle  of  stones  survives  (diameter  33  feet). 
Inside  this  circle  are  smaller  stones,  the  remains  doubtless  of  the 
cairn.  The  stones  of  the  circle  touch  each  other,  and  some  of 
them  lean  outwards.  (This  feature  is  very  often  observed;  it 
was  produced  originally  by  the  pressure  of  the  caim,  for  which  it 
formed  a  kind  of  retaining  wall).  Inside  are  two  cists  placed  side 
by  side,  with  a  distance  apart  of  about  2  feet.  Each  is  formed  of 
four  stone  slabs  placed  upright  on  their  edges,  and  forming  a 
rectangle,  with  a  covering  stone  lying  close  by.  Their  direction 
is  N.W.  and  S.E.  ;  they  are  3  feet  6  inches  long,  i  foot  6  inches 
broad  and  three  feet  deep.  Depressions  within  the  circle  give  the 
impression  that  other  cists  may  have  been  removed.  (Sergeant 
Brennan,  R.E.,  April,  1922). 

SOMERSET. — Mr.  H.  St.  George  Gray  reports  as  follows : — 
The  illustrated  report  (with  contoured  plan  and  sections)  on 
the  Excavations  at  Murtry  Hill,  Orchardleigh  Park,  near  Frome, 
September-October,  1920,  by  Mr.  H.  St.  George  Gray,  is  published 
in  Proc.  Som.  Arch.  Soc.,  Vol.  Ixvii.  (1921),  issued  March,  1922. 
The  site  represented  a  chambered  Long  Barrow.  The  work  was 
carried  out  under  the  auspices  of  the  Somerset  Earthworks 
Committee,  and  Dr.  A.  Bulleid  was  associated  with  Mr.  Gray  in 
this  work. 

A  stone  (basalt  ?)  celt,  ground,  of  Neolithic  type  was  found 
by  a  man  on  July  6th,  1921,  in  a  potato  plot,  2  feet  deep,  in  the 
parish  of  Babington,  but  close  to  the  Highbury  Methodist  Chapel 
in  Kilmersdon  Parish.  It  is  now  in  the  Somerset  County  Museum. 

Small  implements,  cores  and  flakes  of  flint  have  been  collected 
(1921)  on  Shapwick  Heath,  f  of  a  mile  S.  of  Shapwick  Railway 
Station.  Similar  series  are  noted  in  Proc.  Som.  Arch.  Soc.,  Vol. 
li,,  Pt.  i.,  p.  71,  and  Vol.  Ivi,  Pt.  i.,  p.  92. 

Flint  implements  of  Neolithic  type  have  been  picked  up  by 
Mr.  R.  H.  Fitzjames,  of  Clifton,  on  the  surface  in  some  quantities, 
•(i)  at  Stanton  Drew  in  a  field  about  J  of  a  mile  from  the  Stone 
circles,  (2)  in  a  ploughed  field  E.  of  the  camp  at  Charterhouse- 
•on-Mendip. 

After  seven  years'  cessation  (the  result  of  the  war)  the 
excavations  at  the  Meare  Lake  Village,  near  Glastonbury,  were 
resumed  on  August  29th,  1921,  and  were  continued  for  three 
weeks.  The  work,  as  previously,  was  under  the  direction  of 
Dr.  A.  Bulleid  and  Mr.  H.  St.  George  Gray.  The  antiquities 
discovered  were  numerous  and  interesting,  and  are  now  exhibited 
in  the  Somerset  County  Museum,  but  no  full  report  upon  the  work 
has  yet  been  issued.  If  funds  permit  it  is  not  unlikely  that  the 
excavations  will  be  continued  next  September,  for  not  one-half 
of  the  Meare  Lake  Village  has  yet  been  explored. 


Mr.  E.  K.  Tratman  reports  as  follows  : — During  1921  the  work 
commenced  by  the  University  of  Bristol  Spelaeological  Society  in 
1919  in  the  caves  of  the  Burrington  district  was  continued.  The 
results  will  be  published  in  the  second  number  of  the  Proceedings. 
The  main  result  of  the  1921  work  has  been  the  definite  proof 
that  an  Upper  Palaeolithic  site  exists  at  Aveline's  Hole  ("  The 
Cave  "  on  the  O.S.  map,  Somerset,  18,  N.W.)  at  the  foot  of  Bur- 
rington Combe.  Artefacts  of  bone  and  flint  have  been  found 
as  well  as  numerous  bones  of  birds,  mammals  and  human  beings 
of  the  period.  Among  the  artefacts  are  a  double-rowed  six- 
barbed  harpoon  of  antler  (found  1920),  and  a  shell  necklace 
(found  in  fragments  in  1920-21).  The  material  was  removed  by 
foot-layers. 

The  Keltic  Cavern  (which  has  been  renamed  "  Read's 
Cavern  ")  on  the  southern  margin  of  Mendip  Lodge  Wood,  only 
yielded  a  few  additional  objects  of  the  Early  Iron  age. 

Owing  to  the  wearing  away  by  the  elements  of  a  large  sand- 
bank at  Brean  Down  near  Weston-super-Mare  (Somerset, 
16,  N.W.),  several  portions  of  human  skeletons  and  fragments  of 
pottery  have  been  exposed.  The  pottery  is  black  and  coarse, 
and  without  ornament. 

All  the  above  objects  are  in  the  Museum  of  the  Spelaeological 
Society,  Bristol. 

SUSSEX. — The  activities  of  the  members  of  the  Sussex 
Archaeological  Society  are  mainly  included  in  the  report  of  the 
Earthworks  Committee.  The  Society  has  recently  taken  up  the 
survey  of  Sussex,  and  has  been  provided  with  the  necessary  maps. 

Dr.  Eliot  Curwen  reports  a  disc-barrow  on  Cock  Hill,  S.E.  of 
Harrow  Hill,  which  proved  not  to  be  circular  ;  and  a  very  fine 
"  Celtic  road  "  running  across  the  Brighton  and  Hove  golf-links. 
Mr.  Hadrian  Allcroft  reports  the  same  disc-barrow,  and  a 
number  of  barrows  in  the  Lewes  district,  "  chiefly  '  rings  '  and 
'  discs  '  found  by  Mr.  H.  S.  Toms." 

WILTSHIRE. — The  past  year  has  seen  a  great  deal  of  activity 
in  Wiltshire.  By  far  the  most  important  event  has  been  the 
continued  excavation  of  the  Iron  age  village  at  All  Cannings 
Cross.  The  finds  made  bear  out  previous  conclusions  as  to  its 
age.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Cunnington  are  preparing  a  full  account  of 
their  work  there.  The  excavations  will  be  continued  this  year. 

The  revision  of  the  county  by  the  O.S.  has  given  a  stimulus 
to  field-work  and  many  new  discoveries  have  been  made.  Mr. 
Passmore  has  found  a  small  circle  of  stones  in  a  valley  S.  of 
East  Kennett  and  several  barrows,  both  long  and  round.  ,He 
also  superintended  the  work  carried  out  recently  at  the  Devil's 
Den  in  Clatford  Bottom.  This  burial-chamber  is  now  in  no 
danger  of  falling,  and  it  is  scheduled  under  the  Ancient 
Monuments  Act.  The  Rev.  H.  G.  O.  Kendall  has  pointed  out  the 


20 

sites  of  several  antiquities  not  hitherto  recorded  on  the  O.S. 
maps. 

With  the  aid  of  both  published  and  unpublished  drawings 
and  plans  of  Avebury,  Mr.  Crawford  has  been  able  to  discover 
the  sites  of  many  stones  not  previously  located  exactly.  These 
will  be  marked  on  the  new  edition  of  the  O.S.  map.  An  account 
of  the  unpublished  plans  made  by  Stukeley  about  1720  wiD  be 
delivered  by  Mr.  Crawford  at  the  annual  meeting  of  the  Wiltshire 
Archaeological  Society  at  Swindon  (July  3ist,  1922).  It  will 
be  fully  reported  in  the  Wiltshire  Gazette  (Devizes).  These 
plans,  the  property  of  Mrs.  St.  John  of  Dinmore,  Herefordshire, 
were  not  previously  known  to  be  in  existence. 

An  account  of  the  work  being  done  at  Stonehenge  will  be 
found  in  the  Antiquaries  Journal  for  January,  1921  and  1922. 

A  sarsen  stone  in  Bowood  Park  deserves  notice.  It  was 
originally  discovered  by  the  Earl  of  Kerry  who  identifies  it  with 
the  Hoar-stone  whose  existence  is  indicated  by  old  estate-maps. 
It  is  very  unusual  to  find  a  sarsen  stone  resting  directly  upon  the 
greensand,  and  its  presence  there  may  be  due  to  human  agency. 
Two  other  sarsens  exist  in  the  Park.  The  site  of  the  Hoar-stone 
will  be  marked  on  the  O.S.  map. 

YORKSHIRE. — Mr.  T.  Sheppard,  F.G.S.,  Editor,  East  Riding 
Antiquarian  Society  (Municipal  Museum,  Hull),  reports  that 
various  stone  and  bronze  implements  have  been  found  on  the 
Yorkshire  Wolds,  and  will  be  described  in  the  Transactions, 
"which  he  edits.  They  are  in  the  Hull  Museum. 

Mr.  E.  W.  Crossley  (Broad  Carr,  Holywell  Green,  near 
Halifax)  reports,  on  behalf  of  the  Yorkshire  Archaeological  Society, 
that  a  celt  has  been  found  on  Rishworth  Moor,  S.W.  of  Halifax 
(W.R.,  Sheets  244  and  245).  See  Y.A.J.,  Vol.  xxvi.,  p.  304. 

Mrs.  Cunnington  reports  that  a  hoard  of  bronze  implements 
was  found  at  the  end  of  1921  or  shortly  afterwards  near  Ripon 
and  is  now  in  the  Museum  there.  "  It  seems  to  consist  of  a  dozen 
or  more  socketed  celts,  and  a  dagger  or  small  bronze  sword.  The 
latter  seems  to  be  leaf-shaped,  with  flat  handle  and  rivet -holes  cast 
in  one  with  the  blade." 

ISLE  OF  MAN. 

Mr.  P.  M.  C.  Kermode  reports  as  follows : — A  polished 
stone  axe-head,  very  badly  weathered,  3^  inch  long,  with 
rounded  sides,  was  found  on  the  Mule  Hill  in  the  S.  of  the 
island  in  April,  1921,  by  Professor  Sir  W.  A.  Herdman,  F.R.S., 
who  presented  it  to  the  Manx  Museum. 

A  fairly  good  socketed  bronze  axe  was  turned  up  under  the 
shingle  at  Port  Mooar  on  the  E.  coast  in  September,  1921,  by 
Mr.  Foulis  when  digging  a  bed  for  his  boat.  It  measures  4^  inches 
long.  One  face  is  much  worn,  the  other  shows  a  decoration  of 


21 

three  ribs  from  a  well-defined  neck  moulding,  with  indications  of 
two  other  slight  mouldings  down  the  angles.  It  has  been 
presented  to  the  Manx  Museum. 

CHANNEL  ISLANDS. 

GUERNSEY. — Colonel  de  Guerin  reports  that  rough  Neolithic 
implements  made  of  felsite,  diorite,  and  granite  have  been  found 
at  the  following  sites  : — 

1.  Lancresse  Common,  Vale  Parish,  in  sand-pit  near  Nid 
de  1'Herbe  ToWer,  and  also  about  100  yards  N.  of  the  "  dolmen  " 
of  La  Varde.     The  finds  consist  of  flint  implements  and  flakes  of 
fragments  of  Neolithic  pottery,  some  with  incised  patterns. 

2.  Le  Crocq  Point,  St.  Saviour's  Parish.     Finds  consist  of 
a  large  celtiform  implement  of  diorite  in  a  midden  with  potsherds, 
baked  clay,  etc. 

3.  Jerbourg  Point,  St.  Martin's  ;  objects  found  in  surface, 
near   Doyle's   Column. 

The  above  were  found  by  Mr.  J.  W.  Sinel.  The  late  M. 
Adolphus  Collenette  has  in  collaboration  with  Mr.  Sinel  found 
many  stone  implements  and  other  objects.  These  are  in  the 
Guille-Alles  Museum,  Guernsey. 

JERSEY. — Mr.  E.  T.  Nicolle,  Soc.  Jersiaise,  9  Pier  Road, 
Jersey,  reports  that  pit-dwellings  have  been  found  at  He  Agois, 
St.  Mary's  Parish.  They  are  about  14  in  number,  between  12 
and  14  feet  in  diameter  and  3  feet  deep.  Only  one  has  been 
examined  up  to  the  present.  The  objects  found  include  charcoal, 
potsherds  (one  piece  being  4  inches  square  and  almost  |  inch 
thick,  and  of  coarse  texture),  and  a  fine  barbed  arrow-head  of 
quartz.  Further  excavations  will  be  made  this  year  by  the 
Societe  Jersiaise. 

A  bronze  knife,  identical  in  form  with  Evans'  Fig.  261, 
has  been  found  in  a  disused  well  in  St.  Brelade's  Parish,  and  is 
at  present  in  the  possession  of  the  proprietor. 

II.  ROMANO-BRITISH. 

BERKSHIRE. — An  iron  wheel-tyre  with  remains  of  the  wooden 
axle  and  spokes,  the  bones  of  a  horse,  and  a  human  skull  in  a 
perfect  condition  were  obtained  by  Dr.  G.  A.  Simmons,  Edgecumbe, 
Newbury,  in  the  gravel-pit  near  the  mills  at  Colthrop,  Thatcham. 
The  Roman  road  from  Silchester  to  Speen  passes  within  a  few 
yards  of  the  site,  and  the  remains  may,  therefore,  be  of  Roman 
date.  Wooden  piles  are  also  to  be  observed  all  along  the  S. 
side  of  the  pit,  but  their  age  is  doubtful. 

CHESHIRE. — Excavations  by  Professor  Newstead  in  the 
garden  of  No.  6,  King's  Buildings,  Chester,  near  the  N.W.  corner 
of  the  City  Walls,  have  revealed  a  well-defined  stratum  of  relics 
of  the  period  81-117  A.D.  The  evidence  of  dating  is  taken 


22 

chiefly  from  the  ten  a  sigillata,  of  which  the  following  shapes  were 
noted  : — decorated,  29,  37  (all  transitional),  67  and  78  ;  plain, 
15,  18  and  27.  Potsherds  of  coarse  pottery  were  abundant  and 
a  large  number  of  different  vessels  (all  early  shapes)  were 
represented,  including  some  new  types,  and  two  pieces  of  clean 
glazed  ware  probably  from  the  Holt  kilns.  Of  glass  vessels 
there  were  fragments  of  a  ist  century  pillar-moulded  bowl  ; 
a  piece  with  oval  facets  cut  with  a  wheel,  window  glass  and  pieces 
of  bottles  with  reeded  handles ;  coins  of  Titus  (one)  and  Domitian 
(one)  were  found.  A  full  report  will  be  read  before  the  Chester  and 
North  Wales  Archaeological  Society,  whose  Secretary  has  kindly 
obtained  these  details  for  the  Editor  from  Professor  Newstead. 

DEVON. — A  Roman  dwelling  has  been  found  near  Seaton, 
and  a  short  note  about  it  will  be  found  in  the  Antiquaries  Journal, 
Vol.  i.,  p.  237,  8. 

GLOUCESTERSHIRE. — The  finds  from  the  Roman  cemetery 
include  a  fine  brooch  and  many  pots.  Owing  to  the  casual  nature 
of  the  finds,  which  are  being  made  during  gravel-digging,  it  has 
not  been  possible  to  record  the  associations  of  objects  in  graves. 
A  report  on  the  human  remains  is  being  prepared  by  Professor 
Sir  Arthur  Keith.  (Mrs.  Clifford,  Barnwood  Cottage,  Gloucester, 
where  all  the  objects  found  are). 

A  note  on  the  finds  appears  in  the  Antiquaries  Journal, 
Vol.  i.,  p.  236. 

A  stone  coffin  was  found  in  April  "  in  the  slope  of  the  hill  at 
Lower  Slaughter,  quite  close  to  Buckle  Street."  It  contained 
the  skeleton  of  an  adult  male,  about  5  feet  3!  inches  high,  in 
the  prime  of  life.  (See  Antiquaries  Journal,  Vol.  i.,  p.  340). 

About  two  hundred  feet  of  the  S.  wall  of  Roman 
Cirencester  has  been  uncovered  by  Mrs.  Cripps  of  that  town. 
It  was  made  of  rubble  set  in  hard  cement,  but  the  facing  of  squared 
stones  has  been  torn  away  throughout  its  length.  The  wall 
measures  on  an  average  from  10  to  n  feet  in  thickness  without 
the  facing.  Two  bastions  were  found,  between  which  was  a  gate 
about  12  feet  wide.  It  probably  carried  a  single  arch.  The  finds 
include  much  Samian,  some  pieces  with  leaden  rivets,  bronze 
fibulas,  bone  pins,  and  pottery.  The  excavations  have  been 
covered  in.  (Summarized  from  an  account  in  the  Wiltshire 
Gazette,  March  23rd,  1922). 

HAMPSHIRE. — A  good  tesselated  Roman  pavement  has  been 
discovered  on  the  high  ground  above  Longstock  on  Mr.  Barker 
Mill's  property.  It  appears  to  belong  to  a  large  and  important 
villa  (Hants,  31,  S.E.). 

KENT. — Mr.  Hubert  Elgar  reports  as  follows  : — A  bowl  of 
gritted  ware  was  found  in  excavating  sand  at  Boro-green,  March, 
1921  (Kent,  30,  S.W.).  The  site  is  near  that  where  Romano- 
British  graves  were  found  in  October,  1899.  When  found,  the 


23 

DOW!  stood  on  a  large  flint  nodule,  but  it  was  broken  in  removal. 
It  contained  charcoal,  and  is  now  in  the  Maidstone  Museum. 

A  vessel  of  terra  sigillata  ware  (Form  33,  Dragendorff)  was 
found  in  April,  1921,  on  the  site  of  the  Romano-British  inter- 
ment discovered  at  Sandling,  Maidstone  (Kent,  31,  S.E.),  in 
October,  1919.  Height  5-5  inches,  diameter  of  mouth  10-5 
inches,  of  base  4-6  inches.  It  is  now  in  the  Maidstone  Museum. 

Several  Romano-British  interments  were  discovered  at 
Ospringe,  near  Faversham,  in  October,  1921  (Kent,  34,  S.W.). 
The  burials  have  been  photographed  in  situ  and  excavated  by  Mr. 
W.  Whiting,  of  Ospringe.  The  site  is  about  340  yards  W.  of 
the  Roman  cemetery  discovered  in  1920  and  described  by  Mr. 
Whiting  in  Arch.  Cantiana,  Vol.  xxxv.  A  short  account  was 
published  in  the  Kentish  Express,  March  i8th,  1922,  and  the 
original  discovery  is  noted  in  the  Antiquaries  Journal,  Vol.  i., 
p.  141. 

A  Romano-British  interment  was  found  in  excavating  gravel 
at  Kennaway,  near  Ospringe,  in  April,  1921  (Kent,  34,  S.W.). 
The  find  consisted  of  a  cinerary  urn  containing  burnt  bones,  a 
bulbous  vessel,  a  one-handled  flagon  of  brick-red  ware,  and  a 
thin  fragment  of  a  vessel  of  black  ware.  (Mr.  Whiting,  Ospringe). 

SOMERSET. — Mr.  H.  St.  George  Gray  reports  as  follows  : — 
Lines  of  a  Roman  building  were  revealed  by  scorching,  due  to 
-the  1921  drought,  on  the  lawn  at  Drayton  Vicarage  (Somerset, 
72,  S.E.).  Reference  to  the  O.S.  map  shows  that  Roman 
coins  and  other  objects  have  been  found  in  two  places  a  little  to 
the  W.  of  the  Vicarage.  (Proc.  Som.  Arch.  Soc.,  Vol.  Ixvii., 
p.  Ixxviii.). 

The  drought  also  revealed  the  existence  of  foundations  in 
the  modern  cemetery  on  the  Bristol  road,  half-a-mile  to  the  N.W. 
of  the  Church  at  Keynsham  (Somerset,  7,  N.W.  and  S.W.). 
Sherds  of  pottery,  pieces  of  flue-tiles  and  tesserae  had  been  collected 
when  graves  had  been  dug.  (Proc.  S.A.S.,  Vol.  Ixvii.,  pp.  xxi 
and  Ixxv.). 

Several  sherds  of  pottery  were  found  in  August,  1920,  in 
digging  a  grave  in  the  N.E.  extension  of  the  churchyard  at 
Burrowbridge  (Somerset,  62,  S.W.).  This  new  burial-ground  is 
the  lower  part  of  the  slope  of  "  Burrow  Mump."  The  potsherds 
subsequently  came  into  the  possession  of  the  County  Museum. 

A  few  fragments  of  pottery  were  found  by  the  Yeovil 
Volunteers  in  1916,  while  digging  trenches  in  a  field  adjoining, 
and  to  the  N.  of  Two  Tower  Lane  in  the  parish  of  Barwick, 
near  Yeovil  (Somerset,  90,  N.W.).  They  have  recently  found 
their  way  to  the  County  Museum. 

Mr.  Gerald  J.  Grey  reports  : — Sir  Alexander  Lawrence,  of 
Brockham  End,  Lansdown,  Bath,  has  lately  been  excavating 
a  Roman  site  with  some  rough  foundations  of  a  building  on  his 


24 

property  ;  and  he  has  in  his  possession  a  quantity  of  Roman 
pottery,  etc.,  taken  from  the  site. 

STAFFORDSHIRE. — In  the  course  of  excavations  for  new 
buildings  at  "  The  Butts,"  Wall,  Staffordshire,  during  September, 
1921,  some  Roman  pottery  and  other  remains  were  found.  The 
following  is  an  extract  from  a  letter  dated  October  2nd,  1921, 
from  Mr.  R.  J.  K.  Mott,  of  Wall  House,  Crowcombe,  Taunton  : — 
"  The  buildings  that  were  uncovered  in  '  The  Butts  '  field  at 
Wall  were  the  Roman  baths  and  a  large  villa.  The  latter  was 
covered  in  again,  and  part  of  the  former,  but  a  smaU  part  of  the 
baths  remains  uncovered,  and  a  hypocaust  is  protected  by  an 
iron  roof.  All  the  finds  were  removed  to  a  small  Museum  that  I 
built  in  the  village,  where  plans  of  the  excavated  buildings  may 
be  examined.  I  think  it  unlikely  that  there  exist  any  more 
foundations  of  buildings  in  '  The  Butts,'  as  trial  trenches  in 
various  directions  yielded  no  results.  I  found  traces  of  walling 
in  Castle  Croft,  but  did  not  uncover  much." 

The  plan  of  the  buildings  has  been  incorporated  on  the  25 
inch  Ordnance  Map  (Staffs.  58,  6),  and  the  correct  name  of  the 
Roman  town  LETOCETUM  has  been  inserted. 

WILTS. — The  Rev.  A.  Joyce  Watson,  Savernake  Vicarage, 
Marlborough,  writes,  Nov.  7th,  1922  : — "  A  considerable  length 
of  the  Roman  road  where  it  crosses  Braydon  Hook  has  been 
exposed  by  turf-cutting  operations  ....  The  causeway  shows  up 
well  with  its  large  flints,  as  the  surface  has,  of  course,  been  com- 
pletely peeled  off  ...  The  discoverer  has  a  horse-shoe  which  he 
found,  and  there  are  numerous  fragments  of  rough  tile  and  brick 
among  the  flints." 

YORKSHIRE. — Mr.  Sheppard  reports  the  discovery  of  a  Roman 
skeleton  with  iron  bracelet  and  large  bone  beads,  pottery,  and  other 
remains  in  a  trench  at  Middleton-on-the- Wolds  (Yorks.,  Sheets 
177  and  178,  Hull  Museum). 

Mr.  Crossley  reports  that  the  excavation  of  the  Roman  fort 
at  Ilkley  was  continued  for  the  third  year,  and  completed  during 
1921  (Yorks.,  W.R.,  169,  S.W.) ;  and  that  excavations  to  locate  the 
Roman  coast-guard  fort  in  Scarborough  Castle  yard  were  begun. 
Traces  of  the  fort  were  found,  but  the  exploration  has  not  yet  been 
completed.  (Yorks.,  N.R.,  Sheet  78). 

III.  POST-ROMAN. 

BEDFORDSHIRE — EATON  SOCON. — Mr.  Beauchamp  Wadmore, 
10,  Kimbolton  Avenue,  Bedford,  reports  that  fragments  of  pottery 
are  being  found  in  the  rabbit  scrapes  on  the  earthworks  of  "  The 
Hillings  "  (Castle  Mound  and  Bailey).  These  will  be  submitted 
to  Dr.  T.  D.  Pryce  and  Professor  Sten+on. 

DURHAM. — In  the  Antiquaries,  journal  for  April,  1922,  Vol. 
ii.,  pp.  141-3,  is  an  account  of  further  discoveries  made  in  the 


25 

'Saxon  cemetery  at  Hartlepool  in  October,  1921.  The  finds 
consisted  of  skeletons  and  a  flat  pillow-stone  (not  sculptured). 
The  skeletons  have  been  reburied  in  St.  Hilda's  Churchyard. 
The  Rev.  Bertram  Jones,  Rector  of  Hartlepool,  concludes : 
"  The  knowledge  gained  from  these  discoveries  proves  that  the 
Hartlepool  Saxon  cemetery,  which  was  first  discovered  in  1833, 
is  of  considerable  extent,  and  certainly  stretches  from  Baptist 
Street  to  St.  Hilda  Street,  and  possibly  even  farther." 

When  the  cemetery  was  first  discovered  a  number  of  tomb- 
stones or  pillow-stones  with  crosses  sculptured  on  them  were 
found.  Of  these,  only  seven  complete  stones  have  been  preserved. 
Four  of  them  are  in  the  British  Museum,  two  in  the  Museum  of 
the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Newcastle-upon-Tyne,  and  one  is  in 
the  Cathedral  Library  at  Durham.  (V.C.H.  Durham,  Vol.  i., 
p.  212.  Three  of  these  in  the  British  Museum  are  figured  in 
the  plate  opposite  p.  212). 

HAMPSHIRE. — An  eleventh-century  cross-base  with  sculp- 
tured designs  has  been  found  at  Winchester  by  Colonel  Sir  Charles 
Close,  Director-General  of  the  Ordnance  Survey.  The  stone 
stands  at  present  in  the  garden  of  Lieut. -General  Sir  Edward 
Altham,  and  is  believed  to  have  been  taken  there  many  years 
ago  from  the  churchyard  of  St.  Faith,  which  is  only  a  hundred 
yards  distant.  A  full  account  with  drawings  appears  in  the 
current  number  of  the  Hampshire  Field  Club  Proceedings. 

SOMERSET. — Mr.  H.  St.  George  Gray  reports  as  follows  :— 
The  summer  of  1921  has  been  remarkable  for  the  discovery 
at  Glastonbury  Abbey  of  the  site  of  the  monument  mentioned  by 
John  of  Glaston  as  having  been  erected  to  the  N.  of  the  Ecclesia 
Velusia  to  record  by  a  line  drawn  S.  its  ancient  eastward 
termination.  On  exploring  the  ground  southward  the  foundations 
of  Norman  walling  were  discovered  lying  alongside  St.  Mary's 
Chapel  to  the  N.,  and  suggestive  of  a  former  stone  encasement 
of  the  Ecclesia  Vetusta,  as  hinted  by  James  Parker,  on  the 
precedent  of  York.  Considerable  remains  of  the  N.  wall  of 
the  N.  transept  have  also  been  brought  to  light,  together  with 
many  relics  of  fine  tabernacle-work  and  encaustic  tiling.  These 
excavations  are  being  carried  on,  as  for  several  seasons  past, 
under  the  direction  of  the  Somersetshire  Archaeological  Society, 
with  the  permission  of  the  Abbey  Trustees. 

SURREY. — The  workmen  employed  on  making  a  new  motor- 
road  from  Thornton  Heath  to  Purley  in  the  Spring  of  1921,  dis- 
turbed a  human  skeleton  in  widening  Edgehill  Road,  Russell  Hill, 
in  Croydon  parish,  and  further  work  revealed  the  remainder  of 
the  skeleton  with  a  bronze  buckle  and  iron  knife.  These  are 
considered  by  Mr.  Reginald  Smith,  F.S.A.,  to  be  Anglo-Saxon, 
dating  from  the  early  6th  century.  Human  remains  are  reported 
to  have  been  discovered  many  years  ago  in  the  immediate 


26 

neighbourhood  during  road-making,  but  no  proper  investigation 
was  made  at  the  time.  Exact  details  of  the  present  interment 
cannot  be  obtained,  but  the  position  of  the  body  was  probably 
north  to  south. 

SUSSEX. — In  the  Antiquaries  Journal,  Vol.  i.,  p.  236,  is  a  short 
note  on  new  discoveries  in  the  Saxon  cemetery  at  Eastbourne, 
described  first  in  Sussex  Archceological  Collections,  Vol.  Hi.  It  is 
said  that  the  cemetery  probably  belongs  to  the  sixth  century. 

YORKSHIRE. — Mr.  Crossley  reports  that  foundations  of  a 
mediaeval  chapel  in  Scarborough  Castle  yard  were  uncovered  and 
planned.  (Yorks.  N.R.,  Sheet  78).  One  hundred  and  twenty- 
two  coins  (Charles  II.  to  George  III.)  were  found  at  Bridlington 
(Yorks.  E.R.,  Sheet  146)  on  the  site  of  an  ancient  dwelling-house. 
Sixty-one  were  of  gold,  the  rest  silver. 

Anglo-Saxon  burials  were  discovered  at  Clifford  (Yorks. 
W.R.,i8g,  S.E.). 

ISLE  OF  MAN. 

The  Rev.  Canon  Quine  has  collected,  at  Lonan  Parish 
Church,  a  number  of  rude  unhewn  stones  bearing  artificial 
markings  or  grooves  made  for  some  definite  purpose  ;  some 
of  these,  which  suggest  an  early  script  are  said  not  hitherto 
to  have  been  met  with  in  the  British  Isles.  The  examples 
collected  are  from  neighbouring  sites,  and  are  associated 
with  traces  of  earthworks.  Other  examples  have  been  found 
(and  in  many  cases  copied)  and  recorded  on  the  Ordnance  Maps, 
in  eight  out  of  the  nine  eastern  parishes,  and  in  three  out  of  the 
eight  western  parishes  of  the  island.  They  occur  at  heights  of 
between  350  and  700  feet,  and  seem  associated  with  human 
settlements  on  the  dry  ridges  or  spurs  at  right  angles  to  the 
mountain  range  of  the  island.  They  are  generally  weathered 
blocks  of  trap-rock,  roughly  polygonal  in  form,  and  measure 
from  two  to  four  feet  in  length.  All  natural  causes  such  as 
ice-grooving,  plough-marks,  etc.,  have  been  considered  ;  but  the 
marks  are  said  to  be  of  such  a  character  as  not  to  be  accounted 
for  by  these  explanations. 

Wales. 

I.  PREHISTORIC. 

Dr.  R.  E.  M.  Wheeler,  of  the  National  Museum  of  Wales, 
Cardiff,  reports  as  follows  :— 

BRECKNOCKSHIRE. — A  long-cairn  at  Pen-y-Wyrlod,  three- 
quarters-of-a-mile  E.  of  Llanigon  was  excavated  by  the  Woolhope 
Club.  The  megalithic  cist  (without  entrance-passage)  at  the 
E.  end  yielded  the  remains  of  twelve  persons,  animal  bones, 
two  potsherds  and  some  flint  flakes.  A  smaller  chamber  at  the 


27 

W.  end  contained  charcoal,  and  in  the  mound  were  glass  beads  and 
a  coin  of  Crispus.  (Western  Mail,  September  5th,  1921  ;  Arch. 
Camb.,  1921,  pp.  296-9 ;  Man,  1922,  6).  Cairns,  one  round 
and  two  long  on  Ffostill  Farm,  near  Talgarth,  were  partially 
excavated  by  Messrs.  C.  E.  Vulliamy  and  A.  F.  Gwynne. 
One  of  the  long-cairns,  108  feet  long  and  68  feet  wide  at  the  E. 
end,  contained  an  eastern  chamber,  n  feet  by  4  feet,  without 
entrance  passage.  In  the  chamber  were  remains  of  at  least 
eight  persons,  including  a  cranium  of  dolichocephalic  type. 
With  the  bones  were  three  pieces  of  worked  flint,  one  "  cracked 
by  fire."  (Western  Mail,  Nov.  29th,  1921  ;  Arch.  Camb.  1921, 
PP-  300-5). 

CARNARVONSHIRE. — The  Graig  Lwyd  stone-axe  "  factory," 
on  the  N.E.  slopes  of  Penmaenmawr,  was  further  explored.  A 
hearth  was  found  and  several  implements,  similar  to  those  re- 
covered during  the  previous  excavations,  described  by  Mr.  S. 
Hazzledine  Warren  in  the  Journal  of  the  Royal  Anthropological 
Inst.,  Vol.  xlix.,  pp.  342-65,  and  Vol.  li.,  pp.  165-99. 

Hut-circles  and  enclosures  at  Rhostryfan,  3!  miles  S.  of 
Carnarvon,  were  partially  excavated  by  Mr.  Howel  Williams. 
Glass  beads,  iron  slag,  and  a  piece  of  bronze  with  late  Celtic 
repousse  ornament,  were  found. 

DENBIGHSHIRE. — At  Rug,  near  Corwen,  a  castle-mound, 
built  over  a  Bronze-age  barrow,  has  been  further  explored  by 
Mr.  Willoughby  Gardner,  F.S.A. 

FLINTSHIRE. — A  round  barrow  in  Ffrith-y-Garreg  Wen, 
about  i£  miles  S.S.W.  of  Whitford,  was  excavated  by  Mr.  Howel 
Williams.  It  contained  several  interments,  and  the  finds  included 
a  small  pierced  whetstone  and  a  cinerary  urn  containing  a  bronze 
knife.  (Arch.  Camb.  1921,  pp.  265-89). 

GLAMORGANSHIRE. — Barrows  and  cairns,  explored  by  the 
National  Museum  of  Wales  on  Murgam  Mountain,  included  a 
large  round  barrow,  known  as  the  Twmpath  Diwlith,  which  had 
originally  been  built  of  turves  and  had  later  been  enlarged  with 
earth.  The  primary  interment  consisted  of  fragmentary  burnt 
bones  in  a  rough  cist;  the  secondary  interment  had  been  rifled. 

MONTGOMERYSHIRE. — A  hoard  of  about  thirty  flint  arrow- 
heads, mostly  barbed  and  tanged  together  with  a  number  of 
roughly  worked  flint  flakes,  has  been  found  in  the  peat  near 
Llyn  Bugeilyn,  midway  between  Machynlleth  and  Llanidloes. 

II.     ROMANO-BRITISH. 

CARNARVONSHIRE. — The  excavation  of  Segontium,  the  Roman 
site  at  Carnarvon,  was  resumed  by  the  Segontium  Excavation 
Committee.  The  ramparts  of  the  main  fort,  a  corner  turret,  the 
N.W.  gateway,  and  parts  of  two  internal  buildings,  were  examined. 
The  evidence  suggests  three  main  periods  of  occupation  : — (i) 


28 

c.  80-120,  (II.)  c.  200-220,  and  (III.)  c.  250-380.  (Arch.  Camb.  1921, 
pp.  170-204. 

A  small  earthwork,  about  go  feet  square,  was  discovered 
ij  miles  N.N.E.  of  Carnarvon,  near  the  cottage  "  Bryn  Glas." 
Trenches  showed  that  the  work  was  of  c.  100  A.D.  and  apparently 
unfinished.  In  the  "  hill-fort  "  of  Braich-y-Ddinas,  Penmaen- 
mawr,  excavations  were  resumed  by  Mr.  H.  Harold  Hughes, 
F.S.A.  Several  stone  hut-circles  were  cleared,  and  the  finds 
included  two  Kimmeridge  shale  bracelets,  a  Romano -British 
silver  snake-bracelet,  and  apparent  traces  of  lead-working. 

MONMOUTHSHIRE. — Roman  pottery,  including  2nd  century 
Samian  and  a  2nd  brass  of  Faustina  the  Younger,  were  found, 
apparently  in  association  with  foundations  during  the  laying  of 
a  sewer,  half-mile  S.  of  Church  Road  Station,  Machen.  This  is 
the  first  record  of  Roman  remains  in  the  district. 

III.     MISCELLANEOUS. 

GLAMORGANSHIRE. — Hut-circles  and  cattle-enclosures  on  the 
1,500  feet  contour-line,  i \  miles  N.  of  Blaenrhondda,  were  partially 
excavated  by  the  Rhondda  Naturalists  Society,  but  the  finds — 
leather  and  iron  slag — were  inconclusive. 

Scotland. 

Mr.  J.  G.  Callander,  Director  of  the  National  Museum  of 
Antiquities,  Queen  Street,  Edinburgh,  reports  as  follows  :— 

The  excavations  on  the  hill  fort  on  Traprain  Law,  East 
Lothian,  were  continued  last  summer  (1921)  by  the  Society  of 
Antiquaries  of  Scotland,  the  results,  both  in  the  discovery  of 
structures  and  of  relics,  being  most  satisfactory.  In  the  four 
previous  seasons  devoted  to  the  examination  of  the  site,  four 
distinct  levels  of  occupation,  dating  from  the  end  of  the  first 
century  of  this  era  to  the  beginning  of  the  fifth,  had  been 
recognised,  and  it  was  considered  that  the  fort  had  been 
inhabited  intermittently.  No  evidence  of  earlier  sites  of 
habitations  had  been  detected,  though  the  discoveries  of  a  few 
Bronze  age  relics,  from  time  to  time,  and  of  a  burial  deposit 
of  four  cinerary  urns  and  one  incense  cup  urn  indicated  that  the 
hill  had  been  visited  by  people  of  that  period.  Last  summer, 
however,  four  other  occupational  levels  were  identified,  indicating 
that  probably  the  hill  was  continuously  inhabited  at  least  during 
the  first  few  centuries  of  this  era,  also  that  there  had  been  settle- 
ments during  the  late  Bronze  age  and  early  Iron  age. 

On  every  level  rude  stone  foundations  of  oval  enclosures  and 
of  hut-circles  were  encountered,  and  paved  areas  and  hearths 
of  rectangular  and  oval  form  were  laid  bare.  Passing  through  the 


29 

occupied  area  was  an  ancient  roadway  with  walled  sides  in  places, 
showing  the  ruts  made  by  wheeled  vehicles  and  a  central  hollow 
made  by  the  feet  of  the  animals  which  dragged  them. 

As  in  previous  years,  a  rich  harvest  of  relics,  which  included 
some  types  of  objects  never  before  found  in  Scotland,  was  secured. 
Three  socketed  axes,  three  pins  and  a  razor,  all  of  bronze,  were 
found  within  a  very  restricted  area  ;  the  razor  was  of  crescentic 
form,  with  a  ring  at  one  end  of  the  back  and  a  perforation  near 
the  other,  and  resembled  a  continental  more  than  a  native  type. 
A  number  of  fragments  of  clay  moulds  for  casting  bronze  swords 
and  axes,  a  spear-head  with  lunette  openings  in  the  blade,  and 
other  objects  were  also  recovered — the  sword  moulds  had  been 
reinforced  by  a  metal  rod  running  longitudinally  through  the 
clay.  Belonging  to  late  Celtic  times  was  a  socketed  and  looped 
axe  of  iron  and  a  handsome  bronze  pin  with  a  massive  head 
projecting  from  one  side  of  the  top  of  the  stem.  Amongst  the 
other  relics  found  were  a  considerable  number  of  fragments 
of  armlets  of  jet  and  parti-coloured  glass  ;  of  bronze  there  were 
four  harp-shaped  fibulae,  two  of  dragonesque  form,  and  two  of 
penannular  shape  with  bulbous  ends  ;  examples  of  finger  rings, 
dress  fasteners,  two  pins  with  the  projecting  ring-heads  formed  of 
six  pellets,  and  a  waster  or  unfinished  casting  of  another,  two 
terret  rings,  one  enamelled,  several  looped  studs,  and  a  bronze 
girdle  ring  of  Scandinavian  type.  A  very  small  spoon-like  object 
of  silver,  with  perforated  bowl  and  loop  at  the  end  of  the  handle 
for  suspension,  belongs  to  a  class  of  relic  occasionally  found  in 
the  North  of  France  and  in  different  parts  of  central  Europe, 
Iron  objects  included  two  small  sickles,  a  spear-head  with  midrib 
and  open  socket,  the  point  of  a  sword  blade,  and  a  hoe.  Stone 
objects  consisted  chiefly  of  whetstones  and  whorls,  but  there 
were  several  hammerstones,  four  stone  axes,  a  few  small  balls, 
possibly  used  as  sling  stones,  a  broken  leaf-shaped  arrow-head, 
another  of  lop-sided  form,  a  number  of  scrapers  of  flint,  and  two 
small  conical  objects  of  coprolite  shaped  like  a  spinning  top. 
Fragments  of  Samian  ware  and  of  other  kinds  of  Roman  pottery, 
including  the  greater  part  of  a  mortarium,  were  recovered,  as 
also  a  considerable  quantity  of  sherds  of  very  coarse  hand-made 
native  pottery.  Eight  Roman  coins  were  found  ;  they  consisted 
of  i  Nero,  2  Antoninus  Pius,  I  Trajan,  i  probably  Gallienus,  2 
Carausius,  and  a  fourth  century  coin  unidentified. 

It  is  intended  to  resume  the  excavation  of  the  site  during  the 
coming  summer. 

H.M.  Office  of  Works  have  carried  out  excavations  at  the 
abbeys  of  Melrose,  Dryburgh,  Jedburgh,  Culross  and  Crosraguel, 
Restennet  Priory,  and  at  Castle  Urquhart  and  Burleigh  Castle. 
The  most  interesting  discoveries  in  the  matter  of  relics  were  a 
leaden  casket  of  conical  form  containing  a  human  heart,  another 


30 

vessel  of  lead  of  somewhat  similar  shape,  and  a  third  of  the  same 
material  rather  larger  than  and  shaped  like  a  band-box  which 
were  found  at  Melrose,  and  two  corroded  masses  of  iron  arrow- 
heads found  at  Castle  Urquhart. 

Ireland. 

Mr.  E.  C.  R.  Armstrong,  of  the  National  Museum,  Dublin, 
reports  as  follows  : — 

The  year,  1921,  was  not  productive  of  important  archaeo- 
logical results  in  Ireland.  To  organise  excavations  was  impossible 
owing  to  the  disturbed  state  of  the  country.  With  the  exception 
of  the  discovery  of  coins  at  Abbeyland,  Navan,  County  Meath 
(See  Antiquaries  Journal,  Vol.  i.,  p.  341)  no  finds  of  interest 
were  reported. 

Professor  A.  Francis  Dixon,  of  Dublin  University,  has  com- 
municated particulars  of  a  small  unpublished  "  dig "  which, 
with  the  assistance  of  Mr.  Arthur  W.  Bretland,  Chief  Engineer 
of  the  Midland  Great  Western  Railway  of  Ireland,  he  was  able 
to  carry  through  at  Lecarrow,  County  Roscommon.  Here  a 
small  stone  circle  was  opened  up  in  extending  the  quarry  to  the 
N.  side  of  the  Railway.  The  circle  consisted  of  small  loose 
stones  with  one  stone  about  2  feet  long  set  on  end  in  the  middle. 
Beneath  the  central  stone  the  skeleton  of  a  young  adult  man  was 
found.  This  individual  was  powerfully  built  ;  but  the  bones  were 
unfortunately  broken  into  small  pieces  before  they  were  examined 
carefully.  At  a  letter  date  two  small  urns  of  Bronze  age  date 
were  discovered  near  the  N.  edge  of  the  circle.  These  had 
been  placed  on  the  lime  stone  rock  just  four  feet  below  the  surface. 
With  the  urns  was  a  large  collection  of  burnt  human  bones  repre- 
senting portions  of,  at  least,  four  individuals.  The  burnt  frag- 
ments represented  much  smaller  individuals  than  the  skeleton 
found  in  the  middle  of  the  circle.  It  is  believed  that  the  latter 
belonged  to  a  later  period.  With  the  burnt  bones  were  found 
three  implements  ;  two  made  from  red  deer  antler,  and  one 
from  a  portion  of  the  sacrum  of  red  deer.  Beneath  the  sod, 
inside  the  circle,  bones  of  many  animals,  and  parts  of  several 
human  children's  skeletons,  were  discovered. 


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ABBREVIATIONS. 
A.J. — Archaeological  Journal  (Annual  of  the  Royal  Archaeological  Institute 

of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland). 
Ant.  Journ. — Antiquaries  Journal  (quarterly  publication  of  the  Society  of 

Antiquaries  of  London). 
Arch.  Camb. — Archaeologia  Cambrensis  (quarterly  publication  of  the  Cambrian 

Archaeological  Association). 
C.  &  W.  A.  S.— -^Cumberland  and  Westmorland  Antiquarian  and  Archaeological 

Society. 

H.F.C. — Hampshire  Field  Club  and  Archaeological  Society. 
J.B.A.A. — Journal  of  the  British  Archaeological  Association. 
P.S.A. — Proceedings  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries. 
Som.  A.S. — Somersetshire  Archaeological  and  Natural  History  Society. 
W.A.M. — Wiltshire  Archaeological  Magazine. 


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33 

ROYAL  COMMISSIONS  ON  ANCIENT  AND  HISTORICAL  MONUMENTS  : — 

England. — Essex,  Vol.  i.  (1916) 

Wales. — Merionethshire   (1921) 

Scotland. —         — 
TOMS,   H.   S. — Articles  on  Cissbury,   Caburn  and   Seaford  Camps.     Sussex 

Daily  News,  loth  March,  6th  April,  4th  and  2ist  May,  nth  June,  1921. 
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Arch.  Camb.  7  S.,  Vol.  i.,  pp.  300-305. 
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68-71. 
WESTROPP,  T.  J. — "  The  Promontory  Forts  and  Traditions  of  the  Districts  of 

Beare  and  Bantry,  County  Cork."     Journ.  R.  Soc.  Ant.  Ireland,  Vol. 

1.,  pp.  140-159  (Pt.  i.)  ;  Vol.  li.,  pp.  1-16  (Pt.  2.).' 

"  The  Beginnings  of  Historical  Tradition  and   Survival   of  Celt    Myth- 
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i.  and  ii. 
WHEELER,  R.  E.  M. — "  Some  problems  of  Prehistoric  Archaeology  in  Wales." 

Arch.  Camb.,  7  S.,  Vol.  i.,  pp.  1-18. 

"  Excavations  at  Segontium."     ib-id.,  pp.  170-204. 

"  Archaeology   in   Wales,    January,    1914 — September,    1921."     Bulletin 

of  the  Board  of  Celtic  Studies,  Vol.  i.,  Pt.  i.  (October,  1921),  pp.  64-90. 

(Lists  of  finds  and  bibliography). 


Affiliated  Societies. 

Royal  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Ireland.     W.  G.  Strickland,  Esq.,  63,  Merrion 

Square,  Dublin. 
Cambrian  Archaeological  Association.     Canon  C.  F.  Roberts,  M.A.,  Llanddulas 

Rectory,    Abergele   (N.   Wales),   Capt.    H.   Lewis,    Pentwyn,    Pentyrch, 

Cardiff  (S.  Wales). 
Royal  Archaeological  Institute  of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland.     G.  D.  Hardinge- 

Tyler,  Esq.,  M.A.,  F.S.A,,  19,  Bloomsbury  Square,  W.C.i. 
British  Archaeological  Association.     Frank  Lambert,  Esq.,  M.A.,  "  Areguipa," 

Grove  Hill,   S.  Woodford,   E.i8. 
British  Record  Society,  Ltd.     Thomas  Blagg,   Esq.,  F.S.A.,   120,  Chancery 

Lane,  W.C.2. 
Selborne  Society  (Antiquities  Section).       W.  M.  Webb,  Esq.,   F.L.S.,  The 

Hermitage,   Hanwell,   W.7 
Society  of  Genealogists  of  London.     Mrs.   Rowan,   5,   Bloomsbury  Square, 

W.C.i. 
Berkshire  Archaeological  and  Architectural  Society.     Rev.  P.  H.  Ditchfield, 

M.A.,  F.S.A.,  Barkham  Rectory,  Wokingham. 
Birmingham  and  Midland  Institute  (Archaeological  Section).     H.  M.  Francis, 

Esq.,   Midland  Institute,   Birmingham. 
Bristol  and   Gloucestershire  Archaeological   Society.     Roland   Austin,    Esq., 

38,    Brunswick   Road,   Gloucester. 
Buckingham,   Architectural  and  Archaeological   Society  for  the  County  of. 

W.  Bradbrook,  Esq.,  F.R.C.S.,  Bletchley. 
Cambridge  Antiquarian  Society.     F.  J.  Allen,  Esq.,  M.D.,  8,  Halifax  Road, 

Cambridge. 
Cambs.  and  Hunts.  Archaeological  Society.     Rev.  John  Griffin,  Wood  Walton 

Rectory,  near  Peterborough. 
Carmarthenshire  Antiquarian  Society  and  Field  Club.     George  Eyre  Evans, 

Esq.,  Ty  Tringad,  Aberystwyth. 
Chester  &  North  Wales  Archaeological  and  Historical  Society.     Rev.  R.  A. 

Thomas,  O.B.E.,  M.A.,  The  College,  Chester. 


34 

Cornwall,  Royal  Institution  of.     G.  Penrose,  Esq.,  Museum,  Truro. 
Cumberland    and    Westmorland    Antiquarian    and    Archaeological    Society. 

Edward  Wilson,  Esq.,  Airethwaite,  Kendal. 
Derbyshire  Archaeological  and  Natural  History  Society.     Percy  H.  Currey 

Esq.,  F.R.I.B.A.,  3,  Market  Place,  Derby. 
Dorset  Natural  History  and  Antiquarian  Field  Club.     Rev.  Herbert  Pentin, 

M.A.,  St.  Peter's  Vicarage,  Portland. 

Essex  Archaeological  Society.     Rev.  T.  H.  Curling,  Halstead  Vicarage,  Essex. 
Hampshire  Field  Club  and  Archaeological  Society.     W.  Dale,  Esq.,  F.S.A., 

F.G.S.,  St.  Margaret's,  Oakmount  Avenue,  Southampton. 
East  Herts,  Archaeological  Society.     R.  T.  Andrews,   Esq.,   18,  Bull  Plain, 

Hertford. 
Kent    Archaeological    Society.     Richard   Cooke,    Esq.,    The    Croft,    Detling, 

Maidstone. 
Lancashire   and    Cheshire   Antiquarian    Society.     G.    R.    Axon,    Esq.,    184, 

Hamilton  Road,  Longsight,  Manchester. 
Lancashire  and  Cheshire,   Historic  Society  of.     Philip  Nelson,  Esq.,  M.D., 

F.S.A.,  Beechwood,  Caldei  stones,  Liverpool. 
Leicestershire     Architectural     and     Archaeological     Society.     Major     Freer, 

V.D.,  D.L.,  F.S.A.,  The  Stonygate,  Leicester. 
Newcastle-on-Tyne,    The    Society   of   Antiquaries   of.     Robert    Blair,    Esq., 

F.S.A.,   Harton  Lodge,   South  Shields. 
Norfolk   and    Norwich    Archaeological    Society.     Fredk.    Johnson,    Esq.,    8, 

Theatre  Street,  Norwich. 
Oxford  Architectural  and  Historical  Society.     Miss  M.  V.  Taylor,  Ashmolean 

Museum,    Oxford. 
Prehistoric   Society   of   East   Anglia.     Guy   Maynard,    Esq.,    The   Museum, 

Ipswich. 
Shropshire    Archaeological    and    Natural    History    Society.     A.    E.    Cooper, 

Esq.,  42,  St.  John's  Hill,  Shrewsbury. 
Somersetshire  Archaeological  and  Natural  History  Society.     H.  St.  George 

Gray,  Esq.,  The  Castle  House,  Taunton,  Somerset. 
Suffolk  Institute  of  Archaeology.     The  Rev.  H.  A.  Harris,  Thorndon  Rectory, 

Eye,  Suffolk. 
Surrey  Archaeological  Society.     Hilary  Jenkinson,   Esq.,  F.S.A.,  29,  Cheyne 

Row,  Chelsea,  S.W.3. 
Sussex   Archaeological    Society.     W.    E.   Nicholson,    Esq.,    Barbican   House, 

High  Street,  Lewes. 

Thoroton  Society.     George   Fellows,   Esq.,   Barrow-on-Soar,   Loughborough. 
Wales,  National  Museum  of.     Dr.  W.  Evans  Hoyle  (Director). 
Wiltshire  Archaeological  and  Natural  History  Society.     Rev.  E.  H.  Goddard, 

M.A.,  Clyffe  Vicarage,  Swindon. 
Woolhope  Naturalists'  Field  Club  (Hereford).     W.  R.  Scobie,  Esq.,  2,  Offa 

Street,    Hereford. 
Yorkshire  Archaeological  Society.     E.  W.  Crossley,  Esq.,  Broad  Carr,  Holy  well 

Green,  Halifax. 
Yorkshire   East   Riding   Antiquarian   Society.     Rev.    Canon   Cooper,    M.A. , 

Filey  Vicarage,   Filey. 


The 

Antiquaries  Journal 

being 

The  Journal  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  London 


THIS  JOURNAL,  of  which  Volume  II. 
is  now  in  course  of  publication,  will, 
it  is  hoped,  enlist  the  interest  and 
support  of  the  general  public  in  touch  with 
archaeological  matters.  An  effort  is  made  to 
furnish  an  adequate  record  of  archaeological 
discovery  and,  in  addition  to  original  articles, 
each  number  contains  many  pages  of  notes 
recording  the  most  recent  events  of  antiquarian 
importance  not  only  in  the  British  Isles  but  also 
in  Europe  and  the  Old  World. 

Another  side  of  the  work  deals  with  the 
literature  in  the  wide  field  of  archaeology.  Each 
quarterly  number  contains  reviews  of  current 
archaeological  works,  not  of  necessity  critical, 
but  giving  such  information  as  will  enable  the 
reader  to  judge  of  the  character  of  any  work 
and  of  its  utility  to  himself.  A  bibliography 
of  recently 'published  books  is  included  in  each, 
number. 

Price,  Quarterly,  5s.  net. 

Annual  Subscription,  18s.  6d.,   post  free 

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Oxford  University  Press,  Amen  Corner,  E.C.4 


DA 
670 
L19H6 
v.73 


Historic  Society  of 
Lancashire  and  Cheshire, 
Liverpool 

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